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what to hate, whom to honor and whom to despise, is the substance of all training."

Reading aloud is getting an idea and giving it to somebody else. Speaking is the same thing more carefully prepared. It consists of three parts: First, an idea, single, simple, short, bright, clear, which the pupil can see and feel and enjoy and like to tell; second, the apprehension of the idea; third, the communication of the idea to others. To provide ideas is the task of the editor. The second and third parts of the work the pupil must do for himself, and the teacher must see that he does it, and help him if he does n't know how.

The editor's task, as any teacher or parent who has spent a good half day in search of something for pupil or child to speak can well believe, was not easy. Unity, brevity, familiarity, novelty, are well-nigh inconsistent attributes. Yet all are absolutely essential qualities of a speech which a young person is to learn with pleasure and impart with joy. The range from which such subjects can be drawn is Jimited. It is of no use to present psychological subtleties, or ethical abstractions, or constitutional arguments. The youth can neither grasp these things himself nor impart them to others. I have found five sources of suitable selections. First, Nature. Sun and rain, the birds in the trees, the fish in the streams, the animals in the woods, all appeal to the lively imagination so characteristic of youth. The selections on this subject set forth the healthfulness, the attractiveness, the manliness of outdoor work and play. At the same time not every farmer or fisherman or hunter can write on haying, or trouting, or camping out so as to make it worth telling. Great care has been taken to secure for the interpretation of these more homely and primitive experiences men of literary power, like Bolles and Burroughs and van Dyke and Seton-Thompson.

In the second place, the youth knows through the study of history something about the men and events, the wars and heroes, the races and problems of his country. Washington and Lincoln and Grant are familiar names. He has read of the Indian and the Negro. He has studied the story of the discovery of America, of the Revolution, of the Civil War. He has heard the recent Spanish War talked of in his home.

The passages dealing with American history constitute the unique portion of the book. The leading men and events, from the landing of Columbus to the Spanish War and the debate about the Philippines, are presented in speeches, narratives, and poems calculated to fix the salient points in the minds of speakers and hearers. Properly "correlated" with the progress of the class in American history and with the celebration of national anniversaries, these selections offer the second point of contact with youthful interest and intelligence.

Patriotism is the point at which the youth next becomes conscious of a larger life to which his individual life should be devoted, and thus affords the next appropriate theme for readings and declamations.

Peace has its heroism as well as war; and the exploits of the fireman, the policeman, the engineer, the explorer, the sailor, are equally calculated to stir the blood, and, in modern conditions, are more capable of practical emulation. In the fourth section, under the head of "Courage and Enterprise," while the heroism of the soldier is not excluded, the first place is given to the everyday heroism of the plain man who does his simple duty.

Finally, under the general head of "Humor, Sentiment, and Reflection," are included, together with a few recent productions, the winnowed grain which long experience has sifted from the ephemeral chaff. I have excluded all

mere moralizing and preaching, and also all of those morbidly sentimental effusions which are at the same time so fascinating and so unwholesome for the youth. Here as elsewhere the speeches are calculated to work their moral effect, not by explicit exhortation, but by the admiration which the charm of nobleness and the reasonableness of righteousness unconsciously evoke.

Besides furnishing brief extracts for reading and speaking, it is hoped that this book will stimulate the young people who use it to an interest in the books from which the selections are taken. To speak a selection well, the speaker should know as much as possible of the whole chapter of which the selection spoken is a part. In these days of free text-books it is highly desirable that good books should be bought and owned in the home. To facilitate these ends, and as a slight recompense to the publishers who have generously permitted the use of selections from books on which they hold the copyright, there are given, so far as possible, with each selection, the title, the author, and the publisher of the book from which the selection is taken; and also, in the case of prose selections, the exact reference to the page or pages where the selection may be found.

I desire to express my gratitude and deep sense of obligation to the authors and publishers who have most generously contributed from their writings and publications the selections of which this book is composed. A large proportion of the selections are from recent books of great value, protected by copyright. I am indebted especially to Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., publishers for Bolles, Burroughs, Higginson, Torrey, Robinson, James, George Harris, Fiske, Harte, Emerson, Longfellow, Holmes, Whittier, and Lowell, for some fifty selections; Harper & Brothers, publishers for Curtis and Lodge; Charles Scribner's Sons, publishers for van Dyke, Du Chaillu, Seton

Thompson, and Palmer; The Century Company, publishers for Riis, Kobbé, Roosevelt, and Eliot; Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., publishers for Brooks; D. Appleton & Co., publishers for Joel C. Harris; G. P. Putnam's Sons, publishers for Roosevelt; D. C. Heath & Co., publishers for Dole; C. P. Farrell, publisher for Ingersoll; G. W. Dillingham Company, publishers for Shaw; Macmillan & Co., publishers for Farrar and Clough; Lee & Shepard, publishers for Calvert; The Whitaker & Ray Company, publishers for Miller; Dodd, Mead & Co., publishers for Steevens; Small, Maynard & Co., publishers for Dunne and Washington; Little, Brown & Co., publishers for Hale and Parkman; Cassell & Co., publishers for Depew; Fords, Howard & Hulbert, publishers for Beecher. All these firms have been most generous in granting permission to use selections. from their publications.

In making these selections I have been assisted by Miss Bertha Palmer, editor of Stories from the Classic Literature of Many Nations, and Mr. Arthur S. Pier, of the editorial staff of the Youth's Companion.

Having provided something the youth can appreciate, and which his schoolmates can enjoy with him, the task of the editor is done, and the rest of the work devolves upon the teacher. Elaborate elocutionary training is not to be expected in the school. Two things, however, are absolutely essential; these the teacher must secure at all costs.

First, the reader or speaker should understand the selection as a whole. He should be able to state the substance of it in his own words. All the selections in this book have a single idea at their heart, which is easily apprehended by the average youth. It is the teacher's duty to secure the expression of this central idea through every word uttered. The instant the reader goes off into the mere repetition of words, without the sense of their relation to the idea

of the selection as a whole, the teacher should interrupt him with the question, "What is that?" or, "Precisely what are you trying to tell us?" These questions will bring him back to the main point, and make the part expressive of the whole.

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Second, the teacher must insist on the personal relation and the conversational tone. In reading, after the rudiments are once mastered, the reader should never stand in the line with the class, facing the teacher or the wall; but should step out in front of the class, face his classmates, and address his remarks to them. Trifling as this little matter of detail will seem to some, it is essential; for the communication of ideas implies some one to whom the communication is made. When a reader or speaker has merely gained the idea from the book, and repeated it out loud, he has done only half the work. It is because so many persons, both in and out of school, forget the other half, that bad reading is so minister who was out of a parish once came to Dr. Parker, of the City Temple, London, to ask his assistDr. Parker told him to come to the Temple and preach a sermon to him. As soon as he had finished, Dr. Parker said to him: "I see perfectly well why no parish wants you. You were trying to get something off your mind; not to get anything into mine." To get something into the minds of his classmates is quite as essential as to get something off from the mind of the speaker. At this point another matter of apparently trifling detail is absolutely essential. The other members of the class should close their books and look at the reader. It is a good plan to question the hearers, and see whether they get the idea from the reader. If they do not, the reader should be held responsible, and asked to read it over again for the benefit of the one who has failed to get the idea. Insistence on

ance.

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