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the coast of the Great Ocean, the priests, infected by the contagious miasmata of malignant fevers, frequently die before the expiration of seven or eight months.

The population of the intendancy of Valladolid decreased in the years of scarcity of 1786 and 1790; and it would have suffered still more, if the respectable bishop of the diocese had not made extraordinary sacrifices for the relief of the Indians. He voluntarily lost in a few months the sum of 9,6001. sterling, by purchasing 50,000 bushels of maize, which he sold at a reduced price, to keep within bounds the sordid avarice of several rich proprietors, who, during that epoch of public calamities, endeavoured to take advantage of the misery of the people.

The most remarkable places of the province of Valladolid are the following:

Valladolid de Mechoacan, the capital of the intendancy and seat of a bishop, which enjoys a delicious climate. It's elevation above the level of the sea is 6,396 feet; and yet at this moderate height, and under the 19° 42' of latitude, snow has been seen to fall in the streets of Valladolid. This sudden change of atmosphere, caused, no doubt, by a north wind, is much more remarkable than the snow which fell in the

streets of Mexico the night before the Population. Jesuit fathers were carried off! The new aqueduct by which the town receives potable water, was constructed at the expense of the last bishop, Fray Antonio de San Miguel, and cost him nearly 21,0001. sterling.

18,000 · Pascuaro, on the banks of the picturesque lake of the same name, opposite to the Indian village of Janicho, si. tuated at a distance of two or three miles, on a charming little island in the midst of the lake. Pascuaro contains the ashes of a very remarkable man, whose memory, after a lapse of two centuries and a half, is still venerated by the Indians,—the famous Vasco de Quiroga, first bishop of Mechoacan, who died in 1556 at the village of Uruapa. This zealous prelate, whom the natives still call their father (Tata don Vasco), was more successful in his endeavours to protect the unfortunate inhabitants of Mexico than the virtuous bishop of Chiapa, Bartholomé de las Casas. Quiroga became in an especial manner the benefactor of the Tarasc Indians, whose industry he encouraged. He prescribed one particular branch of commerce to each Indian village.

These useful institutions are in a great Population. measure preserved to this day. The height of Pascuaro is 7,217 feet. . . 6,000

Tzintzontzan, or Huitzitzilla, (the old capital of the kingdom of Mechoacan,) of which we have already spoken.


The intendancy of Valladolid contains the mines of Zitaquaro, Angangueo, Tlapuxahua, the Real del Oro, and Ynguaran.

Diputaciones de Mineria, or Districts.

33. Angangueo.
34. Inguaran.
35. Zitaquaro.
36. Tlalpujahua.

Reales, or places surrounded by Mines : Angangueo; El Oro; Tlapaxahua; San Augustin de Ozumatlan ; Zitaquaro ; Istapa; Los Santos Reyes ; Santa Rito de Chirangangeo; El Zapote; Chachiltepec; Sanchiqueo; La Joya ; Paquaro ; Xerecuaro ; Curucupaseo ; Sinda; Inguaran; San Juan Guetamo; Ario; Santa Clara; Alvadeliste ; San Nicolas Apupato ; Rio del Oro; Axuchitlan ; Santa Maria del Carmen del Sombrero; Favor ; Chichindaro,

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Summary recapitulation.--physical aspect-climate-ter

ritorial extent-population-agriculturemines--manufactures commerce-revenue-military defence.

Summary recapitulation. HAVING presented our readers with all the details which appeared relevant to the purpose of this work, we will now briefly recapitulate what has been said concerning the present state of Mexico.


Physical aspect.-In the centre of the country a long chain of mountains runs first from the south-east to the north-west, and afterwards beyond the parallel of 30° from south to north ; vast tablelands stretch out on the ridge of these mountains, gradually declining towards the temperate zone ; under the torrid zone their absolute height is from 7,550 to 7,870 feet. The ascent of the Cordilleras is covered with thick forests, while the central table-land is almost always arid and destitute of vegetation. The most elevated summits, many of which rise beyond the limits of perpetual snow, are crowned with oak and pine. In the equinoctial region the different climates rise as it were by strata one above another : between the 15o and 22° of


latitude, the mean temperature of the shore, which is humid and unhealthy for individuals born in cold countries, is from 77° to 80° Fahr.; and that of the central table-land, which is celebrated on account of the great salubrity of the air, is from 60° to 62o. There is a want of rain in the interior, and the most populous part of the country is destitute of navigable rivers.

Territorial extent. — One million sixty-two thousand square miles, of which two thirds are under the temperate zone; the other third, lying under the torrid zone, from the great elevation of its table-lands, enjoys generally a temperature similar to that which is experienced in spring in Spain and the south of Italy.

Population.-Five millions eight hundred and forty thousand inhabitants; whereof two millions and a half are copper-coloured Indians, one million Mexican Spaniards, seventy thousand European Spaniards ; scarcely any Negro slaves. The population is concentrated on the central table-land. The clergy alone consists of fourteen thousand individuals. The population of the capital 135,000 souls.


Agriculture.-The banana, the manioc, maize, cerealia, and potatoes, are the foundation of the nutriment of the people. The cerealia cùl

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