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tives of their property. Under pre- clares that, because King James was tence of a judicial inquiry into de- a descendant of Milesius, they bore fective titles, a system of spoliation it all in honour of their ancestor ! was established throughout the whole “Like the Irishman lately, (adds Capcountry, and the possessions of every tain Rock,) who was nearly murdered man placed at the mercy of any crea- on St. Patrick's day, but forgave his ture of the crown, who could detect assailant, for the sake of the Saint!” a flaw or failure in his title.” By Sir John Davies on the other hand way of rendering this state process (he was the King's Attorney-Genequite impartial, every jury who re- ral), takes a different, but certainly fused to find a title in the king was not less novel view of the matter. fined in the star-chamber and com- He says that “ the multitude, being mitted to prison. Of course, as we may brayed, as it were in a mortar, with suppose, juries in general were ra- sword, famine, and pestilence together deaf to arguments in favour of ther, (a blessed compound !) submitthe possessor: but, for the honour of ted themselves to the English gohuman nature, we are glad to subjoin vernment, received the laws and mathat on some occasions, all personal gistrates, and most gladly embraced considerations were merged in the King James's pardon and peace in noble principles of justice ; the un- all parts of the realm with demonavailing struggle however only added strations of joy and comfort!” Now, to the victims those men who had that our friends on the other side of dared conscientiously to vindicate the water have been sometimes acthem. In one case, a whole county cused of a little intellectual confusion was swept into the treasury by this we are aware, but still it is clear process.“ In the year 1611 (says that they must be greatly improved Leland) on the seizure of the county in this respect since the days of Sir of Wexford, when, upon a commis- John Davies. We would not vension to inquire out his Majesty's ture this upon our own authority, title to the county, the jury offered but having personally conferred with their verdict of ignoramus' to the several Irish gentlemen who have king's title, the commissioners re- come over here to study the law, fused to accept it, and bound the jury they declared, one and all, that there to appear before them in the Exche- are now very rare instances, at least, quer court, where, when five of them in their counties, of persons who constill refused to find the title in the sider that “ being brayed in a morking, the commissioners committed tar with sword, famine, and pestithem to prison!” Captain Rock, lence together," is at all contributory upon this subject, has converted a to personal comfort. To be sure, we jest of Fielding's into rhyme, which, have not asked them what they if the critic should say has not the thought of any of these ingredients poet's fire, the historian may vindi- separately. Indeed, the Irish are cate by adding, that it wants his fic- monstrously improved since the tion.
Union. To whatever cause this
alarming tranquillity is attributable, The Irish had long made a deuce of a it seems to have created much dejecclatter,
tion in the family of the Rocks-the And wrangled, and fought about meum following fine ode was composed on et luum,
the occasion, the translation of which Till England stept in and decided the is modestly described as by no means
matter, By kindly converting it all into suum.
conveying the abrupt and bursting
energy of the original. It is a curious fact that this reign,
RUPES sonant carmina. Virgil marked, as we see it was, by religious persecution and civil rapine, Where art thou, Genius of Riot ? was yet distinguished by the absence Where is thy yell of defiance ? of almost all popular commotion! Why are the Sheas and O'Shaughnessies The annalists are grievously posed to account for this anomaly, and the And whither have fled the O'Rourkes and solutions attempted by some of them,
O'Briens ? both English and Irish, are ludicrous Up from thy slumber, O'Brannigan ! in the extreme. Mr. O'Halloran den Rouse the Slac Shanes and O'Haggerties !
gart 'tis !”
Courage, Sir Corney O'Toole-be a man woman, or child, might be killed by again
any body who saw or met them ;'Never let Heffernan say—“What a brag. while their estates, which at that time
constituted at least nine tenths of the Oh! when rebellion's so feasible,
landed property of the country, were Where is the kern would be slinking off ? divided among his officers and solCon OF THE BATTLES! what makes you diers, and among those adventurers so peaceable ?
who had advanced money for the NIAL THE GRAND! wbat the devil are
Such was Cromwell's way of you thinking of?....
