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examined also, under the promise, it is true, to pass their examination within a year, which was however not exacted on account of the want of teachers. This want was in part remedied by facilitating the employment of foreign candidates; and in consequence of the cabinet order of Jan. 27th, 1862, a great many from the North-German States filled vacant positions, so that the employment of non-examined candidates was rarely tolerated, while that of candidates on trial was greatly favored, it being ruled by rescript of Feb. 14th, that they should not teach any longer beyond the lessons for their practice, without receiving compensation, but should have a competent salary, and that all regulations with regard to their exercises in teaching, under supervision and information, should be strictly adhered to.

The trial-year may be held at gymnasiums and real-schools, but only exceptionally at progymnasiums and secondary burgher-schools. The members of seminaries for high-schools are dispensed from it. In fixing the amount for pension, it is not counted as a year of service.

Assistance for travel to foreign countries is only given by the French gymnasium of Berlin, which has two stipends for the education of candidates in the French language.

V. PLAN OF INSTRUCTIONS.

The plan of instructions of Prussian gymnasiums, as elsewhere, has, in the course of time, been subject to many modifications, and we can here only enter nearer upon that by which a uniform order of instruction has gradually been effected.

The requirement for maturity-examination necessarily prepared the way to uniformity in the plan of instructions preparing for it. The Department for Public Instruction concluded, in 1810 at first, to introduce a general plan of instruction, which the Catholic schools should also adopt, and by gradually executing this plan, a ministerial rescript of Nov. 12th, 1812, prescribed that all classical schools which possessed the privilege of qualifying for the university, should adopt the name of gymnasium. Prof. Süvern was intrusted with arranging a general plan of instruction; this plan, submitted to Fr. A. Wolf for his opinion, was modified at different times, then fixed upon to be, in its main points, a guide in the administration of schools, but never published or brought into use generally. The order of instruction of the different gymna siums, from the individuality of these schools and their directors, main-* tained great variety for a much longer period, and it was thought a special proof of skill of the directors, in which manner the plan of instruction was laid out by them, wherein they had to give to local circumstances, to the demands of the times, to the need of the institute, to the capacity of the powers for teaching, that consideration which alone, with a just and sensible direction, can be beneficial to schools.

Great credit is due to Bernhardi, the director of the Frederic Werder gymnasium of Berlin, by the publication, in 1812, of the plan of instruc

tion of the programme for 1812, the second chapter (part one) of which treats on the organization and subjects of instruction. In this he thus speaks of the degrees of instruction in the gymnasium: "Though the gymnasium is a school for classics, and its organization of instruction must tend to this object from the lowest class, yet consideration must be had, in the present condition of school matters, that those also who intend to become tradesmen, mechanics and artists, in the widest sense of these words, should be thoroughly and completely prepared for such vocations. For this purpose, all of the eight classes should be divided into three degrees of education, of which the third and lowest had for its object the practical education for the lower civil vocations; the second more chiefly for the higher civil professions, and the first to impart the required knowledge to future students of the learned professions." On this principle he based the organization of his school, and under the increasing influence he acquired over the whole direction of matters of instruction, his plan became the model for all Prussian gymnasiums.

The same principles pervaded the order of instructions of 1816, (unpublished,) according to which, gymnasiums have the object "not only to assist their pupils in acquiring that measure of classical and scientific education necessary to understand and profit from systematic lectures on the sciences at universities, but also to furnish them with the ideas and sentiments of the highest individual culture. The lower classes give to those also who are not destined for the learned professions, an opportunity to prepare themselves for other vocations which require more knowledge than can be furnished by elementary schools and inferior burgher-schools." Every gymnasium, after the plan of Bernhardi, was to consist of six classes, with three degrees of instruction; in each of the lower classes, sixth, fifth and fourth, the scholars should spend one year; in the middle classes, third and second, two years; in the first class, three years; that is, at an average, from the ninth to the nineteenth year. The branches of instruction were thus distributed: Latin in the sixth and fifth, each six lessons, in the other classes, eight lessons; Greek in the fourth and third, five lessons each, second and first, seven lessons; German in the sixth and fifth, each six lessons, upper classes, four lessons; mathematics, six lessons; natural science and religion, each two lessons; history and geography, each three lessons; drawing, obligatory to the third, and penmanship, obligatory to the fifth; the total number of lessons to be thirty-two, outside of those for Hebrew, singing and gymnastic exercises. To the French language no place was given, "because the general object of teaching languages in schools was completely attained by the three classical mother languages of Europe, the Greek, Roman, and German." This exclusion was attributable in a great degree to the then existing hatred of the French, through which also parents asked to have their children excused from learning a language which in fact was never struck from the plan of instruction, and remains to this day part of the maturity-examination. The increase of lessons in German is also

connected with the demand of the time; a revived national spirit and the increased study of ancient German literature were infused into gymnasiums. Remarkable is this expression: "The Prussian State is Christian; therefore Christian must be all religious instruction in its public schools, and no room should be given to universal religion."

