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GLEANINGS FROM FOREIGN JOURNALS.
THE SWEDISH SCULPTORS SERGEL AND BÜSTRÖM. Of these celebrated artists,--who, Sergel was one of the first artists with their Danish contemporary, who adopted the system of Mengs Thorvaldsen, hare cast such and Winckelmann, and who abansplendour on the arts of their re- doning the vicious style, still prespective countries, that it may well be dominating among the imitators of termed a luminous Aurora Borealis Bernini, applied themselves to the -the first, J. Tobias Sergel studied study of nature and the antique. It sculpture at Stockholm (of which is owing to this, that his works form place he was a native,) under such a contrast with those of his early L'Archeveque, a French artist, who contemporaries, and obtained for was employed to model the eques- him such distinguished approbation trian statue of Gustavus Adolphus, from all real connoisseurs. His proafterwards cast in bronze. He ductions became universally esteemwent subsequently to both Paris ed, and he himself obtained the flatand Rome, at which latter place he tering cognomen of the Swedish Phicontinued twelve years. During his dias. residence in that city he produced Sergel was, in fact, formed by nathe following works, viz. a recum- ture to be a great artist; he posbent Faun, about half the size of sessed a lively imagination and plaslife ;-Diomed carrying off the Palla- tic powers, by means of which he dium, a figure as large as life: this was enabled to conceive his objects statue is now in England ;-Venus in a lively and forcible manner. His stepping out of the bath and drying style is severe; his forms are well herself ;-Psyche kneeling before Cu- defined; and yet there is somewhat pid, and intreating him not to desert of mannerism in the execution. He her': this groupe, which was begun had early imbibed what the French at Rome, was not finished till after term energie and tact; nor was he the artist's return to Stockholm ; as ever able to divest himself completewas the case with another smaller ly of it, however incompatible with the one, representing Mars support- pure definition of character; hence it ing Venus, who has been wounded happens that not a few even of his by Diomede.
most masterly productions, for inThe following subjects were exe- stance his recumbent Faun, in spite of cuted by him at Stockholm:--a groupe the felicity of the ensemble, appear to containing a figure of History, to be rather excellent academical subwhom the Chancellor Oxenstiern is jects, than chaste and well-maturrecounting the exploits of Gustavus ed representations of individual and Adolphus, in order that she may ce- idiosyncratic character. Sergel was lebrate them : this is of colossal di- nevertheless far superior to the geneme ons; and was intended to have rality of modern sculptors; he was been cast in bronze to decorate the the first to open a new career of art, pedestal of that hero's monument, and to excite by his example others but has not yet been executed.- to enter it. Sweden may, therefore, A model for a monument to the ce- justly boast of having produced in lebrated Cartesius, representing a him the restorer of a purer taste, and flying genius, who with one hand is of a chaster style in sculpture, which uncovering a celestial globe, and with has since been pursued more or less sucthe other holds a torch to enlighten cessfully by Trippel of Schaffhausen, it. His next undertaking was a Zauner a Tyrolese, Christopher Jussen model for the colossal statue of Gus- an Irishman, and more recently by the tavus the Third, which was cast in two illustrious living artists, Canova bronze, as a monument to the ho- and Thorvaldsen.* Thus much re· nour of that sovereign; and besides specting Sergel's genius as an artist: these greater works, he executed a with regard to his personal character number of busts and medallions, of and habits, he indulged in a species both public and private characters. of liberal cynicism, enjoying his for
* To these England is proud to be able to add the name of Chantry.
of his age.
tune with his friends, and revelling depends not only animated expresin the contemplation of undisguised sion, but likewise, in a great degree, nature. This disposition induced the stamp of originality. Since even him to found the Bacchanalia that an excellently modelled figure must, used to be held privately by the ar- when executed in marble by another tists at Rome : they were kept hand, lose a considerable portion of twice a month at his own residence its individuality, for want of that in that city ; for, owing to the liberal accordance with the original conceppension allowed him by Gustavus III, tion, and those Promethean sparks and what he gained by his profes- of vitality which impart life to the sion, his income was very consider- inert mass : consequently let such a able. Of these festive meetings He- work be ever so well arranged as to inse has given us a faint echo in his its ensemble, it will be apt to carry Romance of Ardinghello.
