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from the time that Herculaneum was titudes that are said to have thronged first discovered, and in the tenth her festivals find entrance here ? A year of the excavations of that place branch of the Sarno, seen darkly and under Charles III. which were still silently gliding on under the temple prosecuted, when some extensive of Isis, is very striking ; did it not run ruins were dug up by some peasants, anciently in the same channel? In that the site of Pompeii was decided, the temple there is an ancient pasand excavations undertaken by the sage that leads down to the stream, government.

and also the frame of a well, which Pompeii, city of the forgotten, thy seems to be ancient; indeed it does busy thousands are vanished, thy not seem to us a far-fetched conjechouses are dismantled, thy amphi. ture to suppose that this channel, said theatre is overgrown with grass, 'thy to be the work of Nicola di Alagna, tombs are rifled, thy temples ruined'; count of Sarno, was merely cleared and the very ashes that lay deep in out and repaired by him, and that it the double security of the sepulchre is in fact a work of the ancient inbaand the piled mountain, have been bitants of the place.* Plain evia distributed to enrich museums, or dis- dences of the tremendous earthquake persed upon the winds. Thou seem- which, in the year A.D. 63, viz. sixest like one risen from the dead, a teen years before the final sepulture, shadow of the past, a vision of the almost laid the city in ruins, are future. There is an eloquence in visible at every step; and some thy silent streets that far exceeds of the edifices seem to have been that of human tongues; it tells a building for the first time when they mournful and an awful tale, of man's were buried. glory and littleness, of his brief hour The stage of the theatres seems of pride and bustle, and of the long, miserably shallow and cramped; and long ages of dishonour and of oblivi- as the two only entrances to it are on that await him! Little new can in front of the audience, there could be said of Pompeii, and, to judge by have been but little theatrical illuthe annual crowds of English that sion, and no stage effect or pomp ; flock to it, it will soon be almost as nor storms, or sieges, or conflagrawell known at home as any of our tions, or regiments of horse, or real London lions; a few things have been elephants, could have astonished the discovered lately, but very few: the eye here. But as for illusion it was labours were almost entirely stopped certainly little studied when actors during the constitution, and but an wore large unnatural masks, and a inconsiderable number of hands have statue of a consul, pro-consul, or been employed since: at the time we other personage, frowned over the were there a large edifice had been late stage in a niche full in front of the ly excavated, to which the Antiquity audience. Director General, the Cavaliere Ar- The greater part of Pompeii is dito (who is at times very ardito, built of lava, the ancient product of bold, in these matters) had not yet the same volcano, whose latter regiven a name; it is a large square, sults buried and concealed it for sợ apparently with a portico on each many ages. side, in an elevated chamber, pro- The next day we left the Torre bably an ædicula: two pretty good dell'Annunziata on foot, about six statues in niches have been discover- o'clock; the morning was delightful, ed uninjured, and some paintings on the air was thin and clear, and the the walls under the porticos, equal smoke hung low on the slopes of to any thing of the sort found at Vesuvius. About eight o'clock we Pompeii, are now exposed to view. passed through the town, or large The puppet-show proportions and scattered village of Scafati

, and smallness of the temple of Isis, as a crossed the “ Mitis Sarnus,” a fine whole, are strangely at variance with piece of pure water: its channel is the reported popularity of that god- very neatly kept: there are a good dess's worship. How did the mul- many mills here, for the most part

This channel was to supply the town of La Torre with water; it was opened towards the middle of the fifteenth century, under Alfonso I. In all cases it must have gone through Pompeii.

employed in grinding creta (pipe hastening through the town, attractclay) to make porcellana fina, an ar- ing attention by our picturesque peticle which in humble English is destrian equipments, we met a Neacalled crockery-ware. After leaving politan friend, who kindly invited us the Sarno we began to descry nume- to stay and dine at his country-house, rous ruins of castles on precipitous a short distance from Nocera. On heights, formerly the retreat of the our way he took us to an ancient Saracens, who long struggled with temple, now the church of Santa the Lombards for these fertile re- Maria Maggiore, which stands about gions; as we advanced the moun- a mile from Nocera, and about half tains closed in the plain, which winds that distance to the left of the Sabeautifully among them, being all lerno road, near a village called Le the way well cultivated and exceed- Taverne. Few travellers go out of ingly fertile ; a true scene of Campa- their way for it; and to speak of it, as nia Felix,—and how beautiful is the we saw it, it certainly does not much ancient, the fruitful Campania ! merit a sacrifice of convenience, and Ausonum tellus generosa salve,

has little to justify the inflated deUrbium mater, numero nepotum

scription of Romanelli. The flooring In dies felix, genitrixque frugum

of this small temple is twelve or Ubere læto.