Instruction in gymnastics, "so important to national education, since the harmonious development of mind and body is eminently necessary for every one, should not be ignored at any school." Notwithstanding this announcement, the reactionary movement of 1819 banished gymnastics for a long period from all public institutions.

Though the plan of instruction mentioned above, afforded but little scope to ancient classical languages, and attributed more importance to modern science, yet not enough had been done to satisfy the constantly increasing utilitarianism, and demand for modern languages, particularly for the English, and wherever burgher or real-schools, beside the gymna⚫sium, did not exist, many concessions had to be made to the pressure of modern ideas by dispensations from the study of the Greek language, or to increased demand in the study of real-science, not rarely requiring the extreme efforts of the pupils. Beyond solitary attacks in periodicals and newspapers against the gymnasiums, the provincial board of Silesia and Prussia petitioned repeatedly for modifications in the plan of instruction of gymnasiums, and in favor of converting some of them into secondary burgher-schools. The Diet of Silesia, Dec. 30th, 1831, in the order of prorogation, received a memorandum of the Department for Instruction, on the studies at gymnasiums of young men who did not intend to enter one of the learned professions. In this the significance of every branch of instruction is pointed out. "It is a proposition void of all foundation," it says in the introduction, "that instructions at gymnasiums should be calculated for a course at universities only, and not in aid of the development of every mental faculty. The subjects taught at gymnasiums, in the order and proportion of progress in the different classes, form a foundation to all superior culture of men, and the experience of centuries, the opinion of experts, speak in favor of the usefulness of all studies, within the sphere of instruction of gymnasiums, for the development and invigoration of the mind and the abilities of youth.

An article written by Lorinser, counselor of the medical faculty, noticed beyond its merits, for exaggerations and superficialities, called forth a great many replies; and each teacher of a gymnasium was requested to give his opinion in writing, and it gave occasion to the circular of Oct. 24th, 1837, prepared by Joh. Schulze. From all reports of the provincial school boards, the department had satisfactory proof that the condition of the health of youth at the gymnasiums was generally entirely satisfactory, and that no reason existed for the accusations of Lorinser. However, the dispute led to the following general plan of instruction:

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In accordance with this general table, a yearly plan should be prepared at each gymnasium, based on considerations of the peculiar wants and fluctuating demands of each class, to which should be added an exact description of the limits to be attained by each class in every branch. "If herein, in regard to the plan of instruction of the different gymnasiums, a free motion is permitted within the limits of general regulations, the number of lessons in religion, the languages and antiquities, and in mathematics, should not be diminished, as these are eminently fit, by their vivid connection, to realize the purposes of instruction, and therefore the position they occupy, as chief parts in the organization, must not be removed." It was from a just appreciation of the demands of the time, that a certain degree of freedom in the selection of what they considered necessary was left to the directors. Commencing the study of French in the third class made instructions in this language almost fruitless; for teaching natural history, teachers were wanting; two lessons in history in class I. was not enough, if this important branch was to be treated thoroughly in the highest class; so the schoolboard concluded to begin the study of French in the fifth class, to add the time for natural history to geography, to increase the hours of instruction in the second and first class to thirty-two, and to make other changes as the directors advised, which from the vigilant supervision of the board did not prove injurious. On the basis of the experience of the last twenty years, and of the changed demands in instruction, a modified plan was devised, by ministerial rescript of January 7th, 1856, which was intended to reduce the hours and concentrate the subjects of instruction:

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Admittance to class VI., according to regulations, takes place after the age of nine years; fluent reading of German, in German and Latin type, a legible handwriting, facility in writing from dictation, without great mistakes, and knowledge of the principles of arithmetic, are required. The length of the course in each class remained as fixed by circular of Oct. 24th, 1857 for the sixth, fifth, fourth, one year each, for the third, second, first, two years each, for the third and second, according to progress, a shorter period.

In the three upper classes of a gymnasium they read: Cæsar, Curtius, Livy, Cicero, Quintilian, Sallust, Tacitus; of poets, Ovid, Virgil and Horace; Cæsar and Curtius are read in full; of the others, selections suitable for scholars, so that in a certain period the same parts must be reviewed; but preference on the part of the teacher, for greater variety in the reading matter, must not withdraw any thing suitable from the scholars. Seldom are two prose writers read in one class, and never two poets. Special editions for schools are not prescribed; the well-meant attempt to prescribe the same edition for all scholars of one class will be defeated by the prejudice of parents. The editions of Weidmann and Täubner are most in use and are recommended.

In the first class, sometimes in the upper part of the second class, free Latin compositions are occasionally required, four to six within six months. Frequent exercises in Latin were required in the beginning of this century, and lectures on ancient history were then delivered in this language, so that on certain days only Latin was spoken at school. Coincident with the demand for the modern studies and for practical interpretation of ancient authors, lectures in Latin gradually diminished; they were even considered an affectation, and no longer practiced by young philologians, so that, notwithstanding an urgent recommendation to students of medicine and jurisprudence, (circular of Jan. 7th, 1826,) they entirely disappeared from many gymnasiums. The regulations for

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