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LAURA.

These Christian hymns, which on my morning dreams THE EXCLUSIVES.The following curious revelation of the chaWere shed like dew upon an opening flower,

racters supposed to be represented in this work has just appeared in With their rich harmony of heavenly love,

the Court Journal :-Lady Tilney-Lady Jersey. Duchess of Her

manton-Princess Esterhazy. Princess Leinsengen-Princess Lteven. First greet my waking hour in Paradise !

Lady Ellersby-Lady Cowper. Lord Tonnerre-Lord Tullamore.
Mr Leslie Winyard-Honourable H. de Roos. Frank Ombre-

Frank Russel, Spencer Newcombe-Honourable Spencer Perceval.
LITERARY CHIT-CHAT AND VARIETIES.

Lord Glenmore-Lord Ellenborough. Lady GlenmoreLady Ellenborough. Lord Albert d'Esterre-Lord G. L. Gower. Lady Dun

melraise-Dowager Duchess of Leeds. Lady Tenderden-Lady We have been favoured with an early copy of Mr M Diarmid's

Tankerville. Lady Marchmont-Lady Hopeton. Lord Arlingsordnew work, entitled "Sketches from Nature." It is divided into two

Lord Sefton. Duke of Mercington-Duke of Wellington. Colonel parts, the first of which contains Anecdotes illustrative of the Habits

Temple-Colonel Trench. Lady Feuillemerte-Lady Salisbury. of various Animals; and the second, Fragments of Scottish Scenery

Lord Gascoigne-Lord Alvanley. Sir William Temple-Sir G. War, and Manners. From Mr M‘Diarmid's well-known and vivid powers

render. Mr George Foley-Mr George Anson. of description, we anticipate much pleasure from a perusal of this

DARNLEY; OR THE FIELD OF THE CLOTA OF GOLD.This work, with a particular account of which we shall present our readers

production, from the pen of the author of “Richelieu," contains, in our next.

among other ably delineated scenes-the celebrated Field of the There is preparing for publication, Memoirs of the late Right Rev.

Cloth of Gold-Description of White-Hall in the Reign of Henry Bishop Sandford, with Extracts from his Diary, Correspondence,

VIII.--The Court Fete, Banquet, and Pageant-The Combat, and and Sermons, by the Rev. John Sandford, A.M., Vicar of Chilling

deliverance of Francis 1.-Shipwreck of Lady Contance, &c. Among ham.

other historical personages, we may enumerate, besides the two moThe author of “ The Morning and Evening Sacrifice," "The Last Supper,” and “ Farewell to Time," has announced another

narchs of France and England: The Duke of Buckingham-Car.

al Wolsey-Lord Derby-Earl of Devonshire-Duke of Suffolkwork as in the press, in three volumes, duodecimo, to be entitled

Lady Constance De Grey-The Earl of Surrey-Lord T. Howard • The Living Temple," in which man is considered in his true rela

-Lord Aberga'ny-Lord Montague-Sir W. Cecil, &c. &c. tion to the ordinary occupations and pursuits of life.

AMERICAN PERIODICAL LITERATURE.-America possesses at preThe Rev. Michael Russell, LL.D., author of "A Connexion of Sacred and Profane History," &c. has in the press a small volume of

sent 827 periodical publications. In 1775 she had only 35 ; and in « Discourses on the Millennium, the Doctrine of Election, Justifica

1810, 358. Pennsylvania alone has now 185, and New York 161.

It is also interesting to know that all the Indian tribes have now tion by Faith, the Assurance of Faith, and the Freeness of the Gos

newspapers, and some more than one. pel," &c. &c.

Theatrical Gossip.--The King's Theatre has been as yet but poorly A second edition, enlarged and improved, of “ Historical Sketches

attended. The principal novelties of the season are to be the contie of the Native Irish and their Descendants, illustrative of their Past

nental prima donna Lalande, and Lablache, who has been pronounand Present State, with regard to Literature, Education, and Oral

ced the finest bass singer in Europe.-Nothing new has been doing Instruction," by Christopher Anderson, is promised next month.

at Drury Lane. In the temporary absence of Kean,-Liston, FarMair's Introduction to Latin Syntax, with Additional Notes, Ex

ren, and Vestris are the chief attractions.--At Covent Garden, Miss amples in Prosody, and a copious Vocabulary, by the Rev. Alexan