settling the affairs of Ireland--and, The reign of Charles I. represented if a nation is to be ruined, this perin Ireland by the splendid but in- haps is as good a way as any. It is famous Strafford, aggravated as far at least more humane than the slow, as it was possible the atrocities of lingering process of exclusion, disJames. His government in Ireland appointment, and degradation, by was, on a small scale, a perfect mo- which their hearts are worn out undel of despotism, combining all the der more specious forms of tyranny." brute coercion of the East with all Cromwell was afraid, we suppose, the refined perfidy and machiavelism that his Christianity might be susof the West, and giving full rein to pected if he deviated from the Gostalents of the nobl breed, in the pel conduct of his legitimate predemost unbounded career of oppression cessors; and, to put all suspicion out and injustice. In one of his letters of the question, he determined to imhe asserts, “ now the King is as ab- prove on it. He actually set the price solute here as any prince in the whole of five pounds upon the head of a world can be.” There was, however, priest, being the exact sum at which a lustre thrown round the bad acts he had previously rated the head of a of this man by“ those rare abilities of wolf! Cromwell, who, like the dehis, of which (says Lord Digby) God vil, could quote scripture to his purgave him the use, but the Devil the pose, told his troops that they were application.” We must let Captain to treat the Irish as Joshua treated Rock himself epitomise the sway of the Canaanites, and accordingly “ all Cromwell-we have not the vanity the spoils of the cities and the cattle to think ourselves capable of im- they took for a prey unto themselves, proving language which patriotism and every man they smote with the seems to have inspired and genius edge of the sword, until they had polished. “As if no possible change destroyed them; neither left they of circumstances could exempt this any to breathe.” Acting, no doubt, wretched people from suffering, after upon this scripture principle, he prohaving been so vigorously persecuted mised the garrison of Drogheda quarand massacred under the Royal go- ter, and, on their şurrender, began a vernment, as rebels, they were now massacre which lasted five days! “I still more vigorously persecuted and wish, (said he, after narrating this massacred under the parliamentary exploit to parliament,) that all honest government, as royalists; and what hearts may give the glory of this to with the Lords Justices on one side, God alone, to whom indeed the praise and Cromwell and Ireton on the of THIS MERCY belongs."—When the other, assisted by a pestilence which usurpation of Cromwell closed, it was was the least cruel enemy of the supposed, as a matter of course, that whole, they were at last reduced to the Irish, who were the last defena state very nearly realizing that ders of the Royal cause, would have long-desired object of English policy received their merited remuneration. their extirpation. Little more in- It would seem however to be really deed was left of the Catholic popu- their fate to be equally ill-treated whelation than was barely sufficient to ther they were loyal or rebellious ! give life to the desolate region of The very first act of Charles II. on his Connaught, into which they were restoration, was to declare that they now driven like herds of cattle by had been conquered by his Majesty's Cromwell, under the menace of a protestant suhjects (Cromwell, Ireton, proclamation, that, all of them and Co.), and that their estates bewho, after that time, should be found came vested in the crown!!~~ Thus, in any other part of the kingdom, man, (exclaims Lord Clare, in his speech
on the Union,) Beven millions eight dience was at that time in actual hundred thousand acres of land were possession of the government! So set out to a motley crew of English little was common sense consulted, adventurers, civil and military, near- or the mere decency of forms obo ly to the total exclusion of the old served, by that rapacious spirit which inhabitants of the island. And thus, nothing less than the confiscation a new colony of new settlers, com- of the whole island could satisfy." posed of all the various sects which After James's departure the people then infested England - Independents, maintained a brave but ineffectual Anabaptists, Seceders, Brownists, So- struggle; it was terminated by the cinians, Millenarians, and Dissenters capitulation of Limerick on the faith of every description, many of them of articles, by which the Roman Cainfected with the leaven of demo- tholics were guaranteed liberty of cracy, poured into Ireland, and were conscience and security of property. put into possession of the ancient in- These articles were solemnly ratified heritance of its inhabitants.”—The under the great seal of England. reign of James II. was more disas. The wax was not cold, however, trous, if possible, to the Irish than when the foundation of the penal any which preceded it, and disas- code was laid, and acts were passed trous solely from their loyalty. James, for disarming the papists—for baas is well known, took refuge in Ire nishing the regular clergy out of the land, making in that country his last kingdom-for preventing Catholics stand against his son-in-law-or ra- from intermarrying with Protestants, ther his last run from him ; for had and a variety of others which it is James stood his ground as he ought, revolting to remember, and would be his case would have been far from still more so to repeat! This was desperate. But James did not choose followed by the additional confiscato put “ his life upon a cast," nor tion of one million, sixty thousand, would he stand any “hazard " what- seven hundred and ninety-two acres! soever. Change Kings with us It is stated as a curious fact, that at (exclaimed a captain in Sarsfield's the time of the capitulation of Limeregiment,) and we'll fight it over rick, William had actually a proclaagain with you.” The Irish Catho- mation prepared and about to be lics have attached to this monarch a promulgated, offering to the Catholics very homely appellation, in conse- the free exercise of their religion, half quence of his conduct at the battle of the church establishment of Ireland, the Boyne. The situation of the Irish and the moiety of their ancient proat the revolution of 1688 may well be perties ! “ This was called (says considered by Captain Rock as ano- Leland) the secret proclamation, bemalous. “ If they were loyal to the cause, though printed, it was never King de jure, they were hanged by published, having been suppressed the King de facto; and if they es- on the first intelligence of the treaty caped with life from the King de facto, of Limerick.” The Catholics, howit was but to be plundered and pro- ever, have no great cause to regret scribed by the King de jure afterwards. this suppression, unless they can atHac gener atque socer coeant mercede suç mise of a King than to his signature,