with it, to a discriminating eye, the Sergel's talent was highly esteem- constrained air of a copy. In order ed in Sweden ; where he was created to avoid this defect, the young artist by Gustavus a knight of the polar applied himself sedulously to this star. He was personally attached difficult province of his art; and, as to that monarch, whom he regarded nature had gifted him with consider. not merely as his patron but as his able manual dexterity, and he purfriend ; and such was the grief he sued his labours incessantly and infelt at his untimely death, that he defatigably, he overcame all his imseemed from that hour to lose all pediments much sooner than he himrelish either for his life or for his art. self had expected, so that he may Sergel died in 1813, in the 77th year now be classed foremost among those
artists who work this material with Johann Nicolaus Büström, his pu- facility and freedom. It was partipil, was born at Philippstadt, in the cularly fortunate for Büström, that year 1783, and was intended by his he visted Rome at a period when an parents for trade; but they dying, he attachment to the fine arts was was enabled to follow his own in- developing itself in Sweden, unclination-which led him to devote der the auspices of Gustavus and himself enthusiastically to sculpture. his royal brother, Charles XIII; His circumstances enabling him to for, in consequence of this, many travel, he immediately proceeded to of the Swedish nobility, and other Stockholm for the purpose of attend- rich individuals of that country, ing the academy, and particularly were induced, by a patriotic zeal, to of enjoying the instructions of Ser- encourage the young artist, by imgel. Endowed by nature with a portant commissions, most of which mild and steady disposition, and with he has since executed. The regard a pleasing exterior, the young artist which the student felt for his first insoon acquired the friendship of his structor was returned by the pater. instructor, who felt himself attached nal kindness of Sergel; who, not to his pupil, and was anxious for his contented with imparting to him, in improvement. Büström studied un- his letters, advice respecting the der Sergel for three years, partly most advantageous prosecution of after the antique and partly from his studies, and with constantly ennature: but his master would not couraging him to unceasing persepermit him to copy any of his own verance, declared that he was worworks, considering them—with a thy to succeed him; and obtained rare modesty-as models not of suf- for him a grant of the residence ficient authority, and too little to be which he himself occupied at Stockdepended upon. In 1810, Büström holm, and which had been erected proceeded to Rome, and it was in for him on his return from Rome, at this “ city of the soul” that the the expence of the government. It young artist's views expanded them was for the purpose of taking posselves. Hitherto he had only ino- session of this inheritance, after Ser. delled in clay, but he now perceived gel's death, and at the same time of that it was indispensably necessary carrying into execution some other for him to work in marble; for on designs that Büström returned to the acquisition of facility and con- Stockholm in 1815. In his last letfidence in this manner of execution ters to his pupil, Sergel had spoken
with such a lively enthusiasm of the cithara.-12. A sitting statue of Cegreat qualities of the newly-chosen res ;-with the exception of the firstCrown Prince, and of their beneficial mentioned subject, all the preceding influence over every department of are of the size of life.-13. A colosthe government,-particularly over sal statue of the present King of the fine arts, that the young artist Sweden.--14. A colossal bust of the felt an irresistible desire to obtain
same Prince. the patronage of so illustrious a Me- Of all these works, the artist cænas.
not only formed the models himTo this end, he prepared a colos- self, but likewise executed them in sal statue of this hero, finished en- marble: if we consider besides the tirely except the head, which he pur- many busts which he has produced of posely deferred executing until his private individuals, most of which are arrival in Sweden, in order that he likewise in marble-and his journey might there execute it from nature. to Stockholm, which occupied more His plan was eminently successful, than a year, we shall be suprised at for on his arrival he was employed finding how much he has accomto model not only a likeness of the plished in so short a period. WhoCrown Prince, but likewise those of ever has examined the productions of the King and Queen. He had now this artist, impartially and dispasan opportunity of employing himself sionately, cannot but have perceived secretly upon the statue at his lei- that, whether they have been immesure, and caused it to be presented diately taken from mature,-have one day to the Prince, when the lat- been the conceptions of his own imater had invited him to dinner. This gination, or the suggestions derived trait of his attachment had its de- from other works of art-they are sired effect: the Prince not only free from all extraneous impulse, and thanked the artist for the agreeable from every thing resembling affected surprize which he had thus procured naiveté and artificial grace-conhim, assuring him at the same time, ceived with gusto, and executed with of his protection-but expressed his spirit. satisfaction, by declaring that he Faithfully adhering to the system should wish to be considered as the introduced by his excellent predecespurchaser of whatever works Büs- sor; namely, that nature and the tröm might execute on his own ac- antique together are to be considered count; at the same time, giving him as the career in which alone we may a commission for colossal statues of hope, according to the present situathe three heroes, Charles X. XI. and tion of things, to attain that which is XII. But that neither courtly fa- excellent and perfect in art, since the vour, nor his intercourse with bril- true and the beautiful is the soundest liant society, abated his industry, is support for every style-adhering to evident from the number of his this, he has constantly avoided all works, of which the following is a those byc-paths that would mislead list.