Paton, who plays on the alternate nights with Miss Kemble, has der Stewart, Editor of an improved edition of Cornelius Nepos, &c.

been drawing indifferent houses. She receives L.20 per night ; and is reported to be nearly ready.

it is said to be the intention of Lord William Lennox to take his A second series of Stories from the History of Scotland, by the

wife from the stage as soon as she has secured for him an annual Rev. Alexander Stewart, which is intended to complete the work, is

income of L, 1500;-this is very kind in Lord William. Fanny Kempreparing for publication.

ble has written a song, which has been sung at the Harmonists' SoMr Charles Marsh has been for some time engaged in a complete

ciety ;-the words are pretty.-The French Company at the Enge General History of the East Indies, and has now made considerable

lish Opera House are well attended.-A new piece, called “ Van Dieprogress in the work.

men's Land," has been successfully produced at the Surrey Theatre. Perkin Warbeck, and the Court of James IV. of Scotland, is an -The tragedy of “ Werner” has been repeated at Bristol with innounced.

creased success. Macready and Miss Foote have also appeared there The Rev. Richard Warner has in the press a volume of Literary together in “ Virginius" and “Matrimony."-Horne, Miss SmithRecollections and Biographical Sketches.

son, and Miss Dyer, formerly of the Theatre here, are at present in The Pilgrim of the Hebrides, and other Poems, by the author of blin.-Braham and Miss Clarke are in Aberdeen The novelties Three Days at Killarney, is announced.

| this week at our Theatre, have been the revival of “ Waverley " and There is preparing for publication a History of the Church, from " Clari,” and the production of a new drama, entitled, " William the Creation to the Commencement of the Nineteenth Century, in Shakspeare, or the Bard of Avon's Early Days." In the two first pieces the form of Question and Answer; by the late Alexander Smith Pa.

Miss Jarman distinguished herself as Flora M Ivor and Clari; and terson of Aberdeen, edited by the Rev. Jaines Brewster, minister of

in the last, which is an amusing enough production, and contains Craig.

some pretty new scenery, Vandenhoff makes a very respectable reA new volume of Country Stories, by Miss Mitford, author of

presentative of the Author of “ Hamlet." Vandenhoff takes his “Our Village," is in the press.

benefit on Monday, but his engagement will of course be renewed, The Picture of India-exhibiting in a brief, yet clear and graphic

that he may perform along with YoungWe have been informed manner, the Geography, Topography, History, Natural History,

that Mr Wilson, of whose singing at the last Professional Concert Native Population, and Produce, of that most interesting portion of

here we spoke very favourably, is to make his debut upon the stage

in the opera of “ Masaniello,” now in preparation. the Earth; with a particular Account of the European Settlements,

If this be the with the present state of the British Territories, and an impartial case, we augur well of his success. View of the India Question, with reference to the impending Discussion on the Renewal of the Charter with many appropriate Ilustra

WEEKLY List or PERFORMANCES. tions from original designs, is announced.

Feb. 13_19. An Annual for the year 1830, entitled The Penelope, has been published at Leipsic. It is edited by Theodore Hell- & very startling

The Wheel of Fortune, o A Roland for an Oliver. name for English ears.

Mon. Waverley, & The Bottle Imp. The second volume of Moore's Life of Byron is expected to be TUES. Pizarro, & The Maid or the Magpie. ready in a few weeks. The first has had a very extensive sale.

WED. William Shakspeare, The Youthful Queen, & Free and The papers of the Earl of Marchmont, comprising a variety of

Easy. original and unknown Documents, Diaries, &c., illustrative of the

THURS. Do., He Lies like Truth, $ Clari, the Maid of Milana reigns of Queen Anne, George I., &c. are in the press. ELOCUTION.-We observe that Mr Roberts is to deliver a rhetori

FRI. Pizarro, sf Rob Roy. cal Lecture, illustrated with readings and recitations, next Saturday. Mr Roberts's entertainments of this kind are in general judiciously

TO OUR CORRESPONDENTS. conducted, and calculated both to amuse and instruct.

GEORGE STREET Reading Room$.—We understand that it is! We must still appeal to the patience of several of our Correspon. the intention of the Proprietor of this large and commodious esta ents.-We are reluctantly obliged again to postpone the article by blishment to add to it a billiard-room upon a suitably clegant scale. | Mr Tennant till next week. The idea seems to be a good one, and, if properly managed, may in The verses, entitled “The Destruction of Sodom,"-"Sonnet duce many gentlemen to avail themselves of this agreeable recreation, I to the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus,"-"Sonnet" by “ Veritaphiswho have too great a regard for their characters to be seen in any of tus."_"The Star” and “Stanzas" by “P."--and the lines by “R. the common and less respectable biliard-rooms.

