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17 All unrighteous- 17 Every unrighteous cēlion is fin, ness is fin.' (Kai, 205.) and merits death ; but there are fins But there is a sin not un- which, because they are not comto death.

mitted presumptuously, nor
tinued in, will not be punished with

temporal death. 18 We know that who- 18 We know that whoever bath ever hath been begotten of been begotten of God, (chap. ii. 29. God doth not fin, (anna, note.) doth not fin habitually, (chap. 78.) becsuse He abo is ii. 6. note 1.) because he who is begot

ters of religion in every age, but merely to teach those who in the first age were endowed with the gift of healing diseases miraculously, in what cases and for what ends they were to exercise that gift. See the preceding note 2.

Here a saying, which Bengelius hath quoted from Whitaker, may be introduced as a fit conclusion of this important controversy. Let them, faith he, anoint with oil who can procure bealth for the fick, and let those, who cannot, ahliain from the vain symbol.

5. There is a fin unto death. From the account of the fin not unto death, given in note 1. the reader will easily perceive that the fin unto death, is a sin obstinately continued in, or at least not particularly repented of, the punishment of which is therefore to end in the finner's death. This the spiritual man knowing, by his not being inwardly moved of the Holy Ghoit to pray for his recovery, the apostle in the subsequent clause forbade him, in such a case, to ask it of God.

6. I do not say concerning it, that he should alk. Doddridge, who understands this of our praying

for

repentance and pardon in behalf of obftinate finners, thinks the apostle's meaning is, I do not say, that he should pray with a full assurance of being heard. But as there is neither precept nor exainple in scripture, authorizing us to pray for pardor to obftinate finners, the only thing we can pray for in their behalf is, that God would grant them repentance.

And if he heareth us in that request, their pardon will follow.-On this subject Doddridge's reflection is both pious and benevolent. " Let us not,” faith he, “ too foon pronounce the case of a finner hopeless ; but rather subject " ourselves to the trouble of some fruitless attempts to reclaim him, “ than omit any thing where there may be a poflibility of succeed.

Ver. 17. All unrighteousness is fin. By unrighteousness, the apostle means, every thing by which our neighbour is injured: and by fin, a violation of the law of God. See chap. iii. 4: --Perhaps by making this observation here, the apostle intended to intimate to the fick fin. ner, that to render his repentancc fincere, restitution must be made to every one whom he hath injured by his unrighteousness : in which case his fin, as the apostle adds, will not be unto death,

^ ing.”

και ο

του

- himfelf, and that wicked νηθεις εκ του Θεου, τηρει one toucheth him not.

εαυτον, και

πονηρος ουχ

απτεται αυτου. 19 And we know that

19 Οιδαμεν ότι εκ we are of God, and the / whole world lieth in wic- Θεου εσμεν, και ο κοσμο kedness.

ελ. εν τω πονηρω κειται. 20 And we know that

20 Οιδαμεν δε ότι ο υιος the Son of God is come, and hath given us an un

του Θεου ήκει, και δεδωκεν derftanding, that we may ημιν διανοιαν, ένα γινωσκωμεν know him that is true;

τον αληθινον και εσμεν εν 2nd we are in him that is τω αληθινω, εν τω υιω αυτου true ; even in his Son Jesus

Ιησου Χριςω. “Ουτος εςιν ο
Christ. This is the true
God, and eternal life.

αληθινος Θεος, και η ζωη
ωνιο,

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Ver. 18. And the quicked one doth not hold him, namely in subjection ; for απτειν fignifies to holl fa, as well as to touch. Thus John xx. 17. Mnue ante, Hold me not ; for I do not yet afcend to my Faiber. More over, to touch lgnifies to hurt. John ix. 19. 2 Sam. xiv. 10. Chron, xvi. 22. and even to destroy, Job. i. 11.--The Syriac verfion of this clause is Malus, non appropinqual ei.-The devil is called the evil, or wicked one, by way of eminence, because he entertains the greatest malice towards mankind, and is indefatigable in his endeavours to ruin as many of them as he can.

Ver. 19.-1. We know that we are begotten of God. In the original it is, we know that we are ex 78 Dee. But the expression being ellipti, cal muft be completed from ver. 18. by fupplying γεγεννημενος, as I have done in the translation. See chap. iii. 12. note i.

2. But the whole world lieth under the wicked one. Here as in chap. ü. 16. note 1. the world fignifies, not the material fabric of the world, but the wicked men of the world. Wherefore, the whole world, de. notes all the idolatcıs, infidels, and wicked men of the world, who having made themselves the subjects of the devil, it may be faid of them, that av tu corner Zeltab, they lie under the wicked one ; they are under his dominion : juft as it is said of believers in the next verse, that they are εν τω αληθινω, εν τω υιω, in or under the true God by being under Lis Son, See 1 Thess i. 1. note.-The power of the devil in this lower world, and over its inhabitants, is often spoken of in fcripture. Thus Ephef. ii. 2. He is called the prince of the power of the air, the Apirit which now in wardly worketh in the children of disobedience.--2 Cojinth. iv. 4. he is called The god of this world, and is said to blind the minus of the unbelievers.---1 Pet. v. 3. He is called our adversary, and is Eid to be going about as a roaring lion fecking whom he may swallow up.

