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more than middling for milk or work, and fit for nothing for beef. Others say they would be very nice if they were hardy; but in this cold climate they are so tender, they are worthless. Others still say that Natives would be just as large and handsome if they were kept as well. In answer to these objections I reply :--The cow which took the first premium at the United States Fair, at Kentucky, for quantity of milk and butter, was a full blood Durham. The Durhams have been bred in England hundreds of years, with express reference to beef, and the New York Cattle Market shows the fattest and largest beeves to be Durhams.
The Patent Office Report of 1854, gives the statement of several men from Kentucky, saying the Durhams are preferred to any others, are kind and good for work. The only objection is, they are apt to get too fat for the yoke. I might add my own experience, which is, I never wintered stock more easily kept, or more hardy. I have one now, two years old, which would be cheap at $200, while I have others of the same age, always kept in as good condition, which would be dear at $20. I was told when I got my Durham stock, if I kept it as I did my Natives, it would starve to death. If that was so, I wished to know it, so I kept my calves together, precisely alike, on skimmed milk, poorer than I ever kept any before, and the result was, the Durhams outgrew the others, and in the fall was as heavy as any two of them.
It is common where the value of Durham stock is known, for a single animal to sell for one, or two, and sometimes five thousand dollars, and all we need to raise animals equal to any in the world is the breed and good keeping; which is, no meal of any kind, but good hay and a few roots in winter, and good pasture in summer. With that keeping, and the Durham breed, we may safely challenge the world. Of the profit of raising good neat stock there cannot be a doubt; for good handsome working oxen and good milch cows will always command a high price; and good beef, butter and cheese will always sell for cash.
I think one other branch of stock growing may nearly equal it, all things considered ; I refer to sheep husbandry. My plan would be this :-on land, made smooth with the plow, I would fence off an acre for every eight or ten sheep ; the land in three or four years would be sufficiently rich to produce three or four heavy crops without manure. When the first piece should be sown to grass seed, the second would be ready to plow up. The first would bear grass as long as the second would grain, and the third
ready to plow up. In that way a rotation of pasturing, grain and grass would be produced, which would be attended with but little labor, and when connected with the sale of wool in the spring, and lambs in the fall, would be very profitable. Of the different breeds different opinions exist. Some prefer those producing fine, high priced wool, growing on small tender sheep; others those producing long coarse wool, large, hardy and valuable for mutton.
Another branch of farming, in my opinion may be made highly profitable, which is, pork raising. By raising a large quantity of roots, to mix with buckwheat, oats and peas to feed to swine and furnish them all the materials they can convert into manure, the farm may be brought to a high state of fertility. There are many other ways to make farming profitable. Perhaps fruit growing would be quite as profitable according to the outlay, as either of the preceding. It is now abundantly proved that fruit trees will flourish here as well as elsewhere. Trees further south, have suffered much more by cold winters than ours. Apples grown here will keep two or three months longer than the same varieties grown in Massachusetts, which will always insure us a high price. Large fair apples are valuable for drying; the price is annually rising, and they are of easy transportation. Many object to planting an orchard, because they say native trees produce poor fruit, and grafted ones are not hardy. But I know the facts are otherwise ; my grafts are more hardy than natives; I have over one hundred varieties grafted, some of which are as hardy as the trees of the forest, and very productive. If every farmer within the limits of this Society would plant and cultivate large orchards of grafted apple trees, and take proper care of them, in ten years they would be a source of great profit. If you want good health and light doctors' bills, plant an orchard and take care of it; no other employment will insure such happiness; for it was selected by Infinite Wisdom for man's primeval bliss. If a good collection of fruit trees and shrubs were planted on every farm, it would greatly increase the happiness and comfort of many families. Their sons would be less likely to leave their homes discontented, as many now do. How often young men collect all their means—the hard earnings of many years—and start for the great West. They hear of this, or that young man who went there and made his fortune in the rise of land, and they think they can do the same; entirely ignorant and unacquainted with the deceptions of wicked men, elated with the prospect of success, they start for the promised land. How often are they
disappointed and find themselves homeless, penniless and discouraged in a strange land.
But the tide of emigration which has caused such a destructive drain, not only of bone and muscle, but of enterprise and intelligence, is now in some measure stayed, and the settlement of our own wild lands is the result. We can now give a cordial invitation to all good citizens to come and buy farms without money and without price. What spot on earth offers a greater inducement ? Our soil is fertile-our climate healthy. To those who like sport, our waters abound in fish, and our forests in game; and those who seek the sublime in nature may ascend Katahdin's naked summit above the clouds, and there sport in sunshine while storms and tempests roll beneath their feet. But let us look at this society, and see if we are making all the improvement we can. This is our fifth exhibition. It is now time for us to look around and see what are its effects upon the community. Have we made improvements in our modes of cultivation; have we increased our crops; have we improved our stock; our seeds ; in our manufactures; in the shop, and in the house? We have made a good beginning in improvements, but there is much yet to be done.
