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shall not be laid off more than one new county on the west, and one on the east, adjoining the county of the dividing line; a majority of the qualified voters of said county voting in favor of said division: the counties of Carter, Rhea, and Humphreys shall not be divided into more than two counties each; nor shall more than one new county be taken out of the territory now composing the counties of Tipton and Dyer; nor shall the seats of justice in the counties of Rhea, Carter, Tipton, aud Dyer be removed, without the concurrence of two-thirds of both branches of the Legislature. The county of Sullivan may be reduced below the contents of six hundred and twenty-five square miles, but the line of any new county which may hereafter be laid off shall not approach the county seat of said county nearer than ten miles. The counties of Marion and Bledsoe shall not be reduced below one thousand qualified voters each, in forming a new county or counties.

5. The citizens who may be included in any new county, shall vote with the county or counties from which they may have been stricken off, for members of Congress, for Governor and for members of the General Assembly, until the next apportionment of members to the General Assembly after the establishment of such new county.

ARTICLE XI. Sec. 1. All laws and ordinances now in force and use in this State, not inconsistent with this Constitution, shall continue in force and use until they shall expire, be altered or repealed by the Legislature.

2. Nothing contained in this Constitution shall impair the validity of any debts or contracts, or affect any rights of property, or any suits, actions, rights of action, or other proceedings in courts of justice.

3. Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in the Senate or House of Representatives; and if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of all the members elected to each of the two houses, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on their journals, with the yeas and nays thereon, and referred to the General Assembly then next to be chosen: and shall be published for six months previous to the time of making such choice. And if in the General Assembly next chosen as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by twothirds of all the members elected to each house, then it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to submit such proposed amendment or amendments to the people, in such manner, and at such time, as the General Assembly shall prescribe. And if the people shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments, by a majority of all the citizens of the State voting for representatives, voting in their favor, such amendment or amendments shall become part of this Constitution. When any amendment or amendments to the Constitution shall be proposed in pursuance of the foregoing provisions, the same shall at each of the said sessions be read three times on three several days in each house. The Legislature shall not propose amendments to the Constitution oftener than once in six years.

4. The Legislature shall have no power to grant divorces, but may authorize the courts of justice to grant them for such causes as may be specified by law: provided, that such laws be general and uniform in their operation throughout the State.

5. The Legislature shall have no power to authorize lotteries for any purpose, and shall pass laws to prohibit the sale of lottery tickets in this State.

6. The Legislature shall fix the rate of interest ; and the rate so established shall be equal and uniform throughout the State.

7. The Legislature shall have no power to suspend any general law for the benefit of any particular individual, nor to pass any law for the benefit of individuals inconsistent with the general laws of the land ; nor to pass any law granting to any individual or individuals, rights, privileges, immunities, or exemptions, other than such as may be, by the same law, extended to any member of the community, who may be able to bring himself within the provisions of such law : provided always, the Legislature shall have power to grant such charters of corporation as they may deem expedient for the public good.

8. The Legislature shall have the right to vest such powers in the courts of justice, with regard to private and local affairs, as may be deemed expedient.

9. A well regulated system of internal improvement is calculated to develop the resources of the State, and promote the happiness and prosperity of her citizens ; therefore it ought to be encouraged by the General Assembly

10. Knowledge, learning, and virtue, being essential to the preservation of republican institutions, and the diffusion of the opportunities and advantages of education throughout the different portions of the State, being highly conducive to the promotion of this end; it shall be the duty of the General Assembly, in all future periods of this government, to cherish literature and science. And the fund called the common school fund, and all the lands and proceeds thereof, dividends, stocks, and other property of every description whatever, heretofore by law appropriated by the General Assembly of this State for the use of common schools, and all such as shall hereafter be appropriated, shall remain a perpetual fund, the principal of which shall never be diminished by legislative appropriation, and the interest thereof shall be inviolably appropriated to the support and encouragement of common schools throughout the State, and for the equal benefit of all the people thereof; and no law shall be made authorizing said fund, or any part thereof, to be diverted to any other use than the support and encouragement of common schools : and it shall be the duty of the General Assembly, to appoint a board of commissioners, for such term of time as they may think proper, who shall have the general superintendence of said fund, and who shall make a report of the condition of the same, from time to time, under such rules, regulations, and restrictions as may be required by law; provided, that if at any time hereafter a division of the public lands of the United States, or of the money arising from the sales of such lands shall be made among the individual states, the part of such lands, or money coming to this State, shall be devoted to the purposes of education and internal improvement; and shall never be applied to any other purpose.