tach more credit to the naked pro-Virgil
backed by the great seal of England. In a manner, so summary, prompt, .and The conscience which swallowed a high-mettled,
treaty would not have been very apt "Twixt father aud son-in-law matters were to strain at a proclamation. Captain settled.
Rock, however, certainly does seem “ In fact, most of the outlawries in to attach to King William a character Ireland were for treason committed for liberality, for which, in his Irish the very day on which the Prince conduct at least, we confess we do and Princess of Orange accepted the not see the justification. The reason crown in the Banqueting-house; given is contained in this extract though the news of this event could from a letter written by him to the not possibly have reached the other Emperor before his expedition to Engside of the channel on the same day, land. “ I ought to entreat your Imand the Lord Lieutenant of king perial Majesty to be assured, that I James with an army to enforce obe- will employ all my credit to provide
that the Roman Catholics of that hackney coachmen prayed the House country may enjoy liberty of con- “ that it might be enacted, that none science, and be put out of fear of but protestant hackney coachmen might being persecuted on account of their have liberty to keep and drive hackney religion.” Unfortunately, however, coaches !” Swift, with inimitable huthe promises of men out of office, mour, improves upon this by gravely and their practice in it, are very dif- declaring that, if the Dublin cries ferent things, nor can we see any are allowed to continue “they ought thing in William's conduct to Ire to be only trusted in the hands of proland after his accession to incline us, testants, who had given security to the against the scripture precept, tó government." These were followed put “ faith in princes.” That the up by a proposal actually made in Irish Protestants estimate his friend the Irish House, “ which," says ship more highly than the Irish Ca. Captain Rock, “I know not how to tholics have any cause to do his describe, except by saying, that it faith, appears from the fact that he deserves, perhaps, par excellence, the is to this day the idol of the Orange- designation of a penal law, and by men. A standing toast of their lodges referring for the atrocious particulars (if indeed that can be well called a to Curry, Plowden, and other bisstanding toast which is seldom given torians.' On the subject of this prountil they are unable to stand) is posal, which materially interested the contained in the following very pious Roman Catholic clergy, we cannot and patriotic sentence~Come, my possibly be more minute than the boys-I give you the glorious, pious, delicacy of the Captain has precluded and immortal memory of the great him from being. We may, however, and good King William, who saved just add, that if it was intended in us from Pope and Popery, James aid of their canonical vow of celiand slavery, wooden shoes and brass bacy, the “wisdom of our ancestors” money-here, my boys, here's bad never yet devised a measure more luck to the Pope, and a hempen pertinent to its purpose. The cabirope to all papists" -(nine times nine net of England rejected it with inon their knees)!!! The reigns of Anne dignation. and George 1 complete the account Captain Rock, the present autoof Captain Rock's ancestors. This biographer, was born in the year period is lightly passed over, as be- 1763, on the very day “ on which ing chiefly occupied in the perfection good father Sheehy, the parish priest of the penal code, which they brought of Clogheen, was hanged at Clonmell at last to so high a degree of polish on the testimony of a perjured witas to extort for it from Burke the fol- ness, for a crime of which he was as lowing no very enviable eulogium innocent as the child unborn.” As “ It was truly a machine of wise and tithe matters seemed likely to ocelaborate contrivance, and as well cupy much of the attention of the fitted for the impoverishment, oppres- family, and as he happened to be a sion, and degradation of a people, and tenth son, it struck his father that the the debasement in them of human na- ancient Irish mode of dedicating the ture itself, as ever proceeded from the tenth child to the service of the perverted ingenuity of man.” The fol- church might be revived in his perlowing prayers of petitions, extracted son with considerable propriety. He from the journals of the Irish House accordingly had him christened Deof Commons, prove how completely cimus, and resolved, if his talent lay Christianity had at that time infused that way, to bring him up exclusiveits divine spirit into all classes, howe ly to the tithe department. Another ever humble, of the people. One was motive which induced him to this presented by the protestant porters of step was, the existence of the followDublin, against one Darby Ryan, ing prophecy in the family, to which, “a captain under the late King like a good catholic, he clung tenaJames and a papist, notoriously dis- ciously in the days of his dejection. affected, who bought up whole cargoes As long as Ireland shall pretend, of coals, and employed those of his own
Like sugar loaf turn'd upside down, persuasion to carry the same to his cus- To stand upon its smaller end, tomers!” Another from the Dublin So long shall live old Rock's renown.
