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(2) Question of preventing or providing against unemployment. (3) Women's employment:

(a) Before and after child-birth, including the question of maternity benefit;

(b) During the night;

(c) In unhealthy processes.

(4) Employment of children:

(a) Minimum age of employment;

(b) During the night;

(c) In unhealthy processes.

(5) Extension and application of the International Conventions adopted at Berne in 1906 on the prohibition of night work for women employed in industry and the prohibition of the use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches.

SECTION II.-General Principles.

ARTICLE 41 [427].

The High Contracting Parties, recognising that the well-being, physical, moral and intellectual, of industrial wage-earners is of supreme international importance, have framed, in order to further this great end, the permanent machinery provided for in Section I and associated with that of the League of Nations.

They recognise that differences of climate, habits and customs, of economic opportunity and industrial tradition, make strict uniformity in the conditions of labour difficult of immediate attainment. But, holding as they do, that labour should not be regarded merely as an article of commerce, they think that there are methods and principles for regulating labour conditions which all industrial communities should endeavour to apply, so far as their special circumstances will permit.

Among these methods and principles, the following seem to the High Contracting Parties to be of special and urgent importance:

First. The guiding principle above enunciated that labour should not be regarded merely as a commodity or article of com


Second. The right of association for all lawful purposes by the employed as well as by the employers.

Third. The payment to the employed of a wage adequate to maintain a reasonable standard of life as this is understood in their time and country.

Fourth. The adoption of an eight hours day or a forty-eight hours week as the standard to be aimed at where it has not already been attained.

Fifth. The adoption of a weekly rest of at least twenty-four hours, which should include Sunday wherever practicable.

Sixth. The abolition of child labour and the imposition of such limitations on the labour of young persons as shall permit the continuation of their education and assure their proper physical development.

Seventh. The principle that men and women should receive equal remuneration for work of equal value.

Eighth. The standard set by law in each country with respect to the conditions of labour should have due regard to the equitable economic treatment of all workers lawfully resident therein.

Ninth. Each State should make provision for a system of inspection in which women should take part, in order to ensure the enforcement of the laws and regulations for the protection of the employed.

Without claiming that these methods and principles are either complete or final, the High Contracting Parties are of opinion that they are well fitted to guide the policy of the League of Nations; and that, if adopted by the industrial communities who are members of the League, and safeguarded in practice by an adequate system of such inspection, they will confer lasting benefits upon the wageearners of the world.



Notes to Part XIV, Articles 428 to 433

The treaty restoring friendly relations between the United States and Germany signed at Berlin, August 25, 1921 and in force on November 11, 1921 with retroactive effect to July 2, 1921, stipulates that "Germany undertakes to accord to the United States and the

Notes to Part XIV, Articles 428 to 433—Continued

United States shall have and enjoy . . . all the rights and advantages" stipulated for its benefit by this part of this treaty, "notwithstanding the fact that such treaty has not been ratified by the United States". The rights and advantages of nationals of the United States specified in the joint resolution of Congress approved July 2, 1921 (p. 18) were specifically mentioned in an understanding included in the Senate's resolution of advice and consent to ratification of October 18, 1921. The Senate in that resolution made a further condition "that the United States shall not be represented or participate in any body, agency or commission, nor shall any person represent the United States as a member of any body, agency or commission in which the United States is authorized to participate by this Treaty, unless and until an Act of the Congress of the United States shall provide for such representation or participation".

This part is, ipsissimis verbis, an annex, technically a schedule, of the treaty restoring friendly relations as printed by the Department of State in Treaty Series 658, but not as printed in 42 Stat. 1939.

SECTION I-Western Europe.


As a guarantee for the execution of the present Treaty by Germany, the German territory situated to the west of the Rhine, together with the bridgeheads, will be occupied by Allied and Associated troops for a period of fifteen years from the coming into force of the present Treaty.