W.” of Glasgow, will not suit us.-Who is " Euphrosine?”

SAT.

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ell, Hen. Bensley, &c. &C RICHARD BENTLdinburgh.

N of THE FAMILY CLASSICAL LIBRARY, or Eng

[No. 67, February 20, 1830.]

In 3 vols. post 8vo,

DE VER EU X.
ADVERTISEMENTS,

By the Author of " PECHAM," and " The DISOWNED."

" The Novel before us is truly a great work."-Literary Gazette. Connected with Literature, Science, and the Arts. " For the information of those who have not yet had an opportu.

nity of perusing the book, we subjoin the names of a few of the in

teresting characters who figure in its pages, viz. Lord Bolingbroke | This day is published, in 3 very large vols. 8vo, price L.2, 24.

(throughout the work)-Swift-Pope-Addison-Steele-Colonel Cleembellished with a fine portrait,

land (the supposed original of Will Honeycomb)-Beau Fielding (the MEMOIRS of the LIFE and TIMES of DANIEL Orlando of the Spectator)-Colley Cibber--Sir Godfrey KnellerDE FOE, containing a Review of his Writings, and his Opi

Richard Cromwell-The Duke of Wharton-Lady M. W. Montague nions upon a variety of Important Matters, Civil and Ecclesiastical.

-Duchess of Marlborough-Regent of France-Anthony Count HaBy WALTER WILSON, Esq., of the Inner Temple.

milton--The Duchess of Orleans-Madame de Maintenon-The Czar London: HURST, CHANCE, & Co., St Paul's Church-Yard.

Peter the Great The Duke de St Simon,". &c. &C.-Morning Where may be had, just published, in 2 vols. 8vo, price 21s. Journal. * The HISTORY of the HEBREW COMMON

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BELL and BRADFUTE, No. 6, Bank Street, Edinburgh. lem, A. D. 72. Translated from the German of JOHN JAHN, D.D.

In two volumes small 8vo, with Portrait,
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Dedicated by Gracious Permission to his Majesty,
This day is published,

RANDOM RECORDS.
price 38. 6d. bound, a new edition of

By GEORGE COLMAN the Younger.
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of “The Life of Cranmer," &c. &c.

London: HURST, CHANCE, & Co., 65, St Paul's Church-Yard. M R ROBERTS respectfully announces, that on Where may be had, lately published, by the same Author, in one SATURDAY, the 27th February, 1830, he will have the

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AND

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NARRATIVE and SUCCESSFUL RESULT of PART I.

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GOVERNMENT of BRITISH INDIA, to ascertain the ACTUAL

FATE of LA PEROUSE'S EXPEDITION.

Spencer. Beth Gelert, or the Grave of Gelert,

By the Chevalier The Well of St Keyne,

Capt. P. DILLON.

Southey. Catiline before the Senate,

Croly.

London: Hurst, CHANCE, and Co. 65, St Paul's Church-Yard.

This day is published, Queen Mary,

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THE POETICAL ALBUM, and REGISTER of Alphabet,

Anonymous.

MODERN FUGITIVE POETRY. SECOND SERIES. Edited Ode to God!

Der zhaven.

by ALAKIC A. Watts, Esq. PART in. .

"See, I have cull'd the flowers that promised best, The Musical Butcher,

Attic Miscellany. And where not sure-perplex'd, but pleased-I guess'd Conscience,

Byron.

At such as ceem'd the fairest." —BYRON. Lord William,

Southcy.

London: HURST, CHANCE, & Co., 65, St Paul's Church-Yard. Four Eyes !!!

Speaker.

Where may be had, lately published, price 12s. the First Series of ADMISSION TICKETS, 3s. each, to be had of Messrs Whyte and

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This volume will be found to contain a very large proportion of Doors open at One-commence at Two precisely.

the most beautiful Fugitive Poetry that has appeared during the last Mr ROBERTS continues to teach Elocution, in all its depart ten years, including upwards of 300 poems, for the most part ineditments, whether intended for Private or Public Practice.-He is par ed, of Byron, Moore, Campbell, Wilson, Wordsworth, Rogers, ticularly careful to impart a pure English Pronunciation, and under Coleridge, L. E. L., Bowles, Shelley, Mrs Hemans, Miss Baillie, takes the removal or alleviation of oral impediments and ungraceful | Barry Cornwall, Moir, Montgomery, Croly, Horace Smith, Alarie gesture.