fifteen feet below the present surface Te canam flavæ Cereris venustam of the soil; in consequence it is not Spiceo serto, segetumque ditem, unfrequently flooded, and thus hasPrata qua Sarnum rigat usque Liris tened on in its progress to ruin. The Flumine leni.

form is circular and the roof a dome; Ant. Sanfelicii Carmina Juvenilia.

a conca or large marble basin that We walked through Pagani, a long offers nothing particular, and that borgo, where we observed nothing scarcely seems to be ancient, stands but great preparations for eating, and in the midst, and occupies one-third the pertinacity and insolence of a of the whole temple ; a double row troop of beggars that followed howl- of columns, one row almost touching ing after us; in about another quar- the other, runs midway between the ter of an hour we reached Nocera de' conca and the walls ; of these columns Pagani, a borgo larger than Pagani; fifteen are of the Corinthian order, here also we saw striking prepara- without bases: eight pillars, about tions for the Easter feast; the butchers' ten feet high, which supported a shops were decorated with small little dome, were round the elevated Jambs, quarters of beef, &c. covered edge of the conca, but only four with gildings; and by the door of broken ones are now standing. In two or three of them stood a bullock the workmanship of the columns with a gay chaplet of flowers round there is nothing fine: Romanelli says his neck, waiting with enviable in the materials are alabaster, granite, difference the moment of his destruc- and giallo antico; they are thickly tion, in form and expression precise- crusted with green mould; but, as far ly like the animal we have frequente as could be ascertained by a little ly seen on ancient relievi, being con- scratching with our penknives, we ducted by a set of grim-looking fel- should judge them to be of no such lows with large hammers in their valuable stuff. This temple suffered hands to the more magnificent finale a change common to innumerable of of a temple sacrifice. We saw large its fellows, and altars and figures piles of eggs stained with a pink of saints still occupy the niches of colour, and heaps of loaves stuck the ancient Gods; the accidents, with whole eggs, and made to imi- however, to which it was exposed, tate the crown of thorns; and hams, drove the priests to seek a drier spot, sausages, and other good things, met and they consequently built a little our eyes at every glance. It is real- church, that is attached to the temly curious to see with what earnest- ple, but at a level that exempts it ness these people emancipate them- from inundation. The temple, the selves. from the penance of Lent; ancient hallowed abode of purity, is Easter Sunday is a day of gorging, now a foul cemetery: two moveable “ chump, chew, and swallow” is the stone flags give access to the vaults word, and they eat as though they underneath; one of these is inscribed were eating for wagers. As we were pro mulieribus, the other pro sacerdon tibus

as if the worthy gentlemen of they do by blowing a cow-horn; the cassock were anxious to keep when the birds are near the tower, aloof, even in death, from the con- the slingers hurl one of the white tagious vicinity of women. On the stones in the air, before them, directside of the conca, the scene of ablu, ing it so as to fall by the nets; the tion and the typical purification, was birds, on seeing the stone falling, lying the Sporta de' morti, a kind of plunge after it, and are thus taken in butcher's tray in form, broken and flights. The people are so expert, dirty, for carrying dead bodies on. and this odd manner of bird-catching

From the temple we proceeded to is so efficacio that sometimes two our friend's house, at a place called hundred brace are taken at one tower Peccoraro, passing on our way through in the course of a day. two villages; there we had a good Villages, convents, castles, and herdinner, and found a curious little mitage3, variegate the heights in the book, descriptive of the country, neighbourhood of La Cava. This written towards the end of the 16th town is situated at the mouth of the century, by a certain Monsignore ravine, at the highest point to which Lunadoro, Bishop of Nocera. The the road ascends; it chiefly consists reverend prelate speaks with jus- of a long wide street; arcades protifiable warmth of the beauty, the fer- ject from the houses all the way tility, and cultivation of the Nocera along, and a number of shops, coffeevalley; he expatiates with delight houses, &c. give it the appearance of on his two or three villas, and affirms a thriving place. Here too every that no prelate in Italy can be better thing was prophesying the near aplodged: but what tickled us was a proach of good eating.. We were curious story of an inundation of the pestered by a set of bawling vetturini valley, which had such an effect on who did not approve of our walking the women, that none of them bore on foot: coachmen and gentry of that children for two years after. The class are troublesome insolent fellows holy celibataire evinces laudable dread in every land under the welkin: we and horror at this pause in popula- remember how frequently in Engtion, but does not attempt to explain land, when on a pedestrian trip, our the phenomenon. The valley of No- reveries have been interrupted with a cera is closed in by mountains, ex- “ Won't you get up, gem'men?"cept on the side towards Naples, “Won't yetake a lift?" of some passwhere Vesuvius is seen in the dist- ing Jehu; but in this country the ance; the mountains of La Cava rogues are more pertinacious, they are on the east, Monte Albino on the will not take a refusal, and here at south, and Monte Sussolano on the La Cava they were more tormenting north; two fine streams assist its than we had ever seen them before; fertility, and a number of ruined cas- perhaps this was the effect of the tles on the peaks of the mountains stupidity for which the Cavaioli are give romantic features to its en- renowned—they are the butt of the closures. From Peccoraro, we soon wits of all the neighbouring towns, regained the high road, and began and the absurd stories current at ascending to the town of La Cava. their expense are innumerable. As we advanced, we saw many tall On issuing from the town, we athin towers on the mountain sides; gain quitted the high road, to visit some of these we had seen from Pec- the celebrated monastery of La Tricoraro, and our friend had explained nità della Cava, to which the town their use. In the months of Septem- owed its birth, or its importance. A ber and October, when the palombe pleasant winding road to the right, or wild pigeons are on their course to that ascends considerably among

