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cret society (a club). For my part fore long before the re-building of St. I think both the etymologies false: Paul's. In fact Sir Christopher massoney is doubtless originally the Wren was himself elected Deputy same word with maison and magione, Grand-Master of the Free-masons in and the primitive etymon of all three 1666; and in less than 20 years after words is clearly the Latin word (viz. in 1685) he became Grandmunsio in the sense of the middle Master. ages. It means simply a residence, 3. Baphomet.-But, says Mr. Nior place of abode ; and was natural. colai, the Templars had a secret ; ly applied to the dwelling-houses of and the Free-masons have a secret ; the Templars. Their meetings were and the secrets agree in this, that no held in mansione Templariorum, i. e. uninitiated person has succeeded in in the massoney of the Templars. discovering either. Does not this On the suppression of the order, their imply some connexion originally bebuildings still remained and preserve tween the two orders: more espeed the names of Temples, l'emplar cially if it can be shown that the two mansions, &c. just as at this day we secrets are identical? Sorry I am, find many convents in Hanover though my venerable friend, to answer-No: they are no longer occupied by sorry I am, in your old days, to be monks or nuns; and in Italy there are under the necessity of knocking on even yet churches to be found which the head a darling hypothesis of are denominated de la Mason, which yours which has cost you, I doubt Paciaudi properly explains by della not, much labour of study and reMagione, these churches having been search-much thought-and, I fear attached to the dwellings of the also, many many pounds of candles. Knights Templars. It is therefore But it is my duty to do so: and invery possible that a Templar Mas- deed, considering Mr. Nicolai's old soney may have subsisted in London age and his great merits in regard to in the neighbourhood of St. Paul's German literature, it would be my .church up to the end of the 17th cen- duty to show him no mercy, but to tury. Some notice of such a fact lash him with the utmost severity for Lessing perhaps stumbled on in the his rotten hypothesis-if my time course of his reading: he mistook would allow it. But to come to the building for a secret society of business. The Templars, says old Templars that still retained a tradi- Nicolai, had a secret. They had so, tional knowledge of the principles But what was it ? According to Nipeculiar to the ancient order of colai, it consisted in the denial of the Knights Templars: next he found Trinity, and in a scheme of natural that Sir Christopher Wren had been religion opposed to the dominant a frequenter of this massoney: he Popish Catholicism. Hence it was therefore was a Knight Teinplar: that the Templars sought to make but he was also an architect; and themselves independent of the other by him the Templar doctrines had Catholic clergy: the novices were been moulded into a symbolic con- required to abjure the divinity of formity with his own art, and had Christ, and even to spit upon a crubeen fitted for diffusion amongst the cifix and trample it under foot. Their people. Such is the way in which a Anti-Trinitarianism Mr. Nicolai aslearned hypothesis arises: and on cribes to their connexion with the this particular hypothesis may be Saracens, who always made the docpronounced what Lessing said of trine of the Trinity a matter of remany an older one-Dust! and no- proach to the Franks: he supposes thing but dust !-In conclusion I that during periods of truce or in may add, what Nicolai has already captivity, many Templars had by observed, that Lessing was wholly communication with learned Mohammisinformed as to the history and medans become enlightened to the chronology of Free-masonry : so far errors and the tyranny of Popery: from arising out of the ashes of but, at the same time strengthening the
Templar traditions at the their convictions of the falsehood of end of the 17th century, we have Mahometanism, they had retained seen that it was fully matured in the nothing of their religious doctrines 46th year of that century, and there, but Monotheism. These heterodoxies
however, under the existing power of persecution, it results that no such the hierarchy and the universul su- charge was brought against them by perstition then prevalent, they had their enemies. And moreover Mathe strongest reasons for commu- hometanism itself rejects all worship nicating to none but those who were of images. admitted into the highest degree of Secondly, not being Mahomet, what their order and to them only sym- was it? It was, says Mr. Nicolai, bolically. From these data, which Bapn untaç, i. e., as he interprets it, may be received as tolerably pro- the word Buphomet meant the baptism bable and conformable to the depo- of wisdom; and the image so called sitions of the witnesses on the trial represented God the universal father, of the Templars, old Mr. Nicolai i. e. expressed the unity of the divine flatters himself that he can unriddle being. By using this sign therefore the mystery of mysteries-viz. Ba- under this name, which partook much phomet (Baffomet
, Baphemet, or of a Gnostic and Cabbalistic spirit, Baffometus); which was the main the Templars indicated their dedicasymbol of the Knights Templars in tion to the truths of natural religion. the highest degrees., This Baphomet · Now, in answer to this learned was a figure representing a human conceit of Mr. Nicolai's, I would bust, but sometimes of monstrous wish to ask him and caricature appearance, which First, in an age so barbarous as symbolized the highest object of the that of the 12th and 13th centuries, Templars: and therefore upon the when not to be able to read or write meaning of Baphomet hinges the ex- was no disgrace, how came a body planation of the great Templar mys- of rude warriors like the Templars lery.
