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DAIRY. The first premium was awarded on June butter, accompanied by the following statement—(excellent butter, no doubt, but might not have been any worse for knowing some other particulars concerning its origin.)
My dairy consists of 6 cows of the breed known as the Durham Short horn, which I believe the best; their average period of giving milk is, I don't know nor care how many months; the average yield of milk for the whole term is do. pounds per day. During the month of greatest flow the yield is do. pounds per day—and its quality is such that do. pounds of it will yield a pound of butter, and do. pounds of it will yield a pound of cheese. Don't make any. The average yield of butter per annum to each cow is do. pounds. They are kept in winter on roots-beets are preferred-hay, and other coarse fodder, and straw plenty, (not to be fed on, but to lay on,) and in summer, good dry pasture clover and white clover, with good running water. You see I don't go into all this fuss of weighing milk and keeping account of every cow's milk, as I don't keep a clerk, and my time about the farm and other business is worth more than weighing and measuring milk. But the mode of manufacturing good butter is very simple, as follows: First see that every pail, pan, dish, churn, and vessel that is used, is sweet and clean ; now commence the operation–let the cow's bag be well brushed and the cow milked clean ; milk stand 30 or 40 minutes ; then the froth scum off; now strain, but mind and not be so greedy as to drain the very drugs from the bottom of the pail that settles in the 30 minutes, and thereby cheat the pig of a pint of settlings; milk set four and twenty hours ; then skinı in a pot and keep tight from the air ; (churn, New York Patent,) churn, draw off the buttermilk, and strain in pure cold water to cover the butter, churn five minutes, draw off the water and buttermilk, and add the water again five minutes-draw off and turn the crank the other way till the butter is thereby dry, (be careful that the striped cow's milk is all worked out,) then add one ounce of salt to the pound; then keep on rolling till the salt is well worked in, (add no sugar or saltpeter, for butter is made of milk or cream, not of sugar,) now remove the dasher from the churn, take your butter patters and run over in such form as you wish for balls or brick as you choose, to a board, to suit yourself; now place it in the firkin, strew in very little fine salt on the layers; now the sequel, to keep till next spring, it is this : Cover it with cloths enough to keep it tight from the air, and not open it till wanted, and I will warrant it to remain sweet and good for a year.”
The perfect cleanliness of the above mode, and taking off the cream at the end of 24 hours, might be copied with great advantage in many dairies.
CROPS. Wheat. First premium to William Grinnell of Exeter, 15 bushels
Indian Corn. First premium to T. H. Norcross of West Charleston, for 138 bushels shelled corn on 14 acres—110 bushels per acre.
Second, 'to J. C. Clements of Kenduskeag, for 178 bushels ears on one acre and 60 rods.
Third, to Matthew Ritchie, for 131 bushels ears on one acre.
Barley. First premium to Hall Bagley of Charleston, for 82) bushels on one acre and 50 rods—62 bushels per acre-land in corn
Second, to J. 0. Tilton of Kenduskeag, for 85 bushels on one acre and 115 rods—49) bushels per acre-land in corn for three successive years previously.
First premium on half an acre, to T. H. Norcross, for 32 bushels and 13 quarts.
Second, to J. C. Clements, for 254 bushels.
Oats. First premium to George W. Worster, for 74 bushels per acre—36 pounds per bushel-land in corn last year.
Second, to W. L. F. Walker of Exeter, for 724 bushels on one acre-land in oats last year-spread three cords manure and plowed 8 inches deep-6 bushels seed sown.
Oats and Peas. First premium to Asa Shaw, for 43} bushels
on one acre.
Second, to J. C. Clements, for 43 bushels on one acre-clayey loam—in grass for several years—broken up in August, 1858-10 manure applied.
Potatoes. First premium to T. H. Norcross, for 357} bushels
on one acre.
Second, to E. F. Crane of Kenduskeag, for 320 bushels on one acre.
Third, to Matthew Ritchie, for 283 bushels.
Carrots. First premium to E. F. Crane, for 285 bushels on one-fourth of an acre.
Second, to E. B. Stackpole, for 194 bushels on 47 square rods. Third, to Asa Shaw, for 178 bushels on one-fourth acre.
Ruta Bagas. First premium to E F. Crane, for 240 bushels on one-fourth acre. Mr. Crane's statements are as follows:
“The ground upon which I raised the rutabaga turnips, was planted to potatoes last year and was a sandy loam, entirely free from stones. Plowed about 8 inches deep last spring, and well harrowed, furrows 18 inches apart. Horse manure worked over by the hogs put in the hill ; sowed half pound of seed in drills, on one-fourth acre ; came up quite thick ; had to thin them out; sowed on the 20th of June and harvested last of October. Whole expense in raising and harvesting, including manure and every thing else, is estimated at $12. Yield on one-fourth acre, 240 bushels. At 30 cents per bushel, .
