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ago have been before writ- under the mask of being inspired, ten 3 to this very punish- who long ago, in what is written ment ; * ungodly men, concerning the lascivious Sodom- . perverting the grace of ites, and the rebellious Ifraelites, our God to lasciviousness, have been foretold as to suffer this very and denying the only Lord punifoment which I am going to God, and our Lord Jesus describe ; ungodly men who, pretend Chrift.
ing that God is so good that he will not punish finners, per er: the grace of our God, in pardoning sinners, 10 an encouragement to lasciviousness ; and deny the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ, in order to avoid persecution.
in the church, for purposes known to God, they are to be destroyed both here and hereafter.
5. Ungodly men, perverting the grace of our God to lasciviousness. The grace of God, which these wicked teachers perverted to lasciviousness, may be either the goodness of God, which they affirmed to be fo great, that he will not punish men for any fin whatever: Or, it
may be the gospel itself, called the grace of God, Tit. ii. 11. For these ungodly men interpreted the gospel doctrine of justification by faith without the works of the law, in such a manner as to free believers from all obligation to obey the law of God, and taught them that they might commit the worst actions without being liable to punishment, if they poffeffed faith ; by which they meant the speculative belief and outward profeffion of the golpel.
6. Denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ. Kau TON povoy δεσποτην Θεον και κυριον ημών Ιησού Χριςον αρνεμενοι. This fentence may be translated various ways, all equally literal. 1. And denying the cnly Lord God, even our Lord Jesus Christ. According to this translation, one person only is spoken of here, namely our Lord Jesus Christ, who is called the only Lord God.--2. Denying both the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ. .According to this translation, two persons are distinctly ipoken of, namely, the only Lord God, or God the Father ; and our Lord Jesus Christ, his Son.-3. And denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ. - This, which is the translation in our English Bible, and which in sense is not different from the second rendering, I have adopted, not only because according to it, two persons are spoken of as denied ; namely, the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ : but because it represents Jude's sentiment as precisely, the same with John's i Epift. ii. 2?.. He is the antichrist who denieth the Father and the Son.-By declaring that those ungedly teachers denied both the Fath and the Son, the apostle shewed to what a pitch of impiety they had proceeded.— Because the article is prefixed only to μονον Θεον, and not repeated before κυριον ημών Ιησεν Χρισον, Beza VOL. VI. 0
5 Υπομνησαι δε υμας in remembrance, though ye βελομαι, ειδoτας υμας αonce knew. this, how that the Lord, having aved the παξ τατο, ότι ο Κυρις λαpeople out of the land of oν εκ γης Αιγυπτε σωσας, Egypt, afterward destroyed To
το δευτερον τες μη πιςευσανthem that believed not.
τας απωλεσεν. . 6 And the angels which 6 Αγελες τε τες μη τη kept not their first estate, but left their own habita2 ρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην, , tion, he hath referved in αλλα απολιποντας το ιδιον everlasting chains, under Orkningov, E15 agrose feeya
unto είte judg- λης ημερας, δεσμοις αιδιοις ment of the great day.
υπο ζοφον τετηρηκεν. .
is of opinion that these epithets, dowotny, 6:0, and xuşor, belong all to Jesus Christ. But the want of the article, is too flight a foundation to build so important a doctrine on. For in the following passages, Johu xvii. 3. Ephef. v.5. 1 Tim. v. 21. vi. 13. 2 Pet. i. 1, 2. God and Jesus Christ are mentioned jointly, with the article prefixed to one of them only. Yet every reader must be fenfible that they are not one, but two distinct persons. Besides drone is a title not commonly given to Jesus Christ, whose proper title is é xugios. See however 2 l'et. ii. 1. note 3.— Jude's meaning in this pafiage is, that the ungodly teachers of whom he wrote, in order to avoid perfecution, de. nied the only Lord and God of the universe, by acknowledging and worshipping the heathen deities. Also they denied the Lord Jesus Chrift, by denying that they were his disciples.
