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Ohio is the most populous, wealthy and improved State west of the Alleghany mountains. The first white settlement was made in 1788, yet now i. is the third State in the union in population. In 1799 Ohio formed a territorial government, and in 1802 adopted its Constitution, and was admitted into the Union. A new constitution was adopted in 1851.
Area, 40,000 sq. m. Pop. in 1850, 1,977,031.
CONSTITUTION, WE, the people of the State of Ohio, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, to secure its blessings and promote our common welfare, do establish this constitution,
ARTICLE J.-Bill of Rights. Sec. 1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and seeking and obtaining happiness and safety.
2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for their equal protection and benefit, and they have the
right to alter, reform, or abolish the same, whenever they may deem it necessary; and no special privileges or immunities shall ever be granted that may not be altered, revoked, or repealed by the General Assembly.
3. The people have the right to assemble together in a peaceable manner, to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to petition the General Assembly for the redress of grievances.
4. The people have the right to bear arms for their defence and security ; but standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, and shall not be kept up; and the military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power.
5. The right of trial by jury shall be inviolate.
6. There shall be no slavery in this State, nor involuntary servi tude, unless for the punishment of crime.
7. All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience. No person shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or maintain any form of worship, against his consent; and no preference shall be given by law to any religious society; nor shall any interference with the rights of conscience be permitted. No religious test shall be required as a qualification for office, nor shall any person be incompetent to be a witness on account of his religious belief; but nothing herein shall be construed to dispense with oaths and affirmations. Religion, morality and knowledge, however, being essential to good government, it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to pass suitable laws to protect every religious denomination in the peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of public worship, and to encourage schools and the means of instruction.
8. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety require it.
9. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offences where the proof is evident, or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not be required; nor excessive fines imposed; mor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
10. Except in cases of impeachment, and cases arising in the army and navy, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger, and in cases of petit larceny and other inferior offences, no person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury. In any trial, in any court, the party accused shall be allowed to appear and defend in person and with counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, and to have a copy thereof; to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to procure the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district, in which the offence is alleged to have been committed ; nor shall any person
be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, or be twice put in jeopardy for the same offence.
11. Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of the right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech, or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions for libel, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury, and if it shall appear to the jury, that the matter charged as libelious is true, and was published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted.
12. No person shall be transported out of the State, for any offence committed within the same; and no conviction shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture of estate.
13. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor, in time of war, except in the manner prescribed by law.
14. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions, against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person and things to be seized.
15. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any civil action, on mesne or final process, unless in cases of fraud.
16. All courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury done him in his land, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law; and justice administered without denial or delay.
17. No hereditary emoluments, honors, or privileges, shall ever be granted or conferred by this State.
18. No power of suspending laws shall ever be exercised, except by the General Assembly.
19. Private property shall ever be held inviolate, but subservient to the public welfare. When taken in time of war or other public exigency, imperatively requiring its immediate seizure or for the purpose of making or repairing roads, which shall be open to the public, without charge, a compensation shall be made to the owner, in money; and in all other cases, where private property shall be taken for public use, a compensation therefor shall be first made in money, or first secured by a deposit of money; and such compensation shall be assessed by a jury, without deduction for benefits to any property of the owner.
20. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers, not herein delegated, remain with the people.
ARTICLE II.-- Legislative. Sec. 1. The Legislative power of this State shall be vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate, and House of Representatives.
2. Senators and Representatives shall be elected biennally, by the electors in the respective counties or districts, on the second Tuesday of October; their term of office shall commence on the first day of January next thereafter, and continue two years.
3. Senators and Representatives shall have resided in their respective counties, or districts, one year next preceding their election, unless they shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this State.
4. No person holding office under the authority of the United States, or any lucrative office under the authority of this State, shall be eligible to, or have a seat in, the General Assembly; but this provision shall not extend to township officers, justices of the peace, notaries public, or officers of the militia.
5. No person hereafter convicted of an embezzlement of the public funds, shall hold any office in this State; nor shall any person, holding public money for disbursement, or otherwise, have a seat in the General Assembly, until he shall have accounted for, and paid such money into the treasury.
6. Each house shall be judge of the election, returns, and qualifications, of its own members; a majority of all the members elected to each house, shall be a quorum to do business; but, a less number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as shall be prescribed by law.
7. The mode of organizing the House of Representatives, at the commencement of each regular session, shall be prescribed by law.
8. Each house, except as otherwise provided in this constitution, shall choose its own officers, may determine its own rules of proceed. ing, punish its members for disorderly conduct; and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member, but not the second time for the same cause; and, shall have all other powers, necessary to provide for its safety, and the undisturbed transaction of its business.
9. Each house shall keep a correct journal of its proceedings, which shall be published. At the desire of any two members, the yeas and nays shall be entered upon the journal; and, on the passage of every bill, in either house, the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and entered upon the journal; and no law shall be passed, in either house, without the concurrence of a majority of all the members elected thereto.
10. Any member of either house shall have the right to protest against any act, or resolution thereof; and such protest, and the reasons therefor, shall, without alteration, commitment, or delay, be entered upon the journal.
11. All vacancies which may happen in either house shall, for the unexpired term, be filled by election, as shall be directed by law.
12. Senators and Representatives, during the session of the General Assembly, and in going to, and returning from the same, shall be privileged from arrest, in all cases, except treason, felony, or