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On translating the Greek Language, used by the Writers of the

New Testament.


HE author hath judged it necessary to make the follow

ing additions to Eflay iv, for establishing more fully the translations which he hath given of the Greek particles, &c. as used by the writers of the New Testament, because, as he hath more than once remarked already, by rightly translating the Greek particles, most important alterations have been made in the sense of many passages of the apostolical epistles, whereby the meaning of these paffages hath been placed in a more clear, unambiguous, and beautiful light, than formerly. Wherefore, if the reader is of opinion, that the meaning of any Greek word mentioned in Ef. iv, is not fufficiently established by the examples there produced, he is desired to consult this supple


N. B. The paragraphs of El. 4. being all numbered, the figures prefixed to the following additions, point out the paragraphs of that Elay to which they belong.

No. 1. Active verbs express the agent's attempt or intention, &c. John i.9. That was the true light which lighteth, which is defigned to light, every inan that cometh into the world.-Rom. ii. 4: Not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth, is designed to lead, thee to repentance. - 1 John i. 10. If we say we have not finned, we make, we attempt to make, him a liar.-Rev. xii.


Called the Devil and Satan, who deceiveth, who endeavours to deceive, the whole world.

4. Active verbs 'express, not the doing but the permission of a thing. 2 Sam. xxiv. 1. The anger of the Lord was moved against


Ifrael, and he moved David, that is, permitted David to be moved by
Satan against Israel: as is plain from i Chron. xxi. 1. And
Satan flood up against Israel, and provoked David to number Ifrael.
9.-1. The fubjunctive made put for the indicative. 2 Cor. xiii.

We are glad itxuWES; &, JEwuev, ühes de diverounte) when we are weak, ond ye are lirong.

3. The infinitive with the arti:c orefixed, is put for the subjunélive. Philip. iii. 10. Ty yvwvah, That I may know him, and ihe power of his resurrection. **

3. Also for the corresponding substantive noun. Philip. iii. 21. Κατα την ενεργειαν τα δυνασθαι αυτον. According to that ytrong working whereby he is able even to fubdue all things.

10.--1. Buxtorff, in his Thesaur. p. 91. observes, that among the Hebrew's, “ Frequentissima est temporum commutatio et enallage, 'ut preteriti

, pro futuro, et futuri pro preterito : et in « continuata fententia fequens tempus trahitur plerumque in “ naturam precedentis.”

2. The preterite used for the future. Col. ii. 13. You being dead through the fins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, (ruvelwo70110) he hath, he will make alive together with him; with Christ. -Jude ver. 11. K xianWiONTO,) And (have perished) fall perisa in the rebellion of Korah.

-1. The present tense put for the preterite. 1 John iii. 8. The devil finneth (hath finned) from the beginning. -- 2. Also for the future. 1 Cor. xi. 24. This is my body (TO UTER Den mapsvor) whirh is broken, (which shall be broken; or, which is about to be broken) for you.

16.-1. The Greek participles have sometimes an adversative Seufe. Heb. xi. 13. All these died in faiih' (len 2a6°Cutes) though they did not receive the things promised. For, seeing them afar off, &c.-Jude ver. 5. I will therefore put you in remembrance, Fitores) though se once knew this, &c. * 2. The participle is put for the present of the indicative. Rom.

O J'ho is God over all. * Rev. i. 8. I am Alpha and Omega, (swv) which is, and which was.

3. Beza, in his note on 2 John ver. 7. faith, the participle of the imperfect of the indicative, is used in innumerable places for the auriit. See 2 john ver. 7. note .

18.-1. When 41.-1. Elect,


ix. 5



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18.-1. When one fubftantive governs another, the latter mu? be translated as an explication of the frmer

Iliad A. line 350. Παιον σε επος φευγεν ερκος οδοντων, W' at kind of peech bath efraped the guard of your teeth?? That is, your teeth which are a guard, namely to your tongue.