him from this system, and endeavoured 1. An intoxicated Bacchante, as much as possible to approach perhalf the size of life, in a recumbent fection in the manner most consonant posture ;-such was the admiration to this principle. And although in excited by this figure, that the artist many of the above-noticed workshas repeated it three times.-2. A for instance, in his Drunken Cupid, drunken Cupid, who has seized the his groupe of the sleeping Juno, attributes of Bacchus.-3. A female and the colossal bust of the King of dancer.-4. A groupe intended for a Sweden, in the first, for the invenmonument of the Montgomery fa- tion, in the latter, for the beauty of mily: it consists of a genius, support- the details,- he may challenge any ing a mother, who is lamenting the productions of modern sculpture; yet premature death of a beloved son.- the artist does not consider what he 5. Pandora.-6. Hygeia.-7. Bac- has already achieved to be so much chus.--8. Venus binding up her tres- the goal and aim, as it is an adses, as preparatory to entering the vance in his progress towards it, by bath.-9. Euterpe.-10. A sleeping means of which he is striving to Juno, with an infant Hercules at her raise himself still higher in his art; breast.11. Apollo playing on the for, compared with what remains to be done, that which he has done ap- nos stands reclining with her right pears to him to be but inconsiderable. arm upon the trunk of a tree, and
By this maxim has he been regu- with her left gathering up her dralated in all his works, and no where pery, while she looks bashfully toare its effects more conspicuous than in wards the engaging deity of wine. the last, a figure of Ariadne, intended Sweden, who had reason to be as a companion to the Bacchus, No. proud of Tobias Sergel, as the re3. This statue exhibits, as well in its storer of good taste, may also conensemble, as in the motion of the dif- fidently boast that she possesses in ferent limbs, particularly in the beau- Nicolaus Büström, a zealous pretifully turned body, which is exposed, server of purity of style,--one too, who, and in the captivating features, evi- since he finds as generous a patron dent proofs of the advancement which in Charles XIV, as his master did in the artist has made in a more per- Gustavus III, will not fail, by the fect knowledge of beautiful form, more matured works of his genius, and of expression ; for this delightful to render his name yet more distina production recalls to the spectator guished in the world of art, and yet many of the most charming figures more honourable, than even now it'is, of antiquity. The daughter of Mi- to his country.
