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them, who were disposed to do it, and his casting those out of the church who had persevered in a lifting them, contrary to his arbitrary orders. By this, I think, the apostle threatened to exércise his miraculous power in punishing Diotrephes for his evil deeds, ver. 10.--But beloved, said he, do not imitate what is evil in Diotrephes, but what is good in Demetrius, one of your own church. For he who doth good actions is begotten of God; but he who doth evil actions hath not feen God; he hath no right knowledge of God, ver. 11. He then told Caius, that Demetrius was every way worthy of being imitated, because he was praised not only by all good men, but by the gofpel itself, his temper and actions being conformable to the precepts of the gospel, in every respect. To these honourable tef. timonies John added his own approbation of Demetrius's character, which Caius knew to be a true teftimony, because he
GREEK TEXT. Ver. 1 The elder unto 1ο πρεσβυτερGΓαιω the well-beloved Gaius,
το αγαπητω δν εγω αγαπω whom I love in the truth.
εν αληθεια. . 2 Beloved, I wish above
2 Αγαπητε, σερι παντων all things that thou mayest profper and be in health, ευχομαι σε ευοδεσθαι και υeven as thy foul proίper- γιαινειν, καθως ευοδεται eth.
η ψυχη. 3 For I rejoiced greatly 3 Εχαρην γαρ λία ερχοwhen the brethren came and teftified of the truth that is perwv adea@wv, 'xes paptuin thee, even as thou walk- 88VTW.68 TI 27 Jena, nag- . est in the truth.
εν αληθεια περιπατεις. .
Ver. 1.-1. The elder. This appellation signifies the aged apostle See Pref. to 2 John, Sect. 1. penult paragr.
2. To Caius (See Pref. Sect. 2.) the beloved, whom I love in truth. See 2 John, ver. 1. notes.
Ver. 2.--1. Beloved, I pray that with refpe&t to all things thou mayeft prosper. In the Greek it is, Tego TOPTWY euxquas de euoddoJan, which in our Bible is rendered, I wife above all things that thou mayell profper.Beza's translation is, Deum oro de omnibus rebus ; I pray God concerning all things; things temporal as well as things spiritual, that thou mayest prosper. In this translation Beza is followed by Eftius, and Erasmus Schmidius. - Doddridge's translation is, Beloved, I pray that in refpe& of all things.
knew that the apostle never praised any person from flattery, ver. 12.-He told him farther, that he had many things to write to him concerning the unchristian temper and conduct of Diotrephes ; but he would not commit them to paper, left his letter falling into other hands, might be fhewed to that imperious man, and enrage him against Caius, ver. 13. But he hoped to visit Caius soon, and then would speak to him mouth to mouth freely concerning Diotrephes. In the mean time to testify his esteem of Caius, he gave him his apostolical benediction, together with the salutation of all the faithful who were with him; and whom he named the friends, because they were the friends of Christ, and lived in strict friendship with each other. Lastly, he defirèd Caius in his name, to wish health and lappiness to all the faithful in his church, whom he termed the friends, because they also were the friends of Christ, and lived in the strictest friendship with each other, ver. 14.
COMMENTARY. VER. I
The elder? VER. I The elder to Caius the beto Caius the beloved, whom loved of all who know him, wbom I I love in truth.'
also love most sincerely. 2 Beloved I
that 2 Beloved, having the highest (wEpl, 279.) with respect opinion of thy faith and love, I prug to all things' thou may
to God that with respect to all things est prosper and be in thou mayest profper, and be in health to health, even as thy soul es great a degree as thy soul prospereth prospereth.
in faith, and love, and every vir3 For I rejoiced great
3 For I rejoiced greatly, when the ly' when the brethren: brethren who went to the church of came and bare witness to which thou art a member, came thy truth,' even as thou back, and informed me of thy holding walkelt in truth.
the true faith of the gospel, and of thy walking agreeably to that true faith.
2. Thou mayest prosper. Evodsofas, fignifies to go on safely and successfully in a journey. Hence it fignifies to be prosperous in general.
3. And be in health, even as thy foul prospereth. From John's using the wor] üyocesve, some conjecture that Caius was of a fickly conftitution of body: and from his wishing him profperity, they fancy that Caius had sustained confiderable worldly loffes. But I see no reason for either of these conjectures. His wordly affairs, at the time John wrote to him, were such as enabled him to lodge and entertain the brethren and ftrangers, who applied to him for relief. Perbaps alfo,
he gave them money to defray the expences of their journey among the Gentiles.- But be this as it may, it is evident that Caius had made himself remarkable among the Christians in that part of the world, for his many virtues. For the apostle made his proficiency in the Christian graces, the measure of that temporal prosperity and health which he wished to him, not for his own fake alone, but for the benefit of the church. Wherefore, in the apostle's wish, there was a delicate infinuation, that if Caius's riches, of which he had made so good an use, and his bodily health, were in proportion to his virtues, they would be very great, and the continuance of his life and health would be a fingular blessing to the church.
-1. For I rejoiced greatly. The connexion in which this verse stands with ver. 2. where the apostle told Caius, that he prayed for him, teacheth us, that the most proper expression of our joy for the happiness and virtue of our friends, is to give thanks to God for the same, and to pray that these blessings may be continued to them. 2. When the brethren came. That
Exou swy is rightly rendered came, See proved, 2 John, ver. 7. note i.-The brethren here spoken of, seem to have been those mentioned ver. 5. who having been sent by the apostle, either to convert the Gentiles, or to water the Gentile churches already planted, had been hospitably entertained by Caius, and perhaps aflifted by him with money : and who, on their return to the apoftle, had in a meeting of the church over which he prefided, given an account of Caius's perseverance in the true faith, and de clared the
kindness which he had shewed to them, ver. 6. which was the more acceptable to them, as they had generously resolved to take nothing for their maintenance from the Gentiles, to whom they preached the gospel.