to descend into the depths of Gnos· First then Mr. Nicolai tells us what ticism? Baphomet was not. It was not Mo- Secondly, if by the image called hammed. According to the genius Baphomet they meant to represent of the Arabic language out of Mo- the unity of God, how came they to hammed might be made Mahomet or designate it by a name which exBahomet, but not Baphomet. In presses no attribute of the deity, but some Latin historians about the pe- simply a mystical ceremony amongst riod of the Crusades, Bahomet is cer- themselves (viz. the baptism of wistainly used for Mahomet, and in one dom)? writer perhaps Baphomet (viz. in Thirdly, I will put a home questhe Epistola Anselmi de Ribodimonte tion to Mr. Nicolai; and let him ad Manassem Archiepiscopum Re- parry it if he can: How many heads mensem, of the year 1099, in Dachery's had Baphomet? His own conscience Spicilegium Tom. ii. p. 431-“ Se- will reply-Two. Indeed a wholequenti die aurorà apparente altis vo- length of Baphomet is recorded which cibus Baphomet invocaverunt; et nos had also four feet : but, supposing Deum nostrum in cordibus nostris these to be disputed, Mr. Nicolai deprecantes impetum fecimus in eos, can never dispute away the two et de muris civitatis omnes expuli- heads. Now what sort of a symbol mus.” Nicolai, supposing that the would a two-headed image have cry of the Saracens was in this case been for the expression of unity of addressed to their own prophet, con- being? Answer me that, Mr. Nicocludes that Baphomet is an error of lai. Surely the rudest skulls of the the press for Bahomet, and that this 12th century could have expressed is put for Mahomet. But it is pos- their meaning better. sible that Baphomet may be the true Having thus upset my learned reading: for it may not have been brother's hypothesis, I now come used in devotion for Mahomet, but forward with my own. Through the scoffingly as the known watch-word illumination which some of the Temof the Templars). But it contra- plars gained in the east as to the redicts the whole history of the Tem- lations in which they stood to the plars—to suppose that they had in- Pope and Romish church, but still troduced into their order the worship more perhaps from the suggestions of of an image of Mahomet. In fact, their own great power and wealth from all the records of their trial and opposed to so rapacious and potent a supremacy, there gradually arose a sufficiently plain why the secret was separate Templar interest no less looked upon as so inviolable that hostile to the Pope and clergy of even upon the rack it could not be Rome, than to Mahomet. To this extorted from them. By such a conseparate interest they adapted an fession the order would have exposed appropriate scheme of theology: but itself to a still more cruel persecuneither the one nor the other could tion, and a more inevitable destrucbe communicated with safety except tion. On the other hand, upon Mr. to their own superior members: and Nicolai's explanation, it is difficult thus it became a mystery of the or- to conceive why, under such extremider. Now this mystery was sym- ties, the accused should not have conbolically expressed by a two-headed fessed the truth. In all probability figure of Baphomet : i. e. of the Pope the court of Roine had good inforand Mahomet together. So long as mation of the secret tendency of the the Templars continued orthodox, Templar doctrines; and hence no the watchword of their undivided doubt it was that Pope Clement V. hostility was Mahomet: but, as soon proceeded so furiously against them. as the Pope became an object of jea- Now then I come to my conclulousy and hatred to them, they de- sion, which is this: If the Knights vised a new watchword which should Templars had no other secret than covertly express their double-headed one relating to a political interest enmity by intertwisting the name of which placed them in opposition to the Pope with that of Mahomet.* the Pope and the claims of the Roman This they effected by cutting off the Catholic clergy on the one hand, and two first letters of Mahomet and sub- to Mahomet on the other, then it is stituting Bap or Pup—the first syle impossible that there can have been lable of Papa. Thus arose the com- any affinity or resemblance whatpound word Baphomet; and hence soever between them and the Free it was that the image of Baphomet masons: for the Free-masons have was figured with two heads, and was never in any age troubled themselves otherwise monstrous in appearance. about either Mahomet or the Pope : When a Templar was initiated into Popery t and Mahometanism are athe highest degree of the order, he like indifferent to the Free-masons, was shown this image of Baphomet, and always have been. And in geand received a girdle with certain ce- neral the object of the Free-masons remonies which referred to that figure. is not political. Finally it is in the At sight of this figure in the general highest degree probable that the sechapters of the order, the knights cret of the Knights Templars peexpressed their independence of the rished with their order: for it is church and the church creed, by tes- making too heavy a demand on our tifying their abhorrence of the cru- credulity to suppose that a secret cifix and by worshipping the sole society never once coming within the God of heaven and earth. Hence light of history can have propagated they called a newly initiated member itself through a period of four cen, a " Friend of God, who could now turies-i. e. from the 13th to the speak with God if he chose,” i. e. 17th century, in which century it has without the intermediation of the been shown that Free-masonry first Pope and the church. Upon this explanation of Baphomet, it becomes