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
It is the intention of Mr. Frederick acquisition of knowledge he may Webbe shortly to open his splendid communicate to the world the art of mansion in Langham-place, with an comprehending Euclid in a fortnight. evening conversazione, at which the The Ionian University at Ithaca.literary and scientific world will be It is expected that the building will afforded an opportunity of inspecting be completed in the course of the the numerous and valuable speci- present year; and that the young mens of taste and virtû, which have Greeks, who have been pursuing been collected by that gentleman their studies at Lord Guilford's exduring his late residence in Italy. pence for many years past, at the
Something of this kind has long Italian, German, and English Unibeen a desideratum in this metropo- versities, will be summoned thither lis ; especially as a point of meeting to fill the part of teachers. For and communication with those dis- those acquainted with the historical tinguished foreigners who may hap- and poetical interest attached to this pen to be visiting this country. island, it must be agreeable to re
flect, that from this classic rock a Tachydidaxy.---We have invented light may arise to dispel that moral this term in order to designate one and political darkness which has so of the most wonderful inventions, long overshadowed the once brileven in this age of invention and liant, and the still dear and honoured discovery. It will henceforu ard be land of Greece. mere obstinacy on the part of our Winkelmann's Monument at Trireaders, should they not be able, ere este.- Dr. D. Rosetti, who published we commence another volume, to at Dresden, in 1818, a biographical read Homer and Plato in their origi- memoir of the latter period of the nal language, and their Bibles in life of the illustrious antiquary WinHebrew; since a German of the name kelmann, intends to erect a monuof Kastner has written two works ment to him in the cathedral of that may justly be called, a short S. Giusto at Trieste, in which city he cut to the learned languages. One of was murdered in 1768. The artist these is the art of learning Greek employed for this purpose is the Vein two months !! the other, that of netian sculptor, Boza. learning to read, and to understand Byron's Giaour and Mazeppa in Hebrew in four weeks !!! Perhaps German.— The works of our two as a climax to this celerity of the most celebrated English living poets,
Scott and Byron, have, many of them, able splendour on the present æra of been recently translated on the con- their national poetry. The former tinent. Versions of the Giaour and of these, long celebrated for his Mazeppa of our noble bard appeare earlier productions, has lately pubed last year in Germany; that of the lished a new collection of pieces in former by Arthur van Nordstern, of two volumes 8vo. under the title of the latter by Theodore Hell, the Dichtschakeringen, which afford fresh same who translated Manfred: Both proofs of his powerful and inexof them are executed with great fide- haustible genius. The latter author lity and considerable spirit.
has composed a new volume of BalAgriculture ; Naturalization of the lads and Legends, many of them Balm Poplar.-M. Chal has suc- imitations or translations from the ceeded in his meritorious and zeal- German, English, and French lanous endeavours to naturalize this guages. M. Van Hall, too, ought beautiful tree (the balm poplar of not to be forgotten: this learned adVirginia and Carolina, populus bal- vocate, who had acquired so much samifera) in the department of Cha- reputation by his Pliny the younger, rente-Inferieure. It is to be hoped, an admirable dramatic sketch of that this useful species may become Roman manners, in which the augenerally cultivated, it being as re- thor shows himself to be a worthy markable for the extreme elegance successor of Barthelemy, Florian, of its foliage, as for the delightful and Meisner, has produced another odour which it yields when in blos- series of Roman pictures, under the
title of M. Valerius Messala CorviCatacomb at Nogent-les-Vierges.- nus. These interesting delineations In 1816, a grotto was discovered at cannot fail to delight the lover of this place, containing a great quan- classic literature, both from the imtity of human bones. Since then the portance of the events, and the celeexcavations have been extended; by brity of the characters who are inmeans of which a gallery has been troduced, among whom are Horace, cleared of about thirty-six feet in Tibullus, &c. The work is elegants, length, by seven in breadth, and ly printed, and embellished with enrunning from north to south. The bo- gravings. M. Van Assen, another dies, which were discovered in it, ap- distinguished advocate, has publishpear to have been placed in layers one ed a small volume on the history above another, and covered with a and character of Pericles. kind of dry sand, undoubtedly for the Tasso - Paintings of Subjects from purpose of preserving them. None his Life.-M. Ducis, the painter (neof these were discovered in an entire phew of the celebrated tragic writer state, all the bones being separated of the same name, and brother-in-law from one another; there were seve- to the no less celebrated tragic actor, ral heads, however, in very good Talma) has painted four scenes from preservation: all these had very the life of Tasso, forming an interestsunken noses, and prominent chins, ing dramatic series. The first suband the lower teeth appeared to be ject is, Tasso reading an episode in most of them quite persect. With- from his Jerusalem to the Princess in each of these bodies was found Leonora: the second exhibits him in a small axe formed of a very hard, his captivity. In the third picture, white flint, and another species of he presents himself to his sister Corinstrument, also of flint, but of much nelia, on his return home to Sorcoarser workmanship.
rento, the place of his nativity. For Dutch Literature. This may be the subject of the fourth and consaid to be almost terra incognita of cluding picture, the artist has selate years, for so little has it been lected the funeral of the illustrious explored, that hardly any of the bard, which was celebrated at the modern authors are known in Eng- convent of St. Onufrio on the very land even by name. And yet there day appointed for his triumphant are some who deserve to be intro- entry to the Capital, thus presenting duced to our acquaintance: among us with a striking and pathetic exthese are Bilderdijk and Tollens, ample of the vanity of human desires both of whom have cast a considera and expectations.