3. And bare witness to thy truth. The apostle emphatically terms Caius's joining works of charity, with faith in the doctrines of the gol. pel, his truth. For there is no true faith without good works : It always produces good works ; neither are any works good, but such as proceed from faith. The two joined, constitute the truth of religion.
Ver. 4.-1. I have no greater joys than those which I have. In the new translation of this clause I have supplied the words, which I have : because the plural demonstrative pronoun 78tw construcd, as it must
I have no greater 4. I have no greater joys than those joys than those WHICH which I have, when I hear my disciples I HAVE' (iva, 199.) when are walking in the true faith of the gofI hear my children: pel. are walking in truth.
5 Beloved, thou dost 5 Beloved, thou doft agreeably to the faithfully' what thou per- faith which thou profeffeft, what for mest for the brethren, thou performest for the brethren who are and for the strangers.' gone forth to preach the gospel, and
for the strangers who aflilt them in that good work.
Ef. iv. 199.
be, with peer lotspæv zagav, cannot be translated without the addition of these words.-Rich. Baxter's note on this verse is good. “ True “ ministers rejoice more for the welfare of men's souls, than in their "procuring wealth and worldly honours." See 2 John, ver. 4. note 2.
2. When I hear. So iva ax8w must be translated. This use of ina is thought by fome a peculiarity in John's Ityle. See however,
3. My children. I think John, by reckoning Caius in the number of his children, means to tell us that Caius was converted by him. Others however are of opinion, that the apostle gave to those who were under his inspection, the appellation of fua texve my children, to express his tender affection to them, and his concern for their welfare. And in support of their opinion they observe, that the term children, is used to express affection, 1 John ii. But the terms used in that chapter are Texx M8, my little children, and wasda, young children, which strongly express affection. See 1 John ii. 1. note i. Whereas here, La TFXYC, my children, denotes simply the relation of children to their father, Ver. 5.-1. Beloved, thou dof faithfully. II.SOU TICIEDS.
Thou doft a faithful thing : a thing becoming a faithful person; or one who is a real believer.
2. What thou performejl for the brethren, and for the strangers. As the brethren are here distinguished from the strangers, the brethren I sup. pose were members of the church over which John presided. Ac.; cordingly it is said of them, ver. 7. that they went forth from the place of their residence, which I suppose was Éphesus or some other city of Asia where John abode, to publish the name of Christ as the Son of God to the Gentiles in those parts. And at their return from their first journey, they bare witness to the faith and love of Caius in the presence of the church from which they went forth. But the frangers were poor Christians who, as Heuman supposes, having been driven from their habitation by their persecutors, had come to the city where Caius dwelt, in the hope of finding relief. And happening to meet the brethren there, they joined them in their first journey among the Gentiles.—To fhew how unfaithfully the Papists have translated the scriptures, Benfon takes notice tnat to give countenance to their Vol. VI.
6 Which have borne wit, 6 Οι εμαρτυρησαν σε τη ness of thy charity before
αγαπη ενωπιον εκκλησίας" ες the church: whom if thou bring forward on their jour- καλως σοιησεις προπεμψας ney after a godly fort, thou afws T8 £8, shalt do well : 7 Because that for his
7 “Υπερ γαρ το ονοματος name's fake they went forth,
αυτα εξηλθον, μηδεν λαμtaking nothing of the Gentiles.
βανοντες απο των εθνων. . 8 We, therefore, ought 8 'Huers BV οφειλομεν to receive such, that we might be fellow-helpers to
απολαμβανειν τες τοιέτες, , the truth.
συνεργοι γινωμεθα τη αληθεια. .
pilgrimages, they have, in some of their versions of this passage, tranflated the claufe xai Eks T8s [exas and to pilgrims. With the same view they have tranllated, s eševodoxnorv, 1 Tim. v. 10. If she bath lodged pilgrims. See another instance, James v. 11. note. These examples Thew, of what importance, toward the faithful translation of the sacred oracles, it is to give the true literal meaning of the words, as far as it can be done with propriety.
Ver. 6.-1. These have borne teftimony to thy love, in the presence, &c. Since the apostle represents the strangers, as joining the brethren in bearing witness to Caius's love before the church, from which the brethren went forth to the Gentiles ; also fince in ver. 7. these strangers are represented as having gone forth with the brethren to the Gentiles, it is probable, as was observed in note 2. on ver. 5. that these strangers met the brethren in the city, or place, where Caius lived, and joined them in their journey to the Gentiles ; and accompanied them, when they returned to the church from which they had come.
2. Whom if thou help forward on their journey. These brethren and Atrangers, it seemeth, proposed to undertake a second journey, or had undertaken it, for the purpose of preaching to the Gentiles. The apostle therefore requested Caius, ftill to ałfilt them in executing their pious resolution by entertaining them. For in the language of scripiure, to help forward on a journey, signifies, not only to accompany a person in a part of his journey, Acts xxi. 5. but also to furnith him with necessaries for his journey, Tit. iii. 13.
Ver. 7-1. Because for his name's sake they went forth. For the different interpretations of these words given by the ancient commenta tors fee Pref. Sect. 3. par. 4.- I think these brethren and itrangers were preachers, who had gone forth among the Gentiles for the fake of making known to them the name of Christ, that is, his character as the Son of God, and his office as Saviour of the world; because, as was observed, Pref. Sect. 3. par. 4. if these strangers had been merely