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the world, wretched, friendless, and pier moments it makes me melanalone.

choly-in sorrow it is a comfort. I The letter, which I received from have preserved it for many years, her on the day subsequent to her de- and, come what will, it shall go parture, is to me alternately a source down to the grave with me. of pleasure and pain. In my hap


title page.


MAYNARD'S TWELVE WONDERS. This is one of the most curious he very gallantly and piously wishes volumes published at the beginning “ Nestor's yeeres on Earth, and anof the seventeenth century; it is a gel's happinesse in Heaven." thin folio of twenty-four leaves, in- seems he had formerly taught her cluding the musical notes ; and is daughters musick, and had written sufficiently described in the following and composed his present work under

her hospitable roof. The XII Wonders of the World, set The twelve Wonders consist of as and composed for the Violl de Gambo, many songs or madrigals, the subthe Lute, and the Voyce to sing the jects being twelve moral and virtuous Verse, all three ioyntly, and none seue. characters in human life, such as an rall: also Lessons for the Lute and honest courtier, a religious divine, Base Violl to play alone : with some modest soldier, upright lawyer, &c. Lessons to play Lyra-wayes alone, or of the harmony and melody of master if you wil, to fill up the parts, with Maynard's musical notes we are no another Violl set Lute-way, newly com- judges, seeing that they are unintelposed by John Maynard Lutenist at ligible to us, but the merit in some the most famous Schoole of St. Julians of the lines, added to the good sense, in Hartfordshire. London, Printed by good sentiment, and good feeling that Thomas Snodham for John Browne, display themselves throughout these and are to be solde at his Shop in Saint little metrical compositions, makes Dunstones Church-yard in Fleet- us think that they deserve more gestreete. 1611.

neral notice, and that our readers will Maynard dedicates his musical la- thank us for retrieving some of them bours to the Lady Jane Thynne of from comparative oblivion. Cause-Castle in Shropshire, to whom

The Courtier.
Long haue I lived in court,

Yet learn'd not all this while
To sell poore suters saioake,

Nor, where I hate, to smile;
Superiours to adore, inferiors to despise,

To fly from such as fall,
To follow such as rise :

To cloake a poore desire under a rich aray,
Nor to aspire by vice, though 'twere the quicker way.

The Diuine.
My calling is diuine, and I from God am sent,
I will no chop-church be, nor pay my patron rent:
Nor yeeld to sacriledge, but like the kinde true mother,

Rather will loose the childe, then part it with another.
Top Much wealth I will not seeke, nor worldly masters serue,
So to grow rich and fat, while my poore Hocke doth starue.

The Souldiour.
My occupation is the noble trade, the trade of kings;
The tryall that decides the highest right of things.
Though Mars my maister be, I doe not Venus louc,
Nor honour Bacchus oft, nor often sweare by Ioue.
Of speaking of myselfe I all occasion shunne,
And rather loue to doe, then boast what I haue done.

The Lawyer.
The law my calling is,

My robe, my tongue, my pen
Wealth and opinion gaine,

And make me iudge of men,
The knowne dishonest cause

I never did defend,
Nor spunne out sutes in length,

But wisht and sought an end :
Nor counsaile did bewray

Nor of both parties take;
Nor cuer tooke I fee
For which I never spake.

The Phisition.
I studie to vphold the slippery state of man,
Who dies when we haue done the best and all wee can.
From practice and from bookes I draw my learned skill,
And not from knowne receipt, or Pothecaries bill.
The earth my faults doth hide, the world my cúres doth see,
What youth and time effects is oft ascrib'a to mee.

The Batchelar.
How many things as yet are deare alike to mee!
The field, the horse, the dog, loue, armes, or liberty.
I haue no wife as yet which may call mine owne,
I haue no children yet that by my name are knowne:
Yet if I marryed were, I would not wish to thriue,
If that I could not tame the veriest shrew aliue.

