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maturity-examination of 1834 decreed again that the examination in Latin should be held in this language, and opportunity should be given to all to show their fluency and ability of expressing themselves in Latin in a well connected discourse. Circular of Jan. 12th, 1856, extended this regulation also to the examination in the Greek language; but to revive speaking in Latin, it requires well practiced teachers, as well as a natural aptitude for it among those who favor the same; hence the regulation of Dec. 24th, 1861, suggests that in the testimonial of final examination for theologians, the degree of their fluency in speaking Latin should be noted, and the examined should be exhorted not to neglect the practice of it.

Greek. The reading of Greek authors commences in the upper division of class III., with Xenophon's Anabasis, and is chiefly limited to the writings of Xenophon, Demosthenes, Plato, Thucydides, to which are added Homer in class II. and Sophocles in class I. They proceed on the same principles as with Latin. The prominence given to this study in the first part of the present century, by reading even Pindar, Aristophanes and Eschylus, was limited to a less measure by ministerial rescript of Dec. 11th, 1828, to the task of understanding, without difficulty, authors like Homer and Xenophon, and to the reading of selected tragedies of Sophocles and Euripides, and the easier dialogues of Plato. To read selected parts of Thucydides was permitted to such scholars only who had acquired great efficiency in the interpretation of Xenophon. Exercises in translating from German into Greek are intended only to familiarize with the rules of grammar; and for this purpose one hour per week is devoted to writing or extemporizing in Greek. Written exercises in both languages, dictated by the teacher, are highly prized, and determine the standing of each scholar in his class.

Mathematics. Instructions in this branch, as long as four lessons per week were set apart, were so divided by the class teacher, with the consent of the director, that in the first course of six months, (semester) geometry was taught, and in the second course, arithmetic; or that two lessons were alternately devoted to each subject. But since 1856, in classes IV. and III., only three lessons per week are devoted to mathematics; either but one subject is taught in each semester, leaving it to the industry of the scholar and to occasional reviews to attain the other, until his promotion to the next class, or in the different grades of instruction, now geometry and now arithmetic are alternately placed in the foreground. Instructions in Hebrew, singing and gymnastics are given after school hours, as also in drawing for the middle and upper classes. Deviation from this plan is permitted only with the consent of the board of instruction, when required by the local or geographical condition or the endowments of the school. Discretion is allowed, 1, to increase the lessons in German in the lower classes, where the teaching of Latin and German is supposed to be under one teacher; 2, to devote the hours fixed for instruction in natural history, when no suitable teacher for this

branch is engaged, in classes VI, and V, to the study of geography and arithmetic, and in class III, to history and French.

Mental philosophy is no longer designated as a part of instruction, but the essential part thereof, the fundamental principles of logic, may be connected with the lessons in German in class I. It is also left to the provincial school-board to charge one of the teachers of mathematics or of philology with the necessary instructions in mental philosophy, and to increase his hours of teaching by one, limiting thereby the number of lessons in German to two. To omit the study of Greek is only permitted when in smaller cities the gymnasium has to accommodate students who do not desire to prepare themselves for such learned professions as require the full education of a gymnasium, but who desire to acquire a general education for civil vocations.

"The execution of the general plan of instruction," says the cabinet order, "can produce the intended effect on the young confided to the gymnasiums, only when the teachers of the school are conscious of their labor being a work common to all, where the activity of the one finds its completion in the activity of the other, and therefore all must work in harmonious connection." Teachers in their lessons and plan of instruc tion must not disregard the prescribed books of science or tables of history, etc., lest the scholars would not receive the benefit intended, which consists mainly in familiarity with a well defined subject. Increased attention is required by the department to be given to written lessons, the extent of which was limited to a proper measure by circular of May 20th, 1854. Directors must take frequent cognizance of the subjects for composition, and of all written lessons, to prevent any overtaxing or unsuitable selection. In order to give students an opportunity, before they leave the gymnasium, to acquire a thorough knowledge of ancient classical literature, within the limits prescribed for gymnasiums, a circular rescript of April 11th, 1825, recommended private lectures at all gymnasiums, which have been given by the greater part to this day, the director and teachers readily undertaking this additional work. Certain it is, that the revival of free private study outside of regular school lessons, must have a beneficial influence on the independent attendance of lectures at universities.