11. The above provisions shall not be construed to prevent the Legislature from carrying into effect any laws that have been passed in favor of the colleges, universities, or academies, or from authorizing heirs or distributees to receive and enjoy escheated property, under such rules and regulations as from time to time may be prescribed by law.

12. The declaration of rights hereto prefixed, is declared to be a part of the Constitution of this State, and shall never be violated on any pretence whatever. And to guard against transgression of the high powers we have delegated, we declare that everything in the bill of rights contained, is excepted out of the general powers of government, and shall forever remain inviolate.

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This State was first explored in 1770, by Daniel Boon, a celebrated hunter. The first settlement was near Lexington, in the year 1775. This State originally belonged to Virginia. In 1782 it became a territory by the name of Kentucky. In 1792 it was admitted into the union. The first Constitution was adopted in 1790—the present one in 1799.

Area, 40,500 sq. m. Pop. 1850, 982,405, of which 221,768 were slaves. Free blacks, 9,667.

CONSTITUTION.

PREAMBLE. We, the representatives of the people of the State of Kentucky, in Convention assembled, to secure to all the citizens thereof the enjoyment of the rights of life, liberty, and property, and of pursuing happiness, do ordain and establish this Constitution for its government. ARTICLE I.–Concerning the Distribution of the Powers of

Government. Sec. 1. The powers of the Government of the State of Kentucky shall be divided into three distinct departments, and each of them be confided to a separate body of magistracy, to-wit : those which are Legislative to one; those which are Executive to another, and those which are Judiciary to another.

Sec. 2. No person, or collection of persons, being of one of those departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the others, except in the instances hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.

ARTICLE II.- Concerning the Legislative Department. Sec. 1. The Legislative power shall be vested in a House of Representatives and Senate, which together shall be styled the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

Sec. 2. The members of the House of Representatives shall continue in service for the term of two years from the day of the general election, and no longer.

Sec. 3. Representatives shall be chosen on the first Monday in August, in every second year; and the mode of holding the elections shall be regulated by law.

Sec. 4. No person shall be a Representative, who, at the time of his election, is not a citizen of the United States, has not attained the age of twenty-four years, and who has not resided in this State two years next preceding his election, and the last year thereof in the county, town, or city, for which he may be chosen.

Sec. 5. The General Assembly shall divide each county of this Commonwealth into convenient election precincts, or may delegate power to do so to such county authorities as may be designated by law; and elections for Representatives for the several counties shall be held at the places of holding their respective courts, and in the several election precincts into which the counties may be divided : Provided, that when it shall appear to the General Assembly that any city or town hath a number of qualified voters equal to the ratio then fixed, such city or town shall be invested with the privilege of a separate representation, in either or both houses of the General Assembly, which shall be retained so long as such city or town shall contain a number of qualified voters equal to the ratio which may, from time to time, be fixed by law; and, thereafter, elections for the county in which such city or town is situated, shall not be held therein; but such city or town shall not be entitled to a separate representation, unless such county, after the separation, shall also be entitled to one or more Representatives. That whenever a city or town shall be entitled to a separate representation in either house of the General Assembly, and by its numbers shall be entitled to more than one Representative, such city or town shall be divided, by squares which are continguous, so as to make the most compact form, into Representative Districts, as nearly equal as may be, equal to the number of Representatives to which such city or town may be entitled ; and one Representative shall be elected from each district. In like manner shall said city or town be divided into Senatorial Districts, when, by the apportionment, more than one Senator shall be allotted to such city or town; and a Senator shall be elected from each Senatorial District; but no ward

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