Note to XIV, 428

The German delegation complained that even in the provisions for its execution, the Conditions of Peace did not exclude the principle of force (Foreign Relations, The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, VI, 879). As a guaranty for the fulfilment of the terrible terms imposed on the German people, an occupation of German territory, to extend over many years, was demanded as security against German aggression or refusal to carry out the peace terms. No one could suppose that the weakened German nation would allow itself to be led into an aggressive war which must lead to its complete destruction. Occupation did not guarantee that Germany would fulfil its obligations, for large sums would have to be paid for the upkeep of the armies of occupation and the discharge of reparation obligations

Note to XIV, 428—Continued

would thereby become difficult. Occupation would also upset the normal economic life of Germany and allow the continuance of requisitions. A special customs tariff could be instituted for the occupied territory which would separate the Rhineland from the rest of Germany and bring it under the influence of Belgium and France. Germany therefore expected that the territories occupied under the Armistice would be evacuated within six months after the signing of the peace treaty and that during this period the occupation should have a purely military character, i.e. the German civil administration should function and connections with unoccupied Germany should be restored. If the Allies needed guaranties for the fulfilment of its obligations by Germany, "other and more effective means were available to them than compulsion and force".

The rest of the world failed to realize the "great transformation" which had taken place in Germany. "By the will of its people Germany has become a democracy and a republic; a return to constitutional circumstances in which the will of the German people could be disregarded, is out of the question." The new Germany deserved the confidence of its neighbors and demanded admission to the League of Nations, which would constitute the strongest guaranty of German good faith. Although Germany was not in a position to exercise pressure in bringing about the only kind of peace which could be permanent, the German delegation had to warn against a peace of force. The fate of Russia taught "a clear lesson". The completely exhausted German people was seeking to avoid dissolution and would fight to the end, but it would get accustomed to hard terms more easily if it could see some hope for the future. Germany desired peace and justice, but "a durable peace cannot be founded on the oppression and enslavement of a great nation". The new peace must be a peace of right and "therefore one of free consent", based on the notes exchanged between October 3 and November 5, 1918. "With the object of founding a new common life based on liberty and labor, the German people turn to those who were their adversaries and demand, in the interest of all nations and men, a peace to which it can consent in accordance with the intimate convictions of its conscience". The Allies, noting a remark of the German delegation that "only a return to the immutable principles of morality and civilization, to sanctity of treaties would render it possible for mankind to continue to exist", replied that after four and a half years of war caused by the repudiation of those principles, they could only repeat the words

Note to XIV, 428—Continued

of President Wilson: "The reason why peace must be guaranteed is that there will be parties to the peace whose promises have proved untrustworthy” (ibid., p. 996).

The period of 15 years stipulated in this clause was anticipated as a result of the rapprochement which began with the Locarno settlement (see p. 841) and, in this connection, culminated in the New (Young) Plan concerning reparation. The negotiations to bring that plan of June 7, 1929 into effect began at The Hague in the following August, though they were not concluded until the following January. An exchange of notes was effected there on August 30, 1929 between the Belgian, British, and French and the German Governments. The joint proposing note stated (104 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 473):

"In the course of the proceedings of the Political Commission of the Conference at The Hague the three Occupying Powers have agreed to begin the evacuation of the Rhineland during the month of September on the conditions laid down in the attached notes. The withdrawal of the Belgian and British forces will be completed within three months of the date on which the operation of evacuation begins. The French forces will evacuate the Second Zone within the same period. The evacuation of the Third Zone by the French troops will begin immediately after the Young Plan is ratified by the German and French Parliaments and put into operation. It will proceed without interruption as rapidly as physical conditions permit, and in any case will be completed at the latest in a period of eight months terminating not later than the end of June 1930."

The cost of the armies of occupation and of the commission were to be met as from September 1, 1929 by a reserve fund of 60,000,000 Reichsmarks into which Germany paid a non-recoverable lump sum of 30,000,000 Reichsmarks. The remaining moiety was contributed as follows: France, 35 percent; United Kingdom, 12 percent; Belgium, 3 percent. The occupying governments reciprocally waived all claims with respect to article 6 of the Rhineland Agreement (see p. 765) which had not been paid in cash on September 1929 and Germany waived all existing or future claims of whatever date in respect of requisitions and damages under articles 8 to 12 of the Rhineland Agreement.

The German delegation in acknowledging the note confirmed its agreement to the Belgian, British, and French enclosures dealing with certain questions connected with the evacuation. Those notes

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