the other latitudes, they pass in flocks mountains, brought us before the through this defile; then experienced narrow simple brick façade of this men ascend these towers with slings, magnificent establishment. It is nestand large white stones; wide nets are led among wooded heights ; its great spread among trees near at hand; length runs along the edge of a raand watchmen are stationed on the vine, into which several little cashigher points of the mountains, to cades fall and froth: shading moungive notice of the approach of the tains, cool waving trees, falling flights of birds to the slingers, which waters, and the saline breeze from


the bay of Salerno, render it a most centum millia. Rursum si ad me venerit delicious summer abode. The inte dabo tibi mille millia aureas—et tota ex rior of the monastery is vast and im- topaseon coronam, insuper sex millia de posing ; fine flights of stairs, lofty terra Asia milliaria quin etiam super corridors of immense length, suites

omnes Patricios meos ti collocabo Legionem of elegant apartments, large halls Vulgarum unam et Persarum alteram, Arpainted and carved, and every thing de Europam, Subiciatque tibi Asiæ regnæ

menorum tertiam, quin etiàm Normannos within, seems at variance with the omnia. Vale prime consul. mean front, which however could not be made larger, as a rock on one

(Risposta) side, and the precipice on the other,

Augusto Imperator Carolus. prescribe its width.

The extreme Grates referrimus multas vobis de tot cleanliness of the place, and the po- muneribus quod mihi promittistis. Sed ho. lite refined manners of the Bene- norem vobis nullum fecistis, quando Condictines, delighted us much : the Su- sulem, me scripsistis. Quoniam licet hoperior, the Abate Maznacani, pre- norem et terram habeas majorem centudserves at a very advanced age all the pliciter quantum est Asia, quantum Eu. vivacity of youth; he spoke like a

ropam et Africam, tamen caput mundi man of considerable learning, and adventum sciatis ad vos non veniam nisi

Roma est, quam teneo.

De mio autem like a gentleman, and gave few in- quando resurgunt mortui. Valete et scias, dications of the confined spirit of a quia mando tibi centum canes. monastery. The monks, who only amount to twenty, are all men of

We hastened on our way from the good families; each has an apart" monastery, warned by the approach ment of three or four rooms, and a of evening. The rest of our walk private servant to wait upon him; presented a succession of beautiful the fraternity directs a clerical semis pictures, which were from time to nary, and the students are well time enlivened by large troops of lodged on the first floor of the build- peasants retiring to their homes to ing. This monastery, after that of enjoy the Easter feast; they had Monte Casino, is the most respect their sugar. loaf hats wreathed with able Benedictine establishment in the branches of olive; they carried their kingdom; its very considerable wealth zappe over their shoulders, and for of course subjected it to suppression the most part went along singing. under the French government. Fer- A short distance from La Čava there dinand, on his return in 1815, restored is a pleasant little manufacturing it, and allotted the society a pension village, buried in a hollow to the of 15,000 ducats per annum; a very right of the road : a narrow high scanty equivalent for what had been arched little aqueduct strides over taken from it. In the apartment of the ravine; a babbling stream that is the Abate a few pictures remain, but curiously parted off by diverging none of first order: one or two Carlo stone channels to drive mills and Dolces served to strengthen our opi- bleach cloth, runs in the bottom; the nion of his being one of the most houses are exceedingly neat; and a barley-sugar painters of the Italian number of tall poplars, and paths schools. The library contains a very winding up the hills, give verdure valuable collection of Lombard co

