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Monterey, the seat of a bishop, in the small kingdom of Leon.

Linares, in the same kingdom, between the Rio Tigre and the great Rio Bravo del Norte. · Monclova, a military post (presidio), capital of the province of Coḥahuila, and residence of a governor. .

San Antonio de Begar, capital of the province of Texas, between the Rio de los Nogales and the Rio de San Antonio.

Diputaciones de Mineria, or Districts.

6. Catorce.
7. San Luis Potosi.
8. Charcas.
9. Ojocaliente.
10. San Nicolas de Croix.

Reules, or places surrounded by mines : La Purissima Concepcion de Alamos de Catorce Matehualu; Cerro del Potosi; San Martin Bernalejo; Sierra Negra; Tule; San Martin; Santa Maria de las Charcas; Ramos; Ojocaliente; Cerro de San Pedro; Matanzillas; San Carlos de Vallecilio; San Antoniode la Yguana; Santiago de las Sabinas; Monterey ; Jesus de Rio Blanco ; Las Salinas; Bocca de Leones; San Nicolas de Croix; Borbon; San Joseph Tamaulipan ; Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Sihue; La Purissima Concepcion de Re villagegido; El Venado; L. Tapona; Guadalcazar.

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· The mineral repository of Catorce holds at present the third rank among the mines of New Spain, classing them according to the quantity of silver which they produce. It was only discovered in the year 1778. This discovery, and that of the veins of Gualgayoc, in Peru, vulgarly called the Veins of Chota, are the most interesting in the history of the mines of Spanish America for the last two centuries. The sinall town of Catorce, the true name of which is la Purissima Concepcion de Alamos de Catorce, is situated on the calcareous table-land, which declines towards the nuevo reyno de Leon, and towards the province of New Santander. From the bosom of these mountains of secondary compact limestone, masses of basalt and porous amygdaloid rise up as in the Vicentin, which, resemble volcanic productions, and contain olivine, zeolite, and obsidian.. A great number of veins of small extent, and very variable in their breadth and direction, traverse the limestone, which itself covers a transition clay-slate ; and the latter perhaps is superimposed on the syenitic rock of the Buffa del Fraile. The greatest number of these veins are western (spathgänge); and their inclination is from 250 to 30° towards the north-east. The minerals which form the lode are generally found in a state of decomposition. They are wrought with the mattock, the pickaxe, and with the gad (pointrole). The consumption of powder is much less than at Guanaxuato and at Zacatecas. These mines possess also the great advantage of being almost entirely dry, so that they have no need of costly machines to draw off the water.

In 1773, Sebastian Caronado and Antonio Llanas, two very poor individuals, discovered veins in a situation now called Cerro de Catorce Viejo, on the western slope of the Pichaco de la Variga de

Plata. They began to work these veins, which were poor and inconstant in their produce. In 1778, Don Barnabé Antonio de Zepeda, a ininer of the Ojo del Agua de Matchuala, investigated during three months this group of arid and calcareous mountains. After attentively examining the ravines, he was fortunate enough to find the crest or surface of the veta grande, on which he immediately dug the pit of Guadalupe. He drew from it an immense quantity of muriate of silver, and colorados mixed with native gold; and gained in a short time more than 108,3831. From that period, the inines of Catorce were wrought with the greatest activity. That of Padre Flores alone produced in the first year upwards of 350,0001.; but the vein only displayed great riches from 160 to 330 feet of perpendicular depth. The famous mine of Purissima, belonging to Colonel Obregon, has scarcely ever ceased since 1788, to yield annually a net profit of 43,7521.; and its produce in 1796 amounted to 260,0001., while the expenses of working did not amount to more than 17,3001. The vein of Purissima, which is not the same with that of Padre Flores, sometimes reaches the extraordinary extent of 130 feet; and it was worked in 1802 to the depth of 226 fathoms. Since 1798, the value of the minerals of Catorce has singularly diminished: the native silver is now rarely to be seen ; and the metales colorados, which are an intimate mixture of muriate of silver, earthy carbonate of lead, and red ochre, begin to give place to pyritous and coppery minerals. The actual produce of these mines is nearly 262,526 lbs. of silver annually,

CHAPTER XIV.

Intendancy of Mexico-extent-climate-physical aspect

-roads-principal towns-mines-Real del Monte, Moran Biscaina, Tasco-state of mining operations geological structure. .

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The whole of this intendancy is situated under the torrid zone. It extends from the 16° 34' to the 21° 57' of north latitude. It is bounded on the north by the intendancy of San Luis Potosi, on the west by the intendancies of Guanaxuato and Valladolid, and on the east by those of Vera Cruz and La Puebla. It is washed towards the south by the South Sea, or Great Ocean, for a length of coast of 246 miles, from Acapulco to Zacatula.

Its greatest length from Zacatula to the mines

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