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pointed upwards—“ See,” said he, again in heaven." Thus the father as there stand thy dew-drops glori- spoke, and knew not that he spoke ously re-set-a glittering jewellery- prefiguring words: for soon after the in the heavens; and the clownish delicate child, with the morning foot tramples on them no more. By brightness of his early wisdom, was this, my child, thou art taught that exhaled, like a dew-drop, into heawhat withers upon earth blooms



We should all think of death as a heart of man into its whole capacity less hideous object, if it simply un- for the infinite, and he cried aloudtenanted our bodies of a spirit, with- “ Away, away! Thou speakest of out corrupting them; secondly, if things which throughout my endless the grief which we experience at life I have found not, and shall not the spectacle of our friends' graves find!” He was unhappy at the rewere not by some confusion of the membrance of earthly affections and mind blended with the image of our dissevered hearts: for love is a plant own: thirdly, if we had not in this which may bud in this life, but it life seated ourselves in a warm do- must flourish in another. He was mestic nest, which we are unwilling unhappy under the glorious spectacle to quit for the cold blue regions of of the starry host, and ejaculated for the unfathomable heavens; finally, ever in his heart—" So then I am if death were denied to us.-Once in parted from you to all eternity by dreams I saw a human being of an impassable abyss: the great uniheavenly intellectual faculties, and verse of suns is above, below, and his aspirations were heavenly; but round about me: but I am chained he was chained (methought) eter- to a little ball of dust and ashes.” nally to the earth. The immortal He was uvhappy before the great old man had five great wounds ideas of Virtue of Truth—and of in his happiness—five worms that God; because he knew how feeble gnawed for ever at his heart: he was are the approximations to them which unhappy in spring-time, because that a son of earth can make. But this is a season of hope—and rich with was a dream: God be thanked, that phantoms of far happier days than in reality there is no such craving any which this aceldama of earth and asking eye directed upwards to can realise. He was unhappy at the heaven- to which death will not sound of music, which dilates the one day bring an answer !

IMAGINATION YNTAMED BY THE COARSER REALITIES OF LIFE. Happy is every actor in the guilty lectual interest, the bungling landdrama of life, to whom the higher scapes of the stage have the bloom illusion within supplies or conceals and reality of nature, and whom the the external illusion ; to whom, in loud parting and shocking of the the tumult of his part and its intel- scenes disturb not in his dream!


In Swabia, in Saxony, in Pomera- lie against us for such bad words. nia, are towns in which are stationed The tasters write no books thema strange sort of officers-valuers of selves; consequently they have the authors' flesh, something like our old more time to look over and tax those market-lookers in this town*. They of other people. Or, if they do are commonly called tasters (or sometimes write books, they are bad Praegustatores) because they eat ones: which again is very advantaa mouthful of every book before- geous to them: for who can underhand, and tell the people whether stand the theory of badness in other its flavour be good. We authors, in people's books so well as those who spite, call them reviewers: but I be- have learned it by practice in their lieve an action of defamation would own? They are reputed the guard

Market-lookers" is a provincial term (I know not whether used in London) for the public officers who examine the quality of the provisions exposed for sale. By this town I suppose John Paul to mean Bayreuth - the place of his residence.

ians of literature and the literati for all who pass over them—viz. bethe same reason that St. Nepomuk cause he himself once lost his life is the patron saint of bridges and of from a bridge.


Hippel, the author of the book thinkers who are the least talkers ; “Upon Marriage," says —"Awo- as frogs cease to croak when light is man, that does not talk, must be a brought to the water edge.—How, stupid woman.” But Hippel is an ever, in fact, the disproportionate author whose opinions it is more safe talking of women arises out of the to admire than to adopt. The most sedentariness of their labours: seintelligent women are often silent dentary artisans,-as tailors, shoeamongst women; and again the most makers, weavers, --- have this habit stupid and the most silent are often as well as hypochondriacal tendencies neither one nor the other except in common with women. Apes do amongst men. In general the cur- not talk, as savages say, that they rent remark upon men is valid also may not be set to work : but women with respect to women--that those often talk double their share-even for the most part are the greatest because they work.

FORGIVENESS. Nothing is more moving to man the man who subdues it. When thou than the spectacle of reconciliation: forgivest,—the man, who has pierced our weaknesses are thus indemnified, thy heart, stands to thee in the reand are not too costly-being the lation of the sea-worm that perfoprice we pay for the hour of forgive- rates the shell of the muscle, which ness : and the archangel, who has straightway closes the wound with a never felt anger, has reason to envy pearl.