In conclusion I would say, let us all improve the blessings within our reach; make the best of what we have. As the forest is cut away, the climate will become more mild ; we shall have less frost and snow; our seasons will be longer, and Indian corn, hitherto considered doubtful, will be our surest crop. Let us adapt our seed to our climate and we are sure of success.
I would again impress the importance of cultivating fruit; not only apples and pears, but cherries, plums, currants, gooseberries and grapes. It is said 500 gallons of wine can be made from an acre of currants, worth $1.50 per gallon, and that rhubarb will produce four or five times as much, and equally as good. If we cultivate the fruits adapted to our climate, we may sit under our own vine and fruit tree, so often referred to by the ancient sacred writers as the climax of earthly happiness. We are told by the great Jewish historian, that when man was created, Infinite Wisdom saw that it was not good for him to be alone and created a help-meet for him ; and man needs a help-meet now, as much as then. About an equal number are created male and female, whether happy or unhappy they are inseparably connected. They are equally interested in agriculture, horticulture, and every industrial pursuit. Therefore on an occasion like this, a part should be addressed to the other sex.
Ladies, I would say a few words directly to you. You probably need not be told, that men treat women according to the state of civilization in which they live. In countries highly civilized or grossly barbarous, the difference in treatment is very great. In the one, they are treated with kindness, tenderness, and as equals; in the other, they are treated as slaves and compelled to perform the hardest labor and most degrading drudgery. But with respect to you, although you have no voice in electing the officers and making the laws by which you are governed, you can perform a very important public service. Although you can neither make laws nor command armies, you can form the minds which do both. One of our greatest statesmen and best men, whose father was nearly his equal, said, if he had done the world any good, if he had benefited mankind, the credit was all due to the influence of his mother. Your influence over men is very great, whether they admit it or not. Your opinion will have an influence in the choice of their pursuits, in the style and finish of the house and the ornaments which surround it. But in the house, in the family circle, your influence is almost supreme; nothing can fill your place. With that in view, the poet exclaimed:
“What is a table, richly spread,
Without a woman at the head." You can make home the most sacred and happy place on earth—a paradise of joy, or seat of misery. Your smiles or frowns will cause the sun of domestic happiness to rise or set. Many contend that men and women should enjoy equal political rights; that to compel them to obey laws in making which they have no voice, is both unequal and unjust. Others contend that women are inferior in intellect, and therefore unfit for public affairs. But our seminaries of learning show that while young men graduate at 21 years, young ladies do at 17; and when had England a wiser or better sovereign than her present virtuous Queen ?
I would here give my views on treating the young. Many are nearly or quite ruined for life, by being restrained from action and kept in the house, under the mistaken idea of parental kindness. Action, energetic action in the pure air, from infancy to manhood, will insure a strong and healthy body and active mind, in nearly every individual. Young lady, what better situation could you have, than be a thrifty young farmer's wife? With a good farm, beautiful buildings, garden, orchard, fields, flocks and herds, when taking the healthy walk over such a farm, with what delight and
pride you would reflect all these are ours. I have daughters, and for them I ask no greater earthly bliss. Such a farm would be like that described by Adams, in his poem on the wants of man. A. farm
“Where flocks may range, where herds may low,
LIVE STOCK. The first premium on stallion was awarded to J. S. Stacy of Golden Ridge, for "John O'Gaunt," reared by Ira Fish, Esq., and sired by an imported Hunter of the same name. His dam was sired by the Wiggin colt, so called, the sire of which was the imported Arabian Hogarth; his dam a half blood English mare.
The grand dam of John O'Gaunt was lady Eaton, whose sire was an imported horse formerly kept in New Hampshire, called the Tilton horse. Her dam a full blood Morgan.
For breeding mare, first premium to John McCorren of Golden Ridge, Messenger.
Second to James Roche of Dayton plantation.
Bulls. First and second premium to Alfred Cushman, for Durhams.
Cows. First premium to N. Weymouth, for Durham.
Premiums were also awarded on neat stock to James Bean, John Palmer, D. W. Gould, Henry Blake, J. S. Hall and others, for grade and native stock.
Sheep. For pure Leicester buck and grade sheep, to B. F. Whitehouse, first premium.
Second to Henry Blake.
Svine. First premium to Joseph Heald; also to Thos. Myrick, William A. Hunt and others, grade Berkshire, Suffolk, &c.