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been fifteen or sixteen, by my calculation : however, twelve is pretty well !” He now said that “he felt death fast approaching, and that he had but a few minutes to live : he could have wished to survive a little longer to have seen the feet in safety; but as that was impossible, he thanked God that he had outlived the action, and had been enabled to do his duty to his country.”.... Charnock.

TRANSFUSION, in surgery or medicine, the introducing of the blood of one animal body into that of another. This scheme for prolonging human life, (first recommended, in the year 1615, by Andreas Libavius, professor of medicine and chymistry, in Germany,) excited hopes in Europe, of a kind of immor. tality in this world, by means of renewing the blood. The operation was performed in the following manner. The blood of the young, healthy, and vigorous, was transfused into the old and infirm, by means of a deli. cate tube,' placed in a vein opened for that purpose : into this vein a small tube was placed in a perpendicular direction ; at the same time a vein was opened in a young and healthy animal, commonly, a lamb, or a calf, into which another tube was forced in a reclining direction ; both the small tubes were then slidden into each other, and in that position the delicate act of transfusion was safely performed. In some instances, the good effects of these experiments were evident and promising ; but the increasing abuses practised by bold and inexpert adventurers, together with the great number of cases wherein it proved unsuccessful, induced the different governments of Europe to put an entire stop to the practice by.the strictest prohibitions. .... Willich.


TRANSMIGRATION, in pagan mythology, the passing of human souls into other bodies. This doctrine originated among the East-Indians, and is of great antiquity. The Indians believed that the soul transmigrated from body to body, for a long succession of ages; that the punishment of crimes would be to have the souls of the criminals thrust into some unclean or detested brute animals after death ; that the cruel



and tyrannical, for instance, would suffer in other bodies the same kinds of distress and tortures that they had inflicted ; and that after a course of trials and transmigrations, the soul would be reunited to its original body, in order to enjoy eternal happiness. Accordingly they scrupulously abstained from eating flesh and from spilling the blood of any of the inferior animals, lest they should eat or kill some near relation. Pythagoras, in his travels in India learned this doctrine of the Indian Brachmans, and taught it in Greece.

TRENTON, a pleasant town of New-Jersey ; situated on the east bank of the river Delaware ; and distinguished for being the site of a brilliant victory, achieved at the most gloomy period of the American revolutionary war; when General Washington, with the remnant of an army, re-crossed the Delaware (December 25, 1776) and attacking Colonel Rawle, posted at Trenton, made prisoners of one thousand of his troops. Twelve years after this action, when General Washington was passing toward the seat of government, to be inaugurated as president of the United States, a numerous party of the respectable matrons of Trenton, assembled together at the bridge, holding by the hand their daughters, who were drest in white, and had baskets of flowers on their arms; and upon the arrival of the general at the bridge, the young misses, with voices sweet, chaunted an ode, the last stanza of which was as follows:

“ Virgins fair and matrons grave
“ Those thy conquering arms did save,
“ Build for thee triumphant bowers ;
“ Strew, ye fair, his way with flowers,
“ Strew your hero's way with flowers."

At the last line the flowers were strewed before him.

TRIPOLI, a country of Africa, in Barbary ; bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea ; on the west by Tunis ; and on the east by Egypt. It is about nine hundred and twenty-five miles along the sea coast, but the breadth is various. This piratical state is governed



by a Dey, who is under the control of the grand Seignior of Turkey. Tripoli, the capital of the state of the same name, is situated on the coast of the Mediterra. nean, in a sandy soil surrounded by a wall, in 32° 34' north latitude. This city was taken by Charles V. who settled the knights of Malta there ; but they were driven away by the Turks in 1551. The Tripolitans derive their chief gain from the Christian slaves ; on whom they set high ransoms, and make them perform all kinds of drudgery.