X. Y. Z.
* Those who are acquainted with the German Protestant writers about the epoch of the Reformation, will remember the many fanciful combinations extracted from the naines Pabst (Pope) and Mahomet by all manner of dislocations and inversions of their component letters.
+ In rejecting Roman Catholic candidates for admission into their order—the reader must remember that the Free-masons objected to them not Roman Catholics, but aş persons of intolerant principles.- Translator.
ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY. On entering the Great Room, we were agreeably surprised by finding that, the pictures were not this year piled up to the ceiling that the unhappy race of Ladies and Gentlemen who act the Gods at the Academy, no longer hang “so very high up" that no friend could recognise their old familiar faces. This gives a wonderful relief both to the room and the critics, of which we are very thankful to avail ourselves. It has been remarked that the Exhi. bition is deficient in general interest, compared with former years : perhaps it is so; there is a want of large pictures by the principal artists, which usually give a grand appearance to the room, but their absence does not derogate from the actual interest ; and while such paintings as some of those which we proceed to enumerate adorn its walls, we cannot think the collection on the whole greatly inferior to any that has preceded it.
No. 1.-Portraits of Lady Anne There is an air of formality in this Coke, and her Son. Hayter. We composition which carries the mind had the good fortune to see the lady back to the period of the revival of herself enter the room immediately art under the ancient German and under her portrait, while we were Italian masters; if this be considered looking at it; and if our remarks ap- as a mark of merit, it must be adpear harsh, it may be in part attri- mitted on the other hand that the art buted to the opportunity of compa- in the interim has made no advancerison which this incident afforded us. ment, so far as this picture is conMany other portraits, if they were cerned. The gentle innocence of uns confronted with their originals, would conscious nudity is admirably prevery likely make them blush for their served in this beautiful groupe of “ counterfeit presentment;” but a figures ; the design is very simple, thousand to one it would arise from graceful, and pure ; and the colour an opposite cause to that which we is good in a peculiar way, which have reason to reprehend in the pre- those who are acquainted with Mr. sent instance. This portrait is de- Stothard's paintings will understand: ficient in elegance, and in gentleness but the picture is too slight and unof expression: it looks older than the finished, and the extreme blueness of lady, and more imagination is re- the sky gives it a raw effect. quired than we possess, to No. 14.-Edward the Third, Queen “Helen's beauty" in that brow. The Isabella, and the Earl of March, by child is ill drawn, and meagre, but H. P. Briggs, is a well-painted picMr. Coke may not on this account ture, but incomprehensible as a subthink it the less interesting. The ject without its title—there are so back ground wants repose; the dra- many similar scenes to which the pery is bad; and the picture alto. same action and character would he gether wants taste. Mr. Hayter has equally appropriate. The great meanother picture,-No.28,- The Por- rit of this painting, is its power of trait of the Earl of Surrey, in his light and shade ; it is very broad Robes, as first Page at the Coronation, and effective. What it chiefly wants which, though somewhat deficient in is elevation of sentiment; there is no point of colour, is yet very forcible in poetry in the conception. The arteffect, and a fine picture compared ist has very likely fallen into this with No. 1.