In the Complutensian edition of the Greek testament, by omitting the firft rab, and placing ter before the second xxb, and devothy after it, and by inserting the article before xugor, the whole clause itands in this manner, τον μονον Θεον και δεσποτης, τον κυρίου ημών Ιησεν χρισον, αρνεμενοι, Denging the only God and Lord, Jesus Christ our Lord. But the MSS. and verfions, on which the Spanish divines formed this reading, are not of sufficient authority to establish it, especially as it excludes the Father from being God and Lord,
Ver. 5.-1. I will therefore pul you in remembrance, &c. On this and what follows, Oecumenius obferves, that by proposing these examples of the destruction of finners from the Old Testament history, the apostle designed to thew that the God of the Old Testament is the same with the God of the New, in opposition to those heretics who denied this, namely the Manicheans : also to prove that the goodness of God will not hinder him from punishing the wicked under the new dispensation, any more than it hindered him from punishing them under the old.-- In this passage, Jude hath mentioned two of the inilan es of the divine vengeance against atrocious dinners, which Peter
5 I will therefore put 5 I will therefore, to prevent you you in remembrance, from listening to these wicked though ye (awak) former- teachers, put you in remembrance, al. dy knew this, that the · though ye formerly knew this, that the Lord having faved the Lord, having saved the people of Israel people? out of the land out of the land of Egypt, afterward deof Egypt, afterward de- Aroyed them in the wilderness, because stroyed them who did not they did not believe his promises, and believe. 3
refused to go into Canaan, Numb.
xiv. xxvi. Heb. iii. 18, 19. 6 (T£) Also the angels 6 Also, the angels who kept not their who kept not their own own office, the office which was orioffice,' but left their pro- ginally allotted to them, but left their per habitation, he hath proper station, by intruding into the reserved in everlasting offices and stations of the angels chains, under darkness, who were greater than they, God unto the judgment of the hath driven out of heaven, notwithgreat day. 4
standing their numbers and power, and bath kept them, ever Gince, in everlaslinz chains of confinement un. der darkness, unto the judgment of the great day, to be punished.
took notice of, 2 Epift. ii. 4: 5. and in place of the third instance, the destruction of the old world, he hath introduced the destruction of the rebellious Israelites in the wilderness.
2. That the Lord having saved the people. Some MSS. and versions read here Ingaa Jefus having saved. Two of Stephen's MSS. read 2:05 God; which expresses the true meaning of the passage. But the common reading is belt supported.
3. Aftercard destroyed them who did not believe. Jude doth not mention the various fins committed by the Israelites in the wilderness; such as their rebellion in refusing to go into Canaan, their idolatry in worshipping the golden calf, their fornication with the Midianitish women, their frequent murmurings; but he sums up the whole in their unbelief, because it was the source of all their sins. Ver. '6.-1. Also the angels who kept not thy &UTWY ap Xno
their office. So the word apxn fignifies, Luke xx. 20. Deliver him on apx? xxs esosą, to the power and authority of the Governor. The apostle's meaning is, that these superior beings did not keep their original office, but forfeited it by some misbchaviour. Hence they are called, 2 Pet. ii. 4. The angels who finned. The common translation of this clause, viz. who kept not their first estate, expresseth its meaning very well; but it is a paraphrase and not a translation.-Hunt in his Dilsertation on the fall of man, faith, the office of the angels who finned, was to attend the visible manifestation of the divine presence in para
© Even as Sodom and
7 125 Eodopese
Σοδομα και ΓοGomorrha, and the cities about them, in like manner
μορρα, και αν giving themselves over to
πολεις τον ομοιον τετοις τροfornication, and going after που εκπορνεύσασαι, και απtrange lefh, are fet forth ελθεσαι οπισω σαρκος
ETEfor an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal μας, προκεινται δειγμα, πυfire.
ρος αιωνια δικην υπεχεσαι,
", 8 Likewife also these.
8 “Ομοιως μεντοι και ετοι. filthy dreamers defile the
Ενυπνιαζομενοι, σαρκα μεν fleth, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities. μιαινεσι, κυριοτητα δε αθε
τεσι, δοξας δε βλασφημα
dise, and to minister to mankind. But this is to be wise above what is written.