19.--1. Two fubftantives joined by a copilative particle, muft be translated in regimen. Philip. i. 25. E.s tnv Wu. AQUHOTNU nca Xaçay TNS TEISE45. For your furtherance and joy of faith. For the advancement of the joy of your

faith. 21.-1. Genders of nouns. The neuter is sometimes put for the masculine. Gal. iii. 22. But the scripture hath Nut 14p together (Tx Tavtx, all things) all men under fin. Ephef. i. 10. To gather together (TQ TT AVTQ) all men, Jews and Gentiles, under Chrifi -2 Theff. ii. 6. And ye know (to XXTE20v) what now restraineth ; ye know the person who now reitraineth.

22.-1. The sacred writers, to render their discourse of greater extent, sometimes put the relative in the plural number, notwithstanding its antecedent is in the singular number. John v. 16. If any one fee his brother finning a fin not unto death, let him ask God, and he will grant to him life for those, &c.

24.– 2. Genitive case denoting podelion. Rom. xv. 8. EncyYENGES TO TEPWvg Promises belonging to the fathers. Epl cf. in. I. Paul o ceouelos T8 Xp058) a prisoner belonging to Christ Jesus.

3. Denoting the end for which a thing is done, or fitfired. Philemon ver. 13. He might minister to me (sv Tolsdiquais 78 xvx7%E08) in these bonds for the gospel.

27.-1. Comparison in the third degree, by a repetition of the word. Eph. ii. 4. Through his great love with which he loved us : that is, through his exceeding great love.- james v. 17. Kai Z ÇOCEUXApaonuśxto. And (he prayed with prayer, that is,) be prayed earnestly. See also Ephes. vi. 18.

31.-1. All, fignifies sometimes a confiderable part only. John iv. 29. Come see a man who told me all things that ever I did.-Acts i. 1. All that Jesus began both to do and teoch.--I Cor. ii. 15. The spiritual man examineth indeed all things.--I Cor. ix. 22. To all I have become all things.-- Wherefore ; Pet. iv. 7. The end of all things hath approached; fignifies the end of the Jewish church and state only.

41.-!. Elect, elected, in the following passages may signify approved. Rom. xvi. 13. Rufus (EX) EXTOV EV Kupiw) the approved by the Lord.-Col. iii. 12. Put on therefore (w's EXMEXTOL TU Oes) as persons approved of God, holy, and beloved, bowels of mer.


59.-1. Walk. In scripture, one's moral conduet is denoted by the metaphor of walking, because as walking in a road ends in one's arrival at a place, so his moral conduct will at length end, either in happiness or in misery to him.

60.-1. Word, (20yos) so etimes denotes eloquence. 2 Cor. viii. 7. Therefore as ye abound in faith (xat royw) and in eloquence. -Ephes. vi. 19. That (novos) eloquence may be given me in the opening of my mouth.

2. Aoyos, a promise. Tit. i. 3. Hath manifested (TOV Royov autx) } bis promise, by preaching with which I am entrusted. See note 1. on this verse.

3. nogos, a prayer. i Kings xvii. 1. Elijah said to Ahab, As the Lord God of Israel liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these three years, but according to my word; my prayer. See James v. 17. note 2.

4. Aogos, a doctrine. Tit. i. 9. Holding faft (TX 7158 2098) the true doctrine. 5. Aoyos, an history, a narration, a discourse.

a narration, a discourse. Acts i. 1. The former (10709) treatise * or narration.—2 Pet. ii. 3.

-2 Pet. ii. 3. Will make merchandise of you (TTHAOTOS 20gois) by fictitious tales.

6. Hoyos, an appearance or fbew of a thing. Col. ii. 23. Which things have indeed (Royov) a few of wisdom. *

63.-1. The relative pronouns refer to the remote antecedent. Luke xxiii. 14. I have found no fault in this man.-15. No nor get Herod; for I sent you to him, and lo nothing worthy of death is done by him. Not Herod, who is last mentioned, but Jesus, who is mentioned ver. 14.--I Cor. xv. 25. For he must reign till (auros) he (God, who is mentioned in the preceding verse) hath put all the enemies under his feet.

65.-1. The pronoun xutos, is often used in the sense of avandos, one another. 1 Cor. vi. 7. re go to law (vel' favtwv) one with another. * See also Ephes. iv. 19. 32. V. 19.-Col. iii. 16. i Theff. v. 13.-Jude ver. 20. John vii. 35.

66.-1. The

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