As long as popish spade and scythe been occupied by the deceased Abe-
rary property-on the contrary, the While thousands proudly turn away,
famous war for the rape of Helen And to the millions answer “nay
was but a skirmish to that which So long the merry reign shall be
arose on the enlevement of the schoolOf Captain Rock and his family.
master; and, after alternate victo
ries and defeats on both sides, the The education of the Captain is contest ended by leaving our party in ushered in by a chapter on the va- peaceable possession of the pedarious public boards and institutions, gogue, who remained contentedly for the instruction of youth, esta- amongst us many years, to the no blished by the government in Ireland, small increase of Latin in the neighwhich those who wish for much bourhood. Such, gentle reader, is amusing information on that subject the unceremonious way in which would do well to read; they are matters of love, law, and learning summed up by the author as one of are settled among us.
Whether the the means of effectually “ benight- desired object be cattle, young ladies, ing, beggaring, and brutalizing the or schoolmasters, abduction is the Irish people." His own immediate process resorted to most commonly.” tuition was entrusted to one of the The principal books which these indigenous pedagogues of the soil worthy preceptors select as manuals usually denominated “hedge-school for their young pupils, are given in masters," from the antiquity of the an accurate catalogue: the reader place in wbich the academy was will not fail to remark, that “ Moll held-namely, the open air. Captain Flanders” is amongst them. By the Rock thinks his school ought rather bye, this book seems to be particuto have been denominated a univer- larly obnoxious to the Roman Cathosity, because “ the little students lic clergy–whether it is from their having first received the rudiments habitual continence we know not, of their education in a ditch, were but one and all, they have met and from thence promoted in due time, to disclaimed poor Moll Flanders ! graduate under the hedge.” The fol- “ Come one, come all,” however, the lowing humourous account of the authority of Captain Rock is not abduction of a schoolmaster is given to be disputed. In whatever odour as a custom formerly by no means Moll may now be, it clearly apuncommon-a similar account is in- pears that she was once a favourite deed to be found in Lady Morgan's this seems the age, however, for great Sketches in Ireland. “A few miles men to forego their predilections. from our village, on the other side of The state of Ireland, from the rethe river, there was a schoolmaster volution, till, in fact, the year 1782, of much renown and some Latin, is described as one of complete dewhose pupils we had long envied for pendence upon England. The Irish their possession of such an instructor, parliament was a kind of “ chapel of and still more, since we had been ease to that of Westminster-every deprived of our own. At last, upon bill was subject to the censure of a consulting with my brother graduates Privy Council
, and the revision of an of the hedge, a bold measure was English Attorney General—in short, resolved upon, which I had the ho- the country had as little to do with nour of being appointed leader to the proceedings of the legislature, as carry into effect. One fine moon- a corpse has with the inquest the light night, crossing the river in full coroner holds over it.”. Government, force, we stole upon the slumbers of however, was obliged to keep some the unsuspecting schoolmaster, and of the great families in pay, so as to carrying him off in triumph from his exhibit some decent show of debate disconsolate disciples, placed him and disquisition, but, in time, these down in the same cabin that had “ undertakers," as they were called,
The Irish term for a protestant or Englishman.