Religion. Instruction in religion has attained increasing significance at the secondary-schools since 1815. The regulations for examination of 1812 contained no provisions for special inquiries as to the knowledge in religion required of candidates. The circular of the school-board of the province of Brandenburg, of Aug. 4th, 1826, which was adopted by others for a long time, though finding not a few teachers suitable for teaching religion, for the greater part of them had studied theology, yet found but few qualified by examination, as an examination of candidates with regard to ability in teaching religion, was not ordered until 1824. The quick and sincere religious spirit of that time itself required that instruction in religion should occupy equal rank with the most important branches, and great value was ascribed to it. The plan of teaching religion included

Biblical history in the lower classes, committing to memory the chief parts of the catechism, with references from the Bible, and suitable hymns; in the middle classes, concise lectures on the doctrines of religion, based on the catechism of Luther; in the upper classes, introduction to the books of Holy Scripture and history of the Christian religion, with particular attention to the interpretation of doctrines, and to the reading and expounding of entire parts and books of Holy Writ. The classprofessors were designated as suitable teachers of religion in exceptional cases by the "instruction for directors of 1824," and to them instruction in religion was confided, if possible. Important for the leading principles under the administration of Altenstein, is the memorandum added to the address at the prorogation of the fourth Prussian Diet, of May 3, 1832. The Diet had desired the employment as teachers of well known religious theologians, which elicited this reply: "I have always hesitated to introduce this arrangement in the Protestant gymnasiums, or to make it general, because the teachers of the gymnasium would thereby lose influence of a religious and moral character upon their scholars, and might be prevented from having that spiritual communion with them which might prove a blessing to them for life." Under the administration of Eichhorn; a decree of Aug. 17, 1842, required that instructions in religion at gymnasiums should be confided to candidates of decided piety, and if schoolboards were in want of suitable persons, they should apply to the Evangelical Pastors' Association in Berlin, which from an ample choice was always able to comply with their requests. But little use was made of this offer, and after 1848, great efforts were made to supply secondaryschools with well qualified teachers of religion who were not of the theological profession. A report on the existing number of such teachers, and on their qualification and right of teaching religion, called for in 1854, caused this right to be withdrawn from many a teacher qualified by testimonial of examination, but not suitable as shown by his practice in teaching, whereas now candidates were engaged who possessed the required knowledge in religion, but were not capable of spiritual sympathy with the young. Lately, (by circular of school-board, July 5th, 1865,) the directors in the province of Brandenburg, at the request of the royal consistory, have been instructed in the report of their plan of lessons to specify the teachers who shall impart instruction in religion, and the extent of their qualification from testimonials, as well as to designate the classes in which they are to teach religion.

The parochial classes of catechumens are attended by the pupils of a gymnasium for one or two years; before 1856, lessons in religion were given at the same time with the instructions of catechumens, so that the latter could not attend their classes. When by the new general plan the number of obligatory lessons has been decreased to thirty, this division ceased.

Divine service in school, and prayer in the morning and evening, take place only at private institutes and alumnates; for other schools it has

been recommended, by circular of Aug. 4th, 1826, to promote, as far as possible, the attendance of scholars at public worship, without however exercising any constraint or painful control. With regard to the commencement and close of vacations, a regulation from the department, of April 2d, 1853, declares that the duty of the Sabbath or of holy days should not be interfered with by obliging scholars to travel on such days, but as it did not attain this object, it has been set aside again. Participation of teachers and scholars at holy communion is not recommended, except at private boarding-schools; in the other schools, whenever it takes place, it is limited to the voluntary attendance of those scholars whose parents do not reside at the place.