The Marryed Man.
I onely am the man,

Among all married men,
That doe not wish the priest

To be vnlinck'd agen.
And though my shoe did wring,

I would not make my mone,
Nor thinke my neighbour's chance

More happy than mine owne.
Yet court I not my wife, but yield obseruance due,
Being neither fond, nor crosse, nor iealous, nor vntrue.

The Widdoro,
My dying husband knew how much his death would grieuc mee,
And therefore left me wealth to comfort and relieue mee.
Though I no more will haue, I must not loue disdaine,
Penelope herselfe did suitors entertaine.
And yet to draw on such as are of best esteeme,
Nor younger then I am, nor richer will I seeme.

The Maide.
I marriage would forsweare,

But that I heare men tell
That shee that dyes a mayde,

Must lead an ape in hell.
Therefore if fortune come,

I will not mocke and play,
Nor driue the bargain on,

'Till it be driuen away.
Titles and lands I like,

Yet rather fancy can
A man that wanteth gould,

Then gould, that wants a man.

EQUITABLE LOANS. That there is nothing new under Rose, of Saving Banks memory, were the sun, we have been assured by not, perhaps, aware that their plans very good authority, and every day's had been digested and acted upon experience corroborates what the in Italy, and were recommended in wisest of men affirmed. The Equi- England some two centuries before table Loan Company, and George they were born. However, such was the fact. In a manuscript treatise There is a great deal of good sense by Persons the Jesuit, written in displayed in this production of the 1596, and entitled, “ A Memoriall learned Jesuit's, and the following for the reformation of England, con- remarks on the exercises and resitaining certayne notes and aduertise, dence for university degrees coincide ments, which seeme might be pro- so exactly with some more modern posed in the first Parliament and Na- opinions on this subject, that we are tionall Counsell of our Country, after tempted to transcribe the passage. God of his mercy shall restore it to the Catholicke Paith," we find the Taking of Degrees in the Vniversityes. following passage:

The degrees of bacchelours or licentiates It would be of greate importance, that in in Divinity, Law or Physicke were not to every cytie or greate shire-towne, there be given to any but after their full study should be set vppe a poore man's banke or of their courses, to wit of foure yeares treasure, that might be answerable to that hearing in each course, and one or two which is called monte della pieta, in greate yeares more to be allowed to repeate or cities of Italy, to wit, where poore men looke over the said courses agayne, and might either freely, or with very little in- after often publike exercises, and trialls to terest haue' money vpon suretyes, and not be made vpon them in the meane space. be forced so take it vpp at intollerable vsury, And after this degree of licentiate or bacas oftentimes it happeneth to the ytter vn. chelour, other three yeares to be assigned doing of themselfes and the generall hurt for like triall for them, that will pretend of the commonwealth. And for mainte, to proceed doctors: and all these points of nance of these bankes, some rents or stocks triall or taking degrees to be observed of money were to be assigned by the coun- with rigour, and not dispensed with, nor cell of reformation out of the common changed into any contributions, as is now purse at the beginning, and afterwards accustomed, but very rarely and vpon some diuerse good people at their deaths would greate, and extraordinary occasion. For leaue more, and preachers were to be pụt that by this the fame and estimation of our in mind to remember the matter in pulpits, vniversities would be exceeding great in and curates and confessours in all good occa- the world abroad, and our degrees in learnsions, &c.

ing would be holden in greate account, and From a great many

our country would be full of learned men, in this treatise, it seems that its pro- with fewer titles void of substance. And fessors fully anticipated the speedy among other things a provision must be restoration of the Roman Catholic re- in some forraine vniversities of less mo

made, that such degrees as are taken abroad ligion. “God,” says Persons, “will most certainly at his time appointed merit

, may be called to examination agayne,

ment for money only, or favour, without restore the realme of England to the and not allowed of in England without new Catholique faith againe, as may ap- approbation and that vpon merit only. peare by the euident hand he holdeth now in the worke."

