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holes, each smaller and smaller, till at last it is brought to a fineness exceeding that of a hair. A cylinder of forty-eight ounces of silver, covered with a coat of gold, only weighing one ounce, as Dr. Hally informs us, is usually drawn into a wire, two'yards of which weigh no more than one grain : accordingly ninety-eight yards of the wire weigh no more than forty-nine grains, and one single grain of gold covers the ninetyeight yards ; so that the ten thousandth part of a grain is above one-eighth of an inch long....British Encyclopedia.

WOLF, an animal of the dog kind; some naturalists think it to be a real species of dog in the wild state. The wolf has great strength, especially in his muscles and jaws: he can carry a sheep in his mouth, and easily run off with it in that manner. His bite is cruel and deadly, and keener as it meets with resistance ; but when opposed, he is cautious and circumspect, and seldom fights but from necessity. He almost incessantly prowls about for prey, and of all animals, is the most difficult to conquer in the chase ; but when he finds there is no probability of escaping, he is so stupified with fear, that he may be killed without offering to resist.. In Europe sometimes whole droves of wolves join in the cruel work of general devastation, roam through the villages, and attack the sheep-folds. They dig the earth der the doors, enter with dreadful ferocity, and put every living creature to death before they depart. Even man himself, upon these occasions, frequently falls a victim to their rapacity; and it is said, that when once tbey have tasted human blood, they always give it the preference. They have been known to follow armies, and assemble in troops upon the field of battle; tear up such bodies as have been carelessly interred, and devour them with insatiable avidity. The colour of the American wolf is a dirty grey, with some tinges of yellow about his ears and legs. There is nothing valuable in these animals but their skins, which afford a warm and durable fur.... Magazine, Williams.

WOODEN COLLAR, an instrument of punish



ment in China. It is composed of two pieces of wood hollowed out in the middle, which, when put together, have sufficient room for the neck of a person. They are laid upon the shoulders of the offender, and joined together in such a manner as to prevent his seeing his feet, or putting his hands to his mouth. He is thus rendered incapable of eating without the assistance of another, and is obliged to carry his burden night and day. Its weight is from fifty to two hundred pounds, regulated according to the nature of the crime.... Winterbotham.

WOODPECKER, a bird that seeks its prey in rotten wood. It is furnished with a very long and voluble tongue ; and is endowed with a singular instinct. It knows how to procure food without seeing its prey. It attaches itself to the trunk or branches of decayed tree : and whenever it perceives a hole or crevice, it darts in its long tongue, and brings it out loaded with insects of various kind; at the same time making a loud shout of triumph. The green woodpecker (for there are several species) feeds entirely on insects; and is said to occasion great havoc among the bees in the winter season. After having sufficiently excavated an unsound tree, the female deposits five or six white eggs; and the young brood are taught to ascend and descend trees, before they are able to fly.... Smellie, flillich.

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ABIANS, Chaldeans, or Babylonians, who laid the foundation of polytheism and idolatry, by adding to the worship of the one infinite God, a secondary worship of the heavenly bodies, which they regarded as his ministers, and adored as mediators between him and sinful men; considering these glorious orbs as the habitations of Genii, or spiritual intelligences. This refined kind of idolatry which begun in Chaldea, spread over Asia, Africa, and Europe ; and gradually became more and



more gross and sensual, till it plunged the world into the deepest ignorance and corruption. From worshipping the heavenly bodies, they proceeded to the worship of animals and images as the representatives of these celestial orbs ; until at last, instead of the true God, grav. en images, brutes, and even serpents were adored. Zabianism had commenced in the land of Chaldea, when the patriarch Abraham left it; but it had not then spread into Arabia, Egypt, and Canaan.

ZEALAND, NEW, two large islands in the south Pacific Ocean, separated from each other by a narrow strait. The inhabitants of New Zealand seem to live under continual apprehensions of being destroyed by each other. They never give quarter or take prisoners; they kill every one of the vanquished enemy without distinction, not sparing even the women and children ; and when they have completed the inhuman massacre, they either gorge themselves on the spot, or carry off as many dead bodies as they can, and feast on them at home. It is a part of their creed, that the soul of the man whose flesh is devoured by his enemies, is condemned to an incessant fire ; while the soul of him whose body has been rescued from those that slew. him, as well as the souls of those who die a natural death, ascend to the mansions of the gods....Cooke's Voyages.

ZEBRA, an animal of the horse kind ; and is a native of the southern parts of Africa. This creature is rather less than a mule, is exceedingly wild and amazingly swift. Its shape is elegant; its hair fine and smooth; its head, its neck, and its whole body is striped in such a manner as to resemble a garment made of the finest ribands; and it is in all respects, one of the inost beautiful of animals.

ZINC, a semi-metal of a whitish colour, nearly resembling that of lead, though it does not so speedily tarnish. It is of great utility in the arts. Combined with gold, in equal portions, it forms a hard white compound, that admits a fine polish, and may be advantageously manufactured into specula, for optical instruments. Zinc and tin, melted together, produce a kind of pewter; and


as the former spreads more uniformly, while it is much harder, and less fusible than tin, it has been proposed as a substitute for the latter, in tinning copper vessels. Zinc and copper readily unite in the fire, forming a metal distinguished by the general name of yellow conper ; but which is divided into several sorts, according to their respective proportions. Thus, three parts of copper and one of zinc, constitute brass : five or six of the former, and one of the latter, afford pinchbeck. Zinc is found in England, Hungary, and some other parts of tbe globe...Dom. Encyclopedia.


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