Farther,

begotten of God (inger) ten of God guardeth himself, and the guardeth himself, and the devil doth not lay hold on bim so as to wicked one doth not lay inslave him : For such an one, when bold on him."

fick, ye may pray in the hope of be

ing heard. 19 We know that we 19 By keeping ourselves from haare BEGOTTEN of God.' bitual sin, we know that we are be(Kai, 205.) But the whole gotten of God. But the whole world world lieth (EV, 175.) un

of idolaters and infidels lieth under der the wicked one. the dominion of the devil. See Col.

i. 13. notes. 20 (A£, 104.) More- 20 Moreover, we know that the over, we know that the Son of God bath come in the flesh to Son of God (únet) hath deltroy the works and power of the come, and hath given us devil, (chap. iii. 8.) and hath given understanding, that we us his disciples understanding, that we might know the true GOD,' might know the true God, and so we (xa!, 212.) and so we are are subject to the true God, by being ({v, 175.) under the true subject to his Son Jesus Christ. This GOD, (Ev) under his Son is the true God, and the eternal life Jesus Christ. This is the which God hath promised to all true God, and the eter- them who know him, John xvii. 3. nal life,

Farther, wicked men are faid, 2 Tim. ii. 26. To be held in the fnare of the devil.And Ephef. vi. 11. He is said to use crafty methods for the destruction of mankind.—And 2 Cor. xi. 3. He is faid to have beguiled Eve by his fubtilty.--And Coloff

. i. 13. believers are said to be delivered from the power of darkness, and translated into the kingdom of bis beloved Son. See the notes on 2 Cor. iv. 4. and on Ephel. ii. 2.--Because Homer uses the word XEITOls, to denote the bodies of men lying on the ground lain, Doddridge thinks the apostle, by using that word here, represents the wicked men of the world as lying slain by the devil, to give us an affecting idea of the miserable and helpless state of mankind fallen by the Itroke of that malicious merciless

enemy. Ver. 20.--1. Hath given us understanding, that we might know the true God. In the translation of this clause I have supplied the word God from the end of the verse, not only because it is found in the Alexandrian MS. and in the Vulgate, verfion, but because the sense of the passage requires it. In the Vulgate, this verse is translated as follows, Et dedit nobis fenfum ut cognofcamus verum Deum, et fimus in vero filio ejus : Hic eft verus Deus, et vita eterna. And hath given us understanding that we might know the true God, and might be in his true Son: This is the true God and life eternal. It seems the copy from which the Vulgate translation was made, read here, Tox aan Jinoy Seor, nou weer sy tw aan Jiww viw

AUTY,

2. This

21 Little children, keep 21 Τεκνια, φυλαξατε έ. yourselves from idols. A

αυτους απο των ειδωλων. Αunu.

men.

2. This is the true God. Because the person last mentioned in what goes before, is Jesus Christ, many commentators and theologians con. tend, that the demonstrative pronoun outos, stands here for Jesus Christ, and that he is the person who is called the true God. But as pronouns often denote the remote antecedent, when the circumstances of the case require them to be so understood, (Ef. iv. 63.) others are of opinion that outos, in this passage, refers not to Jesus Christ the near antecedent, but to toy aan divos, the true one, or true God, whom the Son of God had given the Christians understanding to know. And this opinion they think probable, because, if the apostle by ouros, means Jesus Chrift

, he maketh him the true God, notwithstanding in the sentence which immediately precedes évtos, he distinguisheth ihe true one, from his Son 7efus Chrit ; Και εσμεν εν τα αληθινω, εν τω υιω αυτε Ιησε Χριςο: And we are under ihe true one, under his Son Jesus Christ Now, although our transators have destroyed that distinction, and have made Jesus Christ the true God, by inserting the word even, in their translation between the two clauses of the sentence, in this manner, And we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ; yet as they have inserted that word without the authority of any ancient MS. the critics who make outos refer, not to Jesus Christ, but to toy aanJovoy, think their opinion ought to have no weight in a matter of such importance. - Glaffius, Philolog. Sacr. p.714. tells us that Athanafius in the council of Nice, disputing against Arius, called this text of John, a written demonstration : and added, That as Christ said of the Father, John xvii. 3. This is life eternal, that they might know thee, the only true God, fo John said of the Son, This is the true God and eternal life : And that Arius then acquiefced in this written demonstration, and confessed the Son of God to be the true God. For these facts Glaffius appeals 10 Athanafij Oper. Tom. 3. p. 705.

Ver.

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Ver. 21. Little children, keep yourselves from idols. For the meaning of the word Erdonwy idols. See 1 Cor. viii. 4. note 2.–The apostle cautioned his disciples against going with the heathens into the temples of their idol gods, to eat of their feasts upon the facrifices which they offered 10 these gods, and again

ft being present at any act of worship which they paid to them, because, by being present at the worship of idols, they participated in that worship; as is plain from what St. Paul hath written on that subject. i Cor. viii. and x.-The exhortation to the brethren to keep themselves from idols, sheweth that this epistle was intended for the converted Gentiles every where, as well as for the Jews in Judea to whom I suppose it was firft fent.

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