A. Watts, &c. &c. &c.

10 PART 11.

LODGE'S
• PORTRAITS AND MEMOIRS

OF THE
MOST ILLUSTRIOUS PERSONAGES

Published this day.
THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. 83.
Published by John MURRAY, Albemarle Street, London; and Sold
by OLIVER and BoYD, Edinburgh.

OF

Complete in 4 vols. 8vo,
OF

With Portrait and engraved Fac-simile of the original Declaration of
BRITISH HISTORY.

Independence in the hand writing of Jefferson,

MEMOIRS AND CORRESPONDENCE Three complete Sets of Plates having been entirely erhausted in supplying the extensive and increasing applications for the cheap edition of this popular Work, a Fourth Set has been prepared,

THOMAS JEFFERSON, which is now in course of publication in Monthly Numbers. and

Late President of the United States. delivered with the Magazines and Reviews, by every Bookseller

Edited by THOMAS JEFFERSON RANDOLPH. and Neus man in the Kingdom.

" A work of extraordinary interest-a work full of acute observa. Biographical Catalogue and Prospectus of TWO HUNDRED of tion and of the materials of political knowledge. Mr Jefferson, it is the Portraits and Memoirs to be contain d in this work, may be well known, was a man of great shrewdness and imperturbable temobtained (free of expense) from every Brok and Printseller in per, and as Minister at Paris, for several years before and during the the Kingdom ; to whom they have been sent for presentation to

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excrcised upon the destinies of their country, such as no other man

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“These volumes must be read with intense interest. They teem traits and Biography, comprises the History of the Country in with profound philosophy. They will form the code of future leMemoirs of the most Illustrious English Nobility and great Officers gislators. They are worthy of transmitting a great name to immor. of State, from the earliest introduction of Portrait Painting to the tality."- Allas. present time. The subjects are selected from the highest authorities HENRY COLBURN and RICHARD BENTLEY, London; and sold by in the land, the original Pictures being preserved in the Galleries of BELL & BRADFUTE, No. 6, Bank Street, Edinburgh. his Majesty and of the Nobility, (descendants of the distinguished per. sons represented,) or in the Public Collections, and are painted by

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In 3 vols. post 8vo, nently bound, 245. great Masters. The Portraits and Memoirs already published are TALES OF THE CLASSICS. A New Delithose of Lord Nelson and Earl St Vincent, both from his Majesty's

1 NEATION of the Most POPULAR FABLES, LEGENDS, and Collection ; Sir Philip Sidney, from the Duke of B-dford's Gallery ;

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lated to engage the attention while it unfolds the beauties of early livaluable and extended Series of the Portraits of the Illustrious Dead

terature, and original imaginings."-Literary Gazette. affords to every private gentleman, at a moderate expense, the interest attached to a large Gallery of British Portraits, on a plan more

HENRY COLBURN and RICHARD BENTLEY, London ; and BELL extensive than any collection which exists, and at the saine time the

BRADFUTE, No. 6, Bank Street, Edinburgh. essence of a curious library of historical, biographical, and antiquaTian works."-Ertract of a Letter from Sir Walter Scott.(Sce Pros

NEW EDITION OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA pectus.)

BRITANNICA. “ Largely as we have been tempted to speak of the graphic part of

On the 31st of March, 1830, will be published, these volumes, we do not hesitate to say, that even were the engra.

PART FIRST, vings absent, they would form a most valuable addition to the Eng

Price Six Shillings, of a new, greatly improved, and cheap Edition lish library. This strong language we use deliberately."- Quarterly

of the Review.

FNCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA, being the PLAN OF PUBLICATION.

SEVENTH, including the recent Supplement to that Work :

with Preliminary Dissertations on the History of the Sciences. By This work was originally published upon a scale exceeding two

the late Professors STEWART and PLAYFAIR, and by the Right hundred guineas in price; an expense so large for a single work, as

Hon. Sir JAMES MACKINTOSH and Professor LESLIE. Ilusto preclude it from the possession of all but the inheritors of princely

trated with a new set of Engravings on Steel. To be published in fortunes. The high character it acquired, and the very general ex.