other passages


Death!-DEATH!-how well the fatal mother cried,
(When the grim realms of pain through every bound,
Trembling, as smit with anguish at the sound,
In many a ghastly echo answering

-And nambd her offspring !—Thou whose choice hath tried
Sin, and its bitter consequence has found,
The diseased heart, -the immedicable wound
Of conscience,-joy, pure hope, and holy pride
Fled from their Eden spoiled, -and the faint will
Struggling and dark, for good embracing ill

Vith ever worse desire,-Oh! thou hast known
How well she spake, for thy despairing breath
Hath called thy Heaven-lost, soul-deep misery-death,
---And that sad cry she utter'd was thine own.


ROSE'S ORLANDO FURIOSO.. · Ariosto is the chief of romancers; fess to despise necromancers (for and he embodies in his poem the ad- whom we beg to say we entertain, ventures of those redoubted cava, poetically speaking, a very high reliers, with whose exploits the Spa- spect, not to say affection) must stand nish, Italian, and Provençal troue convicted of despising poetry at the badours made the courts of Europe same time: for the teller of the tale ring. We are not pledged to con- is a poet. He is also the most posider the mad pranks of Orlando as pular of poets among his countryreally the subject of the poem. It em- men, notwithstanding the tenderness braces the famous epoch, when the Sa- which Tasso has infused into his racens, having invaded France, were verses, and which is so captivating first vanquished by Charles Martel, to the disposition of Italians : but and by him finally chased beyond the Ariosto is also tender; as .what is he Pyrenees. This invasion has given not? and he gives you wit as well as birth to all those fables, by which poetry: he is an arch historian, with history has been so strangely dis- whom you must grow familiar, if figured in the chivalrous romances, you would be thoroughly acquainted and which Ariosto, to borrow old with him ; and amidst bis feats and Sir John Harrington's version, thus his 'transformations, and the sighannounces in his opening:

ings of distrest, or the warlike enOf dames, of knights, of armes, of love's counters of errant, damsels, he maindelight,

tains an air of ironical bonhommie, Of courtesies, of high attempts I speak : which leaves you in doubt whether among these the madness of Orlando, he is in jest or earnest. There are the adventures of Angelica, and the certain readers who, when they see loves of Roger and Bradamant, are

a poem, set immediately about disonly so many grand episodes. These covering its moral: they have been tales are interwoven like the twigs told by Bossu, that Homer sat down of a basket: but so clear and precise to write an epic lesson on the ill is the style of narration, so tissued effects of the divisions of princes; and with gay and novel images, and they will be sure to inquire after the dressed in such free and flowing specific moral purpose of Ariosto. numbers, that the curiosity is irre- The question would be rather puzsistihly tempted forward to the un- zling; but we should answer, that ravelment of every story; and the we have less faith in the monendo of reader never lays down one canto poetry, than in the delectando. The without feeling the want of the other, poet's first aim is to please; and he which is to succeed. It may be who sits down deliberately to inthought that a decided tendency to struct will assuredly fail of his obthe perusal of romantic tales and ad- ject. We reject of course the moral ventures is necessary to produce this allegories which Harrington extorts degree of interest; and that it must from Ariosto, as did others before be some such person as the heroine him from Homer. It is true that of Mr. Hayley, in one of the few good most legendary fictions have a basis verses he ever wrote, when by her of allegory. The mistake lies in supwaning taper,

posing that the poet employs them She read unconscious till the dawning day, knowingly: in imputing to him, in who can weep, laugh, love, and sigh short, a philosophical purpose, where with the “

extravagant and erring' his object is simply poetic excitement. dames and cavaliers of the Furi. Homer was the historian of heroic

We congratulate those per- traditions ; Ariosto of those of chivalsons who have known or felt so little ry: both poets were masters of human of the burden of life's fretting cares character, and of the human heart; and solicitudes as to feel no want of both were, though not in the same losing themselves in a tale of magic degree, satirists; and we cannot put or chivalry. But they who thus pro- men in action, or paint their passions,