The graves of the best men, of upon the consecrated soil of virtuethe noblest martyrs, are like the and upon the classic ground of truth, graves of the Herrnhuters (the Mo- thousands of nameless heroes must ravian brethren)-level, and undis- fall and struggle to build up the tinguishable from the universal earth: foot-stool from which history surand, if the earth could give up her veys the one hero, whose name is emsecrets, our whole globe would ap- balmed, bleeding-conquering, and pear a Westminster Abbey laid flat. resplendent. The grandest of heAh! what a multitude of tears, what roic deeds are those which are permyriads of bloody drops have been formed within four walls and in shed in secrecy about the three cor- domestic privacy. And, because ner-trees of earth—the tree of life, history records only the self-sacrifices the tree of knowledge, and the tree of the male sex, and because she of freedom,-shed, but never reck- dips her pen only in blood, -thereoned! It is only great periods of fore is it that in the eyes of the uncalamity that reveal to us our great seen spirit of the world our annals men, as comets are revealed by total appear doubtless far more beautiful eclipses of the sun. Not merely and noble than in our own. upon the field of battle, but also


Man upon this earth would be such a feeling,—this, by implying a vanity and hollowness, dust and comparison of himself with something ashes, vapor and a bubble,-were it higher in himself, this is it which not that he felt himself to be so. makes him the immortal creature That it is possible for him to harbour that he is.


The earth is every day overspread readily apprehend the higher harmowith the veil of night for the same nies of thought in the hush and quiet reason as the cages of birds are of darkness. Thoughts, which day darkened-viz. that we may the more turns into smoke and mist, stand about us in the night as lights and vius, in the day-time appears a pillar flames : even as the column which of cloud, but by night' a pillar of fluctuates above the crater of Vesu- fire.


Look up, and behold the eternal and he would have laid himself down fields of light that lie round about to his last sleep, in a spirit of anthe throne of God. Had no star ever guish, as upon a gloomy earth vaultappeared in the heavens, to man ed over by a material arch—solid there would have been no heavens; and impervious.

MARTYRDOM. To die for truth-is not to die for half below the earth—made hollow one's country, but to die for the by the sepulchres of its witnesses, world. Truth, like the Venus dei will raise itself in the total majesty Medici, will pass down in thirty of its proportions ; and will stand in fragments to posterity: but posterity monumental granite ; and every pilwill collect and recompose them into lar, on which it rests, will be fixed a goddess.—Then also thy temple, in the grave of a martyr. oh eternal Truth! that now stands

THE QUARRELS OF FRIENDS. Why is it that the most fervent themselves, and no love can admit love becomes more fervent by brief the feeling that the beloved object interruption and reconciliation ? and should die. And under this feeling why must a storm agitate our af- of imperishableness it is that we hard fections before they can raise the fields of ice shock together so harshhighest rainbow of peace ? Ah! for ly, whilst all the while under the this reason it is—because all passions sun-beams of a little space of seventy feel their object to be as eternal as years we are rapidly dissolving.

DREAMING. But for dreams, that lay Mosaic friends: every year we should beworlds tesselated with flowers and come more and more painfully senjewels before the blind sleeper, and sible of the desolation made around surround the recumbent living with us by death, if sleep- the antethe figures of the dead in the up- chamber of the grave-were not right attitude of life, the time would hung by dreams with the busts of be too long before we are allowed those who live in the other world. to rejoin our brothers, parents,

TWO DIVISIONS OF PHILOSOPHIC MINDS. There are two very different classes the wooden carving of logical toil. of philosophical heads-which, since Such men therefore as Leibnitz, Kant has introduced into philosophy Plato, Herder, &c. I call positive inthe idea of positive and negative tellects; because they seek and yield quantities, I shall willingly classify the positive; and because their inner by means of that distinction. The world, having raised itself higher out positive intellect is, like the poet, in of the water than in others, thereby conjunction with the outer world the overlooks a larger prospect of islands father of an inner world; and, like and continents. A negative head, on the poet also, holds up a trans- the other hand, discovers by its forming mirror in which the entan- acuteness—not any positive truths gled and distorted members as they but the negative truths (i. e. the are seen in our actual experience errors) of other people. Such an inenter into new combinations which tellect, as for example Bayle, one of compose a fair and luminous world: the greatest of that class,-appraises the hypothesis of Idealism (i. e. the the funds of others, rather than brings Fichtéan system) the Monads and any fresh funds of his own. In lieu the Pre-established Harmony of of the obscure ideas which he finds Leibnitz — and Spinozism are all he gives us clear ones: but in this births of a genial moment, and not there is no positive accession to our knowledge; for all, that the clear in short which is incomprehensible, idea contains in developement, exists they can endure just once—that is, already by implication in the obscure at the summit of their chain of arguidea. Negative intellects of every ments as a sort of hook on which they age are unanimous in their abhor- may hang them,-but never afterrence of every thing positive. Im- wards. pulse, feeling, instinct--every thing

DIGNITY OF MAN IN SELF-SACRIFICE. That, for which man offers up his child :-in short, only for the nobility blood or his property, must be more within us-only for virtue, will man valuable than they. A good man open his veins and offer up his spirit: does not fight with half the courage but this nobility—this virtue-prefor his own life that he shows in the sents different phases: with the protection of another's. The mother, Christian martyr it is faith; with the who will hazard nothing for herself, savage it is honour; with the repubwill hazard all in defence of her lican it is liberty.