Monthly Parts, and completed in Twenty Volumes quarto. pression of regret at its removal beyond the attainment of the public, induced the Proprietors to republish it in a smaller form, to admit of

Edited by Professor NÁPIER. a wider dissemination of the Work, which had obtained universal

MODE AND TERMS OF PUBLICATION. favour. The success of the undertaking equalled the endeavour to

1. By augmenting the contents of the page, but without decreamerit it, for the patronage which attended this republication was

sing the size of the type, the work, while much improved in appear. wholly without precedent, and one edition has followed another in a

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matter, in Twenty Quarto Volumes, handsomely printed on paper plying the demand until new Plates could be engraved. To keep

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lings-a price very considerably lower than that of any similar pub. ARCHBISHOP CRANMER.

lication of the day; and which, when the quantity of Matter in each Specimens may be inspected at the Publisher's, and at every Book

volume, the quality of Paper and Printing, the numerous Engra

vings, and the ability of the Articles, are taken into account, must seller's in the kingdom.

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LITERARY CRITICISM.

of the same spirit concentrated in one channel, and pour

ed in the direction of the East, instead of being allowed The History of Chivalry and the Crusades. By the Rev.

to wander at will and dissipate itself among the scattered Henry Stebbing, M.A. In 2 vols. Constable's Mis

provinces of Europe. Accordingly, the greater part of cellany, vols. 50, 51.

Mr Stebbing's work is devoted to a sketch of these wars,

the strangest, perhaps, in the history of the human mind; No better proof can exist of the union of sagacity and and though unquestionably by no means free from the enterprise which distinguished the late Mr Constable than admixture of baser motives, yet, on the whole, originathe fact, that the plan of this Miscellany, one of his la- ting in, and supported more completely by, feeling and test speculations, has since been acted upon in all quar- principle, than any other contests which history records. ters with complete success. Nothing meets our eye but Chivalry, in its modern meaning, is a term applied to Family Libraries-classical, historical, philosophical, geo- a peculiar system of manners and opinions, which had its graphical —"neat, trimly drest," in fascinating covers of origin during the middle ages, and extended its influence crimson, brown, yellow, or pea-green. We have two over the greater part of Europe. It expresses the partireasons, however, for preferring the Miscellany to any of cular creed, with regard to morals and the relations of its brethren: First, That it has an undoubted claim to society, of which the order of knighthood, conferred by the rank of primogeniture, with its corresponding privi formal ceremonies, was the external sign. It is, thereleges ;—and secondly, that it is truly a Miscellany-nei fore, to be considered as distinct from feudalism. It was ther exclusively scientific, nor historical, nor classical a system, as it were, within the feudal system,--a code of but blending all subjects original writing and transla moral equity, arising out of the peculiar consequences of tion, travels, biography, history, "quicquid agunt homines," the feudal government, coinciding with its spirit in its in sbort; and all arranged and combined, upon the great leading outlines, while it controlled its operation whole, with singalar good taste and judgment. Perhaps upon society, and reconciling, though imperfectly, its hathe selection of some of the earlier numbers might have s bits of warfare with that security to property, and that been improved ; but since the duty of Editor devolved on protection from oppression, which seem essential to the Mr Aitken, we should be at a loss to suggest any improve- existence of every community. ment in the principle of selection on which it is conduct. Perhaps no system has ever spread more widely, or ed. The public, indeed, have a guarantee for the good | exercised a stronger influence over human opinion, than taste and judgment with which this task is likely to be | Chivalry; and yet none has left fewer traces of its proexecuted, in the “Cabinet" of this gentleman-unques-gress from infancy to maturity. The scattered elements tionably the best collection of miscellaneous pieces in from which its institutions were framed, are indeed ocprose and verse with which we are acquainted—and we casionally to be found both in the early records of the rejoice to see, from the list of forthcoming publications an Gothic tribes, and in the classic authcrs of Greece and nounced in the Miscellany, that the spirit and industry Rome. The spirit of fraternity and clanship which conwhich the Editor has hitherto displayed is not on the de- nected the body of knighthood, finds a parallel in the Theeline. The “Life of King James the First,” by Mr ban Legion of Xenophon as well as the Sagas of ScandiChambers, will, we trust, prove as amusing and success navia; the preparatory course of discipline and reverential fal as the previous Histories of the Rebellions—works for obedience which it exacted, is shadowed out in the cuswhich we have occasion to know the readers of the Mis toms quoted by Athenæus, * in his treatise on the Mancellany are indebted to the suggestions and advice of Mr ners of the Celts; the practice of admitting candidates Aitken. *