$60 00 The carrots were raised on land that was under a high state of cultivation, being planted to carrots last year; two cords of manure spread on the land and plowed in 8 inches deep; harrowed well; rows 18 inches apart; sowed half pound of long orange seed in drills, to the quarter acre. Whole expense, including every thing in raising and harvesting, $10. Yield, 285 bushels. At 33 cents per bushel, .
$83 00 The land on which the potatoes were raised was green sward, broken up in the fall of 1858 ; harrowed in the spring; furrowed for rows, 3 feet apart; put a small shovelful of straw manure in the hill; hills about 18 inches apart; planted on the last of April and first of May; hoed twice; harvested about the middle of Oct. Yield, 320 bushels."
Mr. Norcross' statement of crop of 138 bushels corn (on the same piece there were also 84 bushels beans, 13 large cartloads of pumpkins, and 564 pounds squash) on one and a quarter acres, is as follows:
“My crop consisting of 138 bushels of 624 pounds to the bushel (shelled) was grown on one acre and 40 rods, being at the rate of 110 bushels 3 quarts to the acre. The soil upon which it grew was a loamy brown color, fine, friable. It had been in grass, mowed for the last 12 years, without any dressing, and only produced five hundred lbs. to the acre, of poor hay. The 24th of May last, 1858,
I hauled 11 cords of coarse manure on to the piece ; last of May broke it up; first of June sowed three bushels of oats to the acre ; grew very stout, worth as much as three tons of hay; fed without threshing. This spring, 1859, I commenced for the crop under consideration, 16th of April ; hauled 15 loads of good manure from the stable cellar, and placed in three heaps, beside the ground, half cord to the load, and as shoveled on, I sowed two bushels fine salt, 4 do. dry slacked lime, 6 do. ashes, and 4 do. plaster; covered it with leached ashes and let it lay till wanted for the hill ; 20th May, commenced plowing crosswise of the furrow 10 inches, or below the old sod or furrow and manure, with a long breaking up plow; then harrowed well; then hauled off the rocks that were plowed up; then hauled on 15 cords muck and barnyard manure, spread and plowed in ; then harrowed and cultivated three times. 26th of May, began to plant; first furrowed 31 feet, from 8 to 9 inches deep; then a shovelful from the heaps which was nice and warm ; covered smooth and patted down ; planted with Varney corn planter, 5 in a hill ; I think there were but two hills missed in the piece ; planted hill of beans between every hill of corn; stuck one pumpkin seed point down, in the third hill of every third row, with a few marrow fat squash seeds, and finished up 28th, at night, some tired. Cultivated and hoed first, about 20th of June; second, first July ; then weeded as occasion would admit. Cut up first of October and shocked in small shocks. Cost, $87.70. Value of crop, $212.09."
Mr. Stackpole's statement on carrots, is as follows:
“My carrots grew on 46 and 5-6 rods of ground, and the crop amounted to 194 bushels of orange carrots, which weighed 62 pounds to the bushel. The soil was of a clayey loam, with a few small stones; was plowed from 7 to 8 inches deep, and was planted without applying any manure this year. Soil, stiff, subsoil of clay, one foot below the surface. It has been planted with carrots the two previous years, and well manured, both years. I sowed the seed the first of June, with a machine, in drills about fifteen inches apart, and harvested the first of November. Did not come up well, and they were injured by the drouth. I hoed and weeded them twice.” Expense of cultivation,
$14 25 194 bushels carrots at 2s. per bushel,
$50 50 Mr. E. B. Stackpole presented garden vegetables. He says:
“The soil on which they grew was light and gravelly, what is termed here" horse back.” The vegetables I present, are 3 varieties of cabbage, 1 of cauliflower, three of turnips, 4 of beets, 3 of onions, 1 of parsnip, 1 of carrot, 3 of corn, 4 of squash, 3 of beans, 2 of peppers, 1 of rhubarb, 1 of tomato, and 1 of cucumber, making in all, 31 varieties, which were all grown in the open air, and were planted and sowed the 24th and 25th days of May. The same land has been used for a garden 12 years; last year there was not any
manure on this land, which produced a crop worth $63.86. The lot contains 28 square rods. This year there were 4 cords barn yard manure spread on and plowed in, and some leached ashes raked in on top of the beds before sowing the seed. I have not gathered my crop this year, and cannot state its value. I also present 25 different varieties of potatoes."
Mr. Norcross, in a statement about vegetables says, the Orono potato grows large and yields well, but is apt to be hollow hearted and not good. The Christie keeps all the year and are good. The Halifax white yields well and is of fine flavor, resembles the Butman, but much larger. Of cabbages, the Pumple foot is the best of 5 varieties. Purple top rutabaga the best turnip, but not sure of a crop
FRUIT. Apples in large variety and great excellence were shown, by Messrs. Foss, Sinclair, Tibbetts, Chapman and others. Pears by Messrs. Chapman, Sinclair, Foss and others. Plums by Messrs. Sinclair, Foss and others. Mr. Sinclair also showed several varieties of grapes, including the Concord, which he finds to ripen early and well.