Fancy can lay only the past and water distilled from roses, according the future under her copying paper; to the old naturalists, lost its power and every actual presence of the ob- exactly at the periodical blooming ject sets limits to her power: just as

of the rose,

The older-the more tranquil--and earths, preserve their borrowed light piqus a man is, so much the more unobscured. The elder races of men, holy does he esteem all that is innate, amongst whom man was more though that is, feeling and power: whereas in he had not yet become so much, had the estimate of the multitude what. a childlike feeling of sympathy with all soever is self-acquired, the ability of the gifts of the Infinite--for example, practice and science in general, has with strength--beauty--and good foran undue pre-eminence ; for the lat- tune; and even the involuntary had a ter is universally appreciated and sanctity in their eyes, and was to therefore even by those who have it them a prophecy and a revelation : not, but the former not at all. In hence the value they ascribed, and the twilight and the moonshine the the art of interpretation they applied, fixed stars, which are suns, retire to the speeches of children of madand veil themselves in obscurity; men-of drunkards--and of dreamers. whilst the planets, which are simply

As the blind man knows not light, but for slavery nothing of freedom : and through that ignorance also of there are perhaps in this world many necessity knows not darkness, so things which remain obscure to us for likewise, but for disinterestedness we want of alternating with their opposhould know nothing of selfishness, sites.

Derham remarks in his Physico- nons, &c. accompany the entrance theology that the deaf hear best in into cities of princes and ministers, the midst of noise, as for instance who are generally rather deaf, in during the ringing of bells ; &c. order that they may the better hear This must be the reason, I suppose, the petitions and complaints of the that the thundering of drums-can- people.

A WALK TO PAESTUM, LUCOSIA, &c. « Of all the objects that lie with- across the bay; such objects, and · in the compass of an excursion from such reflections inseparably united Naples,” says Mr. Eustace, “ Paeg- with them, can never entirely lose tum, though the most distant, is, their hold on the heart. At the Torre perhaps, the most curious and most there is a tolerable inn, tolerable at interesting." We had long been in- least for the kingdom of Naples; we timately persuaded of the verity of secured beds for the night and dined this assertion; we had frequently had there, and then walked on to Pomour curiosity and emulation excited peii, which is about a mile distant, by travellers returned thence; we to spend again a few hours in its imhad long been in the habit of saying pressive solitude. It has always to ourselves and friends, that it was seemed to us very singular, that a great shame we had not been to Pompeii should have remained unPaestum, and still we never girded discovered until so late a period, and ourselves up to get rid of this blot in that antiquaries should have so long our scutcheon. At length we re- erred about its situation, one supsolved to go during the Easter fes- posing it to be buried under the roots tival ; “ all the world” will be at of Vesuvius, another giving it a local Rome, said we; it will be delightful habitation under the Torre dell' Anwalking weather: we accordingly nunziata ; one putting it at the town furnished ourselves with passports, of Scafati, on the modern banks of for, now, one can hardly move from the Sarno, and another bringing it the capital without them, and on a pretty near to Naples; for on looking fine morning took to the road. at the long, abrupt, curious ridge

To get beyond the ken of the smart of volcanic results that cover it, on city in decent style, and to begin our reading the Peutinger table of roads; journey with agio e commodità, we the passage in Seneca, lib. vi. in hired a shattered, springless country which its site is rather clearly fixed; callesso, with a lame horse to carry on remembering that a little village, us as far as the town of La Torre raised on the spot, was called La Cidell' Annunziata. This road, along vità ; that in many places masses of the shores of the bay, we had very ruins were not three feet below the often passed, but no familiarity level of the soil ; that the labourers with it can deaden one to the sense of were continually digging up pieces its beauty: the immediate vicinity of of worked marble, and other ancient the scorched Vesuvius rising stark objects; and that in several places into the blue sky; the smoke emitted they had even laid open the walls; lazily from the crater, and rolling if, from being aware of the indifslowly down its sides, or floating ference of the government and naaway in long dull masses; the black tion to such objects,* we are not stripes which, from the summit to surprised that excavations were not the base, descend in every imaginable begun centuries ago; yet we are still distortion ;, the strange lights and utterly at a loss to conceive how a shades which checker the whole local writer could be ignorant of its breadth and height of the mountain; real situation. In 1689 some excathe smiling green vineyards, and vations were made in the eastern white towns, and villages, which are flank of Vesuvius, and various mobelted around its base; and the con- numents and inscriptions were dissciousness that those vineyards may covered; even then apparently no be in flames, or those villages in great curiosity was excited, and it ruins before to-morrow's sun flashes was not until 1748, thirty-seven years


* Herculaneum for seventeen years following its discovery remained untouched ; the memorable, the sublime ruins of Paestum remained for centuries in oblivion, or known only to the neighbouring peasant or passing fisherman ; the laborious Cluverius visited them, and brought them into a little notice in 1610 ; but more than another century passed before a satisfactory description of them was given ; this was done by Antonini in his “ Lucania ;” but it was a French architect, and some English artists and men of letters, about 1750, that spread their fame.

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