error from his desire to produce enerNo. 12.-Stirling Custle, by W. getic character; but it unfortunately Collins, RA. is a clever picture-the gives his figures, and particularly the sunshine effect is good, and the sky Queen, an air of vulgarity. particularly beautiful. Many of our No. 23.-Soothsayer, a celebrated landscape painters, as we have often Race Horse. J. Ward, RA.—Mr. noticed, are too fond of throwing a Ward's horses are, as usual, most drab tint into their pictures, and this excellent.-No. 80, Ferrets in a Rabmay be considered a fault in the one bit Warren, is a very spirited lit
tle sketch: the ferrets are beautifully No. 13.-Venus with Cupid, attended painted. We cannot so much
admire by the Graces. T. Stothard, RA.- No. 127, the Portrait of Col. Sir
rom the of that
2 T 9
John Leicester, Bart. exercising his similar subject of any age-nay, we Troop of Cheshire Yeomanry. The much doubt whether its equal is to costume wants taste; it is too fine be met with in the world. The viand glittering; and there is such a vacity of the boy is quite surprisquantity of trappings about the per- ing, his eyes are particularly clear son of the rider, in contact with the and transparent, and have really the dapple grey of his horse, as quite look of life, while all the muscles distracts the eye. We could hardly of the face, and especially those about persuade ourselves at first that the the eyes, are in full play, and hare that cavalry in the back ground were in- shifting, supple, momentary expresnocently performing so many pro- sion which belongs to a happy child digies of valour; and the martial as in perfect health, and possessing expect of the gallant commander, which uberant spirits. We wonder how the is an excellent likeness, keeps up the artist could succeed in transferring illusion: he seems as much in earn- to big canvass the perpetually varyest as his horse-but we suppose the ing graces of such a character, for it catálogue contains the Gazette ac. would be impossible to arrest the atcount.--No. 357, The Portrait of tention of a child like this long Copenhagen, the Horse 'rode by the enough to fix any thing from nature: Duke of Wellington at the Battle of the power must be in the imaginaWaterloo, is Mr.
Ward's best picture : tion. But if this be so, and the Prethe horse is, indeed, most beautifully sident could succeed so well in the painted.
higher department of art as this picNo. 38.- Portrait of Lord Stowell. ture evidently proves he could, how By Sir Thomas Lawrence, PRA.- much reason have we to regret that This picture is flat in its effect, but he has not the honourable ambition the head is finely painted. By the to rise above the level even of the by, the Phrenologists would do well first portrait painter of the age, and to look at this head, and consider vindicate his better genius. The hair whether their decisions are not a little of the girl is painted with consumcontradicted by those of his Lord- mate skill-the drapery is in the florid ship. To aid their inquiry, there is scattered style peculiar to this painter, a very good bust of Lord Stowell, but perhaps in this instance it is not by Behnes (1013), containing in a inconsistent with the sentiment of the more tangible form all the same cha- picture we cannot however comracteristics.
mend it. The colour is generally No. 59.-Portrait of H. R. H. the very beautiful, but the mouth of the Duchess of Gloucester, by Sir Thomas boy is too red and coarse, for the Lawrence, is a most successful pic- juicy, luscious character of such ture, and in our opinion one of the a mouth.
We have not finest portraits ever exhibited in the often seen a more remarkable triAcademy. The effect is forcible, umph over the general incapacity of from its extraordinary breadth, and painting to exhibit speaking grace, the absence of shade, yet all this is and intellectual animation, than in attended with extreme delicacy of No. 119, The Portrait of Mrs. Harexecution; the arms are beautifully ford, by Sir Thomas Lawrence : the and exquisitely painted. No artist beauty of this countenance is its excan surmount the difficulties which pression, and it so engages the mind stand in the way of his art better that we turn from it as reluctantly than Sir Thomas. In this portrait, as if the lady were actually addressthere is no ostentation, no display, no ing us. We can now believe what jewelry :-the attitude is very sim- one of our poets has said : ple, easy, and dignified; and the character has all the attributes of high Heard melodies are sweet, but those unrank without pretending to any thing.
Are sweeter. -No. 98, the Portrait of the Earl of Clanwilliam, by the same hand, does This lady speaks to the spirit, and not possess much interest. The next, it seems to comprehend her meaning. No. 99, Portraits of the Children of The other parts of this picture are Charles B. Calmady, Esq. is not only not very remarkable ;-tasteful, but a first-rate performance, but may vie slightly executed. No. 291, The in expression with any picture of a Portrait of Sir William. Curtis, is