* The Orlando Furioso, translated into English verse from the Italian of Ludovico Ariosto, with notes, by William Stewart Rose. Vols. 1 and 2. Murray. London.



humours, and defects, without ap- be lamented, as he has described love pealing to the moral sense. There is under all its forms, and in all its cir. an instinct in the mind of man which cumstances and effects; and while leads him to extract a moral for him. avoiding the metaphysical coldself from all that is interesting to hu- ness of Petrarch, the “ unsunned manity-from all which he can sup- snow of whose purity has little pose himself to act or suffer; and congenial with the warmth of real thus the moral results of a poem are passion, is not at all inferior to him less the effect of design in the poet, either in delicacy or dignity of sentithan of the necessary tendency of the ment: we may witness the loves of subjects which he treats, to impress Olympia, of Isabella, of Genevra, the moral sense and awaken hope and Bradamant; the two first of these and fear, compassion and indignation. in particular may be cited as exAs a picture of men and women, amples of whatever is most pure and though in incredible and impossible exalted in the most powerful of pasrelations and circumstances, Ariosto's sions. As it is, however, Ariosto poem may thus be said to have a must remain in the original a sealed moral purpose: for every poem, par- book to the eyes of innocence; and taking of an epic or dramatic cha- that translator does little service to racter, and not studiously directed his country who does not unsparingly to the corruption of virtuous princi- disentangle the fulsome weed from ples, must inevitably have one: the the * fresh and untainted flower. laws of the human mind, and the In depth of thought and force of high instincts implanted in our na- diction, it would be idle to compare ture, impel the poet to render good Ariosto with Dante. The latter may falth, generosity, and honour ami- be considered as a sort of patriarchal able, and vice and meanness odious. poet, whose venerable superiority is In so far also as by satirical inuen- at once acknowledged by succeeding does, or burlesque incidents, the poetical generations. In harmony of poet throws a light on the follies and versification, however, Ariosto surfoibles of courts, or of society at passes Dante; as he does Tasso in large, he may be said to perform the variety and freedom of rythm. When functions of a moralist; for satire is the Jerusalem Delivered roke into noonly a vehicle for morality. But that tice, it became a great question aAriosto, without apparent set pur- mong the Italian literati, whether pose of literary seduction, or the Tasso should not bear away the palm express design of pampering licenti- from Ariosto. Tasso had been bruous inclinations, has committed of- tally deprest by the pedants of La fences against the interests of pure Crusca, the base courtiers of Alfonso, morals, his warmest admirers, how- and the miserable competitors who ever reluctantly, confess. He is not envied him his.glory. But his indismerely led astray by a joyous levity putable merit soon raised him to the of temperament, nor does he offend exalted station which he holds among against modesty in passages of lu- the epic poets. Upon this, the strict dicrous recital, when the temptation observers of what are called the epic to wit might appear to offer a plea rules proclaimed Tasso as superior for loose and careless sallies ; but on to Ariosto; though Tasso himself, occasions when no such excuse can with his native amiable modesty, alavail him, he shows an evident in ways confessed in what sense he clination to the licentious heighten- meant to be understood is not very ing of voluptuous details. If Pe- easy to say) that he was no more than trarch reared a temple to the celestial the disciple of the poet of Ferrara. Venus, Ariosto may be said to have No two poets can be more unlike on burned incense in the fane of Venus a general comparison, though, as the terrestrial. This is the more to Ariosto left scarcely any style un

• Mr. Rose has had the good sense and good feeling to pay attention to this. The third and fifth lines of the 69th stanza of the Ilth canto might however have been more delicately select in the choice of words ; members for limbs should be relegated to Moore's almanack. Sometimes it might have been better to modify rather than expunge: as for instance in the eighth canto, when Angelica, during her adventure with the hermit, is, through the translator's 'asterisks of omission, left in a situation of ambiguity, which she does not deserve

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