See note 4 2. But left their proper habitation. Oxntboy, denotes the place in which God appointed the angels who finned, to execute the offices and functions which he had assigned toʻthem. According to Hunt, their habitation was this earth.-It is of more importance to observe, that by saying, The angels kept not their own office, but left their proper habitation, the apostle infinuates that they attempted to raise themselves to a higher itation than that which God had allotted to them ; consequently that the fin for which they are to be punished, was pride and rebellion.
3. He hath reserved in everlasting chains, under darkness. -Everlasting, chains, is a metaphorical expresion which denotes a perpetual confinement, which it is no more in their power to escape from, than a man who is strongly bound with iron chains can break them. See the explication of the phrase, under darkness, given 2 Pet. ii. 4
4. Unto the judgment of the great day. This great day is elsewhere called, the day of the Lord, and that day, emphatically.--In our Lord's description of the general judgment, Matth. xxv. 41. he tells us that the wicked are to Depart into everlafling fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.
This implies that there wicked spirits are to be punished with the wicked of mankind. - Hunt in his dissertation referred to in note 1. orthis verfe, faith, Upon the supposition that the fallen angels belong to our system, their punishment with the wicked of our species, will
appear the more congruous.--If the angels who finued, were originally appointed to minister to mankind, as Hunt imagines, and were discontented with this earth in its paradifical state as an babita: tion, the atmosphere which surrounds the earth in its prefent altered state, is very properly made the prison-houfe in which they are cona fined till the general judgment.
7 (5525, Parkh.) As 7 Further, feeing Sodom and Go. Sodom and Gomorrha, morrha, and the cities around them, and the cities around which in a manner like to these wicked them,” which in a manner teachers had habitually committed like to these bad habitually whoredom and bestiality, are publicly committed whoredom, 3 and set forth as an example of that terrible gone after other flesh, are punishment which is to be inflicted set forth an example, on the ungodly after the general having undergone the punish- judgment; kaving from the immement of an eternal fire, diate hand of God undergone the
punishment of an eternal fire; a fire whose effects will remain while the
world remains, 8 (Ομοιως μεν τοι, 204.) 8 In like manner indeed, these un. In like manner indeed, these godly men shall be punished with eteralso SHALL BE PUNISH- nal fire. Being cast into a deep spiED.' Being cast into a ritual peep through the intoxication deep sleep, they defile of fin, they, under the pretence of the flesh, and despise Christian liberty and a superior illu(23pt9Tnta)government, and mination, defile their body like the revile (coEas) dignities. 3 Sodomites with libidinous practices,
and despise every kind of government, and revile magistrates when they punish them for their leud practices.
Ver. 7.-1. And the cities around them. These ciries were Adinah and Zebuim. The four are mentioned, Deut. xxix. 23. - Zoar, the fifth city in the plain of Sodom, was fpared at the requiit of Lut, for a place of refuge to him and his family.
2. Which in û manner like to the le. TOY OLODOV TUTO; Tomov. I have followed our translators in completing the construction of this clause, by supplying the prepofitioa xatz, which the fenic likewise requires.-Like to theje The relative 78761;, being masculine, may refer to the ungodly teachers mentioned, ver. 4 Or, though somos be a feminine word, yet as it signifies the inhabitants of a city, as well as the city itfelf, the relative 1870s may very properly be in the masculine gender, to denote the inhabitants of the other cities of the plain. See Ex. iv. 64 -I make these observations, because some commentators sup. pose Tatoş stands for the angels who left their proper habitation, as if their fin had been lewdness; which is a very fulle idea.
3. Had habitually committed whoredom This is the literal significa. tion of the compound word exaOQVEUTATE : because ex increases the fig. tion of the word with which it is compounded. -- In the langu igo of fcripture tvogrevtiv fignilies to commit any sort of whoredom or uncleanness, and among the relt Sodomy. See I Cor. v. 1. note 1. and Parkhurst in voc. extogvevo pecub. Eltius faith the preposition
sc in this compounded