Gymnastics.-Instruction in gymnastics has been formally recognized again, by cabinet order of June 6th, 1842, as a necessary and useful part of the education of boys, and as a part of the means of public instruction. Gymnastics should therefore be added to the parts of instruction, and connected with all public institutions, be placed under the superintendence of the directors, and care should be taken that physical exercises be had to a proper extent, with due simplicity of object and manner. The instructions given on the royal central gymnastic institute are in close connection with the system at present introduced into the army for the military training of soldiers, and due value is ascribed to the fact that proper practice in gymnastics at school promotes the military efficiency of the nation. The introduction of gymnastics into the organization of schools met with no difficulty in smaller cities, of small distances and with vacant ground; but in larger cities, particularly in Berlin, it was difficult to introduce this branch, notwithstanding all the enthusiasm manifested in its favor. As the regulation of June 6th, 1842, makes the participation in physical exercises solely dependent upon the free consent of parents or their representatives, gymnastics, notwithstanding the attention given by the teachers, are attended by not one-fourth of the scholars of large schools, the place for exercises being three miles distant and the homes of scholars scattered throughout the whole city.

Stenography.-Instruction in stenography has been introduced during the last twenty years, chiefly after the system of Stolze, and by the influence of its adherents, and has moreover been practiced at higher schools or by single scholars in private courses, and many patrons of city-schools have furnished means for its introduction as a side branch of instruction. Also the House of Representatives, on account of the many (thirty) petitions presented in favor of a faculty for stenography, has (June 27th, 1862,) recommended it to the favorable consideration of the Government. The Department of Instruction has not yet consented to the introduction of this mechanical art into the plan of lessons, it being serviceable for particular purposes only, but have permitted the use of class-rooms for private lectures.

In some schools the same teachers conduct the instruction of scholars through several classes; though this arrangement leads to a more exact

knowledge of the abilities and disposition of scholars, it soon becomes a tiresome monotony for them even under the best teacher.

VI.

REAL-SCHOOLS AND HIGHER BURGHER-SCHOOLS.

It is not our province here to speak of the object and aims of realschools, but of their history and condition in Prussia. The name was first used by Deaconus Chr. Semler of Halle, and in 1738 the royal government and the royal society of sciences established a real-school for mathematics, mechanics and agriculture, which however had but a short existence. More importance was acquired by the school founded by J. Julius Hecker in Berlin, (1747,) after many futile experiments, and even dwindling down into an elementary school for a time, by being at last organized by A. Spillecke, since 1822 director of the Frederic William gymnasium, with this object: "To combine the demands of a finished general education with practical training for civil life." The Prussian gymnasiums had always for their object the fundamentals of a finished education, but the spirit of the age now turned away from old, well tried means of instruction, and looked for the success offered by the so-termed real sciences, at least for pupils not intending a collegiate education. The following chronological review gives further details. The expectations built on these schools by the public among mechanics and tradesmen, were not fulfilled. The real-gymnasium, formed in 1829 out of the old Coeln-School at Berlin by the efforts of the mayor of the city, Von Baerensprung, gradually transformed itself in 1849 into a regular gymnasium, with little modifications in the plan of instructions, and real-schools readmitted the study of ancient languages in a more extended form. Moreover, with equal privileges, attached in 1832 to the satisfactory final examinations at these schools, of entering the postal service, that of architecture or the military profession, etc., there existed a great variety in the amount of learning acquired at individual schools, particularly at those of provincial cities. Still greater inconveniences resulted from the final examination being in some branches equal with that at gymnasiums, and the uniform privileges of classes, for it happened that students from real-schools, who had passed the final examination there, entered the upper division of class III, where, with a total want of knowledge of the Greek language, they only satisfied the requirements of that class in other respects. Therefore a reorganization of these schools became necessary, which was effected after calling for the advice of the provincial school-boards, by the order of instruction and examination for realschools and secondary burgher schools, of October 6th, 1859. A memorandum on this (published by Wilgaud and Grieben) contains: a, for realschools, 1, the plan of instruction and inner organization; 2, the regulations for final examination; 3, wherein real-schools differ from gymnasiums, and the privileges of the former. (B.) The same for higher burgher-schools. In explanatory notes we find: "The real and higher burgher-schools have the object to prepare, by scientific education, for

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