and variety to the scene. As we addices, of grants, letters, and other vanced, and the sun declined, the valuable documents of the middle scenery was enchanting : heights rose ages. With the assistance of the li- above heights behind La Cava, some brarian, we transcribed the two fol- green and tufted with trees, others lowing delightful morceaux ; see to covered with shrubs and brown herbwhat a state the language of Cicero age, and others again stony and and Virgil had fallen in the ninth bare, their tops covered with snowcentury, and understand the whole all sorts of light playing on them, of the Emperor of the East's, if you and all sorts of colour from dark can!

shade to sunny brightness, from purLettera dell' Imperatore d'Oriente

ple to golden yellow, To our right a Carlo Magnor.

hand, serpentine roads led up to ro

mantic villages-high on the mounAugustus Imperator Patricii, Carolus tain, to our left, were wooded declivisalutat. Mando scias quoniam tibi aureas ties, on which frolicsome goats were shaking their clattering bells, and ducing an effect. We followed a between the opening mountains we crowd into one of the Salernitan caught before us a refreshing glimpse churches : the high altar was fesof the blue sea. At length we reach- tooned with white drapery, and was ed Vietri, a large flourishing town blazing with countless wax-lights; a that straggles down to the sea shore, small chapel at the side of the high to a convenient little port, where altar was by painting and drapery three or four polaccas were moored. made to represent the interior of a Near the Marina exist several ves- sepulchre, and figures of papier maché tiges of ancient buildings: in an ex- dressed, painted, and gilt, represented cavation made in 1675, a beautiful the personages of the solemn drama. pavement was found, long streets We saw little to harmonize with the were uncovered, and several marble awfulness and mystery of the occaurns dug up, and in more recent ex- sion, and were soon glad to retreat cavations the remains of ancient a- from dazzling candles, singing priests, queducts, pieces of columns, and and a crowding and not over quiet ruined edifices, have been discovered.* multitude. According to Romanelli and others, The following day (Good Friday) this was the site of the ancient city we remained at Salerno : we spent of Marcina, founded by the Etru- part of the morning in the cathedral, rians during their occupation of these of which, we suppose, we must say a territories, and, in fact, its situation few words. Around the court yard agrees perfectly with that assigned before the church is a colonnade of by Strabo to the ancient town. Vietri different and discordant ancient pilis at the end of the defile; beyond it lars, which are doubly sacrificed unthe road slopes along precipices over der brick arches; in the middle of the sea; the whole bay of Salerno the square is a large granite tazza, then opens gloriously to the eye; we sixty-six palms in circumference, now saw the Lucanian ridge of moun- converted into the basin of a bubtains ending in the classical cape of bling fountain ; it is not, however, Leucosia ; our eyes wandered over faithful to the last; for age or viothe wide desert plains of Paestum, lence has made a long crack in the and near at hand caught the white porphyry, through which the water populous town of Salerno, stretched continually leaks, and forms a shalalong the beach, and backed by a low puddle in the court. Under the ruined castle on a hill above. The arcades are several old sarcophagi sun, however, had now set, and we with rude relievi. The interior of hurried on: we entered Salerno be- the cathedral is spacious, but not fore seven o'clock, and soon enjoyed grand ; there is a great deal of gaiety, in our humble inn the sweets of re- tasteless mosaic; there are several freshment and repose, with a zest Sarcophagi with very heathenish that pedestrian travellers alone can sculpture, yet they have all been know.

impressed into orthodox service, and As we were making our way to one of them seems to have been the our locanda, streams of people were “ last home ” of a doughty Christian, floating through the streets, going as it is covered by a marble lid that from church to church per vedere li is sculptured, with the figure of a Sepolcri. It is the custom to erect warrior lying on his back, whose these puppet-shows a day or two be- cross-hilted sword reaches to his toes, fore Good Friday; in Naples, the which two little animals, meant for Royal family goes on foot to visit dogs, seem to be eating. We obsome of the more distinguished, and served one or two other effigies simiall the population (such as can, lar to this, we could not make out dressed in black) swarm to gaze at the inscription, but think they may them. From noon on Holy Thurs- represent Templars, or some other day, till noon on the next day, no holy men of war. In the afterioon carriages are permitted to move in we ascended to the castle, which is the town, the soldiers carry their such a picturesque object, seen from arms reversed, and several other stu- below; the town reaches a good way died means

are adopted for pro- up the hill, which is steep. On our way


Baron Antonini's Lacania.

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