into the Order of Knighthood at a certain period, and The present volumes, we think, are likely to be popu. | even the peculiar ceremonies on that occasion, correspond lar, and deservedly so. They are not loaded with useless with the custom of the German tribes on the admission references, though they are obviously the result of no in- of their young men into the military profession;t the considerable reading ;---they are not absurdly eulogistic, devotion and religious veneration with which it regarded nor written in that villainously affected style, which dis-women, was a distinguished feature in the character of figures Mill's History of Chivalry; but temperate and the northern nations, even during the days of Tacitus ; philosophical, yet not without a kindly glow of imagina- the singular and sometimes ludicrous vows which it ention, and a style which, though betraying marks of haste, couraged, are to be traced both in the Scriptures and in is animated and graphical.

the historians of Greece and Rome; the principle of From the consideration of Chivalry itself, its use, pro Knight Errantry appears in the labours of Hercules, of gress, character, and influence, the transition is natural Theseus, and Perseus ; the joust and tournament are but and easy to the Crusades, which were but the emanation the games of antiquity, modelled to suit another climate

and other manners; the system of judicial combat ap. We are not afraid that our character for impartiality will suffer pears to have been known to the Germans in the days of by the praise given above to a work which issues from the house of

| Augustus, $ and forms part of the Burgundian code of Our own publishers. We are as independent of Messrs Constable and Co. as we are of any Booksellers in the country; but as we have never the sixth century ;|| in short, there is scarcely a feature shrunk from pointing out what we conceived to be the faults of their publications, so we shall not shrink from bēstowing upon a work, so

• Athenæus, lib. iv. c. 36. Tacit. Germ. c. 13. deservedly popular as the Miscellany, the commendations it deserves.

# Tacit. Germ. s. 18, c. 19, Hist. lib. iv. c. 18. -ED.

$ Vellcius Paterc.

Leg. Gundebal, A.D. 501,

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which has been considered distinctive of Chivalry of which voted to destruction, and paved the way for the extravatraces are not to be found either among the classical or gances of the Crusades. To slay an infidel was, in itself, the northern nations. It was in their combination alone a positive virtue, which, in the middle ages, was allowed that Chivalry could be considered as an original institu- to counterbalance a positive vice; and thus the knight tion. By the union of virtues of different kinds, each was enabled to indulge in an extreme laxity in the moral acquired a higher lustre; humility and obedience appeared duties of religion, by submitting to the gentle penance of more dignified when united to strength and valour ; scru- destroying a few supernumerary Jews, Turks, infidels, or pulous honour, and undeviating veracity, were doubly ho- | heretics. Even the virtues inculcated on the knight, noured in those who were bound to performance by no were allowed to be in abeyance in the case of an infidel. stronger obligation than that of conscience and opinion; Generosity and courtesy, mercy, and even fair dealing, he and valour itself, the point in which Chivalry may be had no right to expect. “ If an infidel," says St Louis, said to have added least to the ages which preceded it, a great authority, “impugn the doctrines of the Christian derived a nobler character from the objects to which it faith before a churchman, he should reply to him by arguwas now applied, and its union with the softer virtues of ment; but a knight should render nu other reason to the mildness, temperance, and chastity.

| infidel, than six inches of his falchion thrust into his acIt is true, however, that this general theoretical out-cursed bowels.” Even the ladies ran some risk, if they line of the chivalrous character, imposing as it appears, laboured under the fatal stain of heresy. Sir Bevis of was disfigured by practical defects and absurdities insepara- Hampton declines * the invitation of the Princess Josiane, ble from a period of limited knowledge and unbounded whom he terms “ an heathen hound,” and absolutely resuperstition; that the religion of the knight was seldom fuses to hold any communication with her, till appeased unmingled with bigotry, and always alloyed by degrading by her offer, superstition; that the valour which in theory was to be

« My false gods I will forsake, applied only to the defence of his country, his sovereign, his lady, or his brother in arms, was too often dissipated

And Christendom, for thy love, take," in absurd and meaningless encounters; and that, even in The religion of the knight, as it was generally founded, the purest period of chivalry, no intelligible line of dis- not on reasoning, but education and habit, was necessarily tinction appears ever to have been drawn between licen debased by superstition; and if the common occupations tiousness and love.