TRIUMVIRATE, the union of three most power. ful citizens of Rome, in usurping the whole management of the republic. The first Roman triumvirate consisted of Pompey, Cæsar, and Crassus. Those three men, by their nefarious union for that purpose, subverted the constitution of the Roman republic, and divided among themselves, the whole power of the state ; yet, as a solemn lesson to usurpers, they all came to a miserable end. Crassus, together with his army, was cut off by the Parthians, now called Tartars. After the death of Crassus, Cæsar's unquenchable thirst for empire, and wild ambition of being the greatest man in the world, prompted him to employ his arms to the de. struction of Pompey, his son-in-law, who was his only remaining rival. Pompey, defeated by Cæsar on the plains of Pharsalia, fied to Egypt : where he was senienced to die by a council of slaves, was murdered by a base deserter, and cast out naked and headless on the Egyptian strand ; and when the whole earth had scarce been sufficient for his victories, could not find a spot upon it at last for his grave. Cæsar, having made more desolations in the world than any other man, perhaps, that ever lived in st; having destroyed about a million and two hundred thousand lives by his conquests in Gaul, and nearly as many more in the civil wars ; having at last advanced himself to an unrivalled and astonishing height of power, through a perpetual course of faction, violence, rapine and slaughter, he was assassinated in the senate-house, after enjoying the quiet possession of empire only five months. The next year after the death of Julius Cæsar, a new triumvirate was formed by young Octavius, Cæsar's nephew, to

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gether with Mark Anthony and Lepidus ; which terminated in the disgrace and ruin of Lepidus, the destruction of Anthony, and the enthronement of Octavius, as the first Roman emperor, under the name of Augustus Cæsar. The Saviour of the world was born in the reign of Tiberius, the adopted heir and successor of Augustus Cæsar, and was condemned to crucifixion by one of his provincial governors, namely, Pontius Pilate.

TROY, formerly called Ilium, a wealthy and famous ancient city of Asia, near the Archipelago, at the foot of Mount Ida, and opposite to the isle of Tenedos. The first irruption of the Europeans into Asia, was against this city. About twelve hundred years before the nativity of our Saviour, Paris, a son of Priam king of Troy, travelling through Greece, seduced and carried away Helen, the wife of Menelaus, a Grecian prince; and the whole Grecian states united to revenge this affront. With a fleet consisting of twelve hundred small vessels and a numerous army under the command of several petty kings, they besieged Troy, and continu. ed the siege ten years; when the city was taken by stratagem, and laid in ruins. About three hundred years after the Trojan war, Greece gave birth to Homer, a prodigy of genius, whose poems immortalized Troy, as well as contributed to exalt his own country.

TUNIS, a country of Africa ; bordering on the Mediterranean Sea and the state of Tripoli; and extending three hundred miles in length, and two hundred and fifty in breadth. This country was formerly a monarchy; but a difference arising between a king and his son, one of whom was for the protection of the Christians, and the other for that of the Turks, the inhabitants, in 1574, shook off the authority of both. From this time it became a republic under the protection of the Turks, who receive thence an annual tribute. Some parts of this country are very fertile ; but the woods and mountains abound with lions; and the inroads of the Arabs oblige the inhabitants to sow their grain in the suburbs, and to inclose their gardens with walls, The city of Tunis is seated on the point of the gulf of



Goletta, a few miles from the place where the city of Carthage stood. The walls are very lofty, and flanked with strong towers: it is said to contain three hundred thousand inhabitants, of whom thirty thousand are Jews. In the city of Tunis alone there are said to be above three thousand clothiers and weavers ; in the whole state there are generally about twelve thousand Christian slaves.... British Encyclopedia.

TURKEY, a vast empire, extending over some of the finest parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa ; and comprehending all the islands belonging to ancient Greece, which are called the Archipelago. Turkey in Europe is situated between thirty-six and forty-nine degrees of north latitude; is a thousand miles long, and nine hundred broad; and is bounded in part, by Russia, Poland, and the Mediterranean Sea. Turkey in Asia is situated between twenty-eight and forty-five degrees of north latitude ; is a thousand miles long, and eight hundred broad; and is bounded, in part, by Persia, Arabia, and the Mediterranean. In Africa, the Turkish empire has an acknowledged sovereignty over Egypt, and receives the homage of the Barbary states. This empire, comprehending Egypt, the cradle of science, andall Greece the celebrated seat of the fine arts, extends over Syria and Palestine, and over a great part of the ancient Assyrian and Babylonish dominions. It has blasted every country that has been subjected to its power; the arts, the sciences, and genius itself, have faded and withered under its baneful influence.

TURKS, the descendants of the various hordes of shepherds dispersed to the east, and to the north, of the Caspian Sea, in Asia. Those wandering tribes, the ancestors of the Turks, were the same people who were known to the ancient Greeks and Romans by the name of Parthians and Scythians, for which we have substituted that of Tartars. They have shewn themselves in every age, brave and formidable warriors, whom neither Cyrus nor Alexander were able to subdue. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, certain hordes who had lived to the east of the Caspian, began their march, under Soliman their chief, to the

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