of life acquired a higher and more elevated character, from We differ from Mr Stebbing in his supposition, that their connexion with religion, there is reason to believe Chivalry acquired its peculiar devotional character so early that religion itself lost much of its spiritual and solemn as the reign of Charlemagne. On the contrary, however impressions, by being perpetually blended with the affairs intimate may have been the relations which subsisted be- of common life. God and the saints held a divided em. tween the Emperor and the church, we do not see the pire with the eyes of the ladies, and the knight appealed least traces of this character in any of the ceremonials of to each, in turn, with the same confidence and devotion. Chivalry during his reign. The earliest notice, from which The names of the saints formed the watchword of partiwe can infer that the military character of the institution cular champions. St Michael, St George, and St James, had become combined with the religious, is in the tenth all of whom tradition had invested with the order of century.

knighthood, were in peculiar request. Tournaments were Ingulph * obseryes, that among the Anglo-Saxons at proclaimed in honour of the Virgin Mary, and, indeed, that time, it was customary for the candidate, who de- the knights never seem to have considered her in any light sired to be admitted among the milites, to confess his sins very different from that in which they viewed their misto the bishop, and to pass the night in the church in prayer tresses. At a tournament held at Valladolid, in the year and mortification, before his sword was blessed by the 1429, the King of Castile was accompanied by twelve priest. The knight, after his admission, received the sa- knights, who personated the twelve Apostles. Even the crament. In the eleventh century, the religious charac- patriarchs and remarkable personages of Scripture were ter of the institution was still more decidedly fixed, by an invested with the attributes of knighthood, by the same ecclesiastical decree of the Council of Clement, ordaining wide-spreading extravagance which placed Alexander the all persons of noble birth, on attaining the age of twelve, Great at the head of a court of Macedonian Paladins, to take a solemn oath before the bishop of the diocese to similar to that of Charlemagne,t and represented Jason defend the oppressed, the widow, and the orphan,—to pro as distinguishing himself at a tournament, given in honour tect the traveller, and to check oppression and tyranny of the admission of Prince Hercules into the order of The candidate for knighthood was now taught to consider knighthood. S In the Visions of Pierce Plowman, a passhimself, in the first place, as the defender of the church; age occurs, which shows how completely Chivalry had behe watched his arms on hallowed ground; he assumed | come incorporated with the whole opinions and habits of the white robes of the neophytes ; vigils, fasts, and con- thinking at that period; for the poet, describing the crufessions, prepared him for the rite in which he was to par- cifixion, and speaking of the person who pierced our Saticipate ; his godfathers became sponsors for him in knight- viour's side, calls him a knight, who came forth spear in hood, as they had done at his baptism ; the weapons with hand, and jousted with Jesus ; and afterwards, for the base which he was invested were blessed by the priest, and act of wounding a dead body, he is pronounced a craven the knight bound himself, by the oath of Chivalry, to de.

and recreant knight. When such revolting absurdities fend the rights of the holy church, to respect religious characterised the religious belief of the day, it is difficult persons and institutions, and to obey the precepts of the to conceive that the subject of religion could exercise over Gospel.t

the minds of its votaries that solemn and awful effect, In our estimate of the influence of the religious charac- which, in a purer form, it was calculated to produce, or ter thus impressed on Chivalry, we are very much at one to doubt that the union of the religious with the military with Mr Stebbing. The religion thus connected with character, however plausible in theory, had led to the most the spirit of Chivalry, exercised a strong, though not al- absurd and impious consequences in practice. ways an amiable, influence on the knightly character. If But leaving the feeling of devotion, we come now to it animated his patriotism and self-devotion, it created a another strong ingredient in the character of the knight; determined spirit of bigotry and intolerance, taught man -his devotion to the fair sex, and, in particular, to the to consider infidels and heretics as vessels of wrath, de lady whom he selected as the chief object of his affections.

# P. 512.

+ Du Cange v. Miles, and 22 Dissertation sur Jourville. St Pa. Jaye Mem. sur la Chev. Part ü. Fabliau. Ordene de la Chevalerie. Barbazan, T. 1. p. 59.

Romaunt of Sir Bevis. t Cronica del Conde D. Pero Nuno, p. 293. I Poeme d'Alexandre, passim. 8 Livre du Preux et vaillant Jason et de la belle Medee.

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