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these higher vocations of life, for which academic studies are not required. Therefore the practical requirements of the time are not a measure for their organization, but the object to develop the mental faculties of the young intrusted to the care of these schools, to such a degree as to enable them for a free and independent realization of the duties of life afterwards. They are not technical schools, but, like the gymnasium, they work by general means of education and for fundamental knowl edge. There is consequently no opposition in principle between gymnasium and real-school, but a relation of mutual completion. Both divide among themselves the task to offer the elements of complete instruction in what pertains to the different professions and vocations of life." A division has become necessary by the progress of science and the deve!opment in the relations of public life, and real-schools have herein adopted a coördinate position to the gymnasium.

Real-schools of the first and second order are distinguished mainly by having introduced the study of Latin, according to local demand, with the technical branches; further by limiting the course of classes III, and II, to one year, and reducing the requirements in some branches of examination to a lesser degree, in accordance with which the demands on these schools, their teachers, means of instruction, and endowments, are inferior.

The plan of instruction for real-schools of the first order, is the following:


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Several real-schools of the second order exclude the Latin, of which the two at Berlin, named "technical schools of the city," are the most prominent; they increase correspondingly the lessons in German, French, mathematics, arithmatic, natural history, and drawing.

Real-schools connected with gymnasiums under one director, must have, in common with the latter, besides a preparatory department, only classes II, and I. Common order of discipline-teachers, school-house, instructions in singing and gymnastics, religious worship and other exercises-has always been of good influence on the real-schools.

The name of "higher burgher-schools" had been adopted by many real-schools previous to 1859; since then, those are included in that denomination which have only five classes, including the second, but beyond that are organized completely after the regulations for realschools. The testimonial of final examination entitles to admission in class I, of a real-school of the first order, and to the privilege of military service of one year.


The chronological table of Higher Schools, which we furnish hereafter, will show in what periods of time, and with what rapid increase in late years they have been created and developed, and what zeal has been manifested by State, communities, and associations. The increase of population and the growing desire for education augment the attendance at Higher Schools in a degree still entirely out of proportion with their number. Though a number of scholars which director and teachers can not look over at a glance, is certainly an intolerable condition, yet a general law fixing their number in classes and for the entire school, has not been enacted. In general it is a rule for gymnasiums, which is exceptionally applied at some with great inconvenience, that in classes I, and II, not above forty each, and in the other classes not beyond fifty; in the upper classes of real-schools thirty in each, in the middle classes forty, in the lower classes fifty, should be admitted. The lesser number for real-schools has been adopted, because apparatus for demonstrative instruction would become unprofitable to a great many scholar's. With a greater number of scholars in permanent attendance, parallel divisions of classes must be arranged. A community can obtain the consent of the department for establishing a higher school, after furnishing satisfactory evidence that the elementary schools of their locality are insufficient, and that ample provision has been made for school-houses and endowments. Many communities have thought it a special honor to erect splendid school-edifices.

The scholastic year commences, varying with different provincial or local custom, at Easter or Michaelmas; with all Catholic institutions, and pretty generally throughout the Western provinces, at Michaelmas; with Protestant schools at Easter. In the former, the admittance of new scholars and removal to higher classes takes place generally but once a year, in the Fall season. Though annual courses of instruction are considered more practical, from a didactic and pedagogic point of view, the administration has as yet not introduced a general uniformity, in consideration of local circumstances. Where the admittance of scholars is not limited to one term in each year, as for instance in larger cities, it takes place at Easter and Michaelmas, from which two removals into higher classes necessarily result.*

*We here append a note on attendance in classes, taken from that excellent work on secondaryschools in Prussia by Wiese: "A general law on the number of scholars in classes and entire schools does not exist. It is generally accepted that in classes I, and II, not above forty, in the


Vacations.-The vacations depend upon the period of the scholastic By ministerial circular of Nov. 6th, 1858, their duration is fixed at ten and a half weeks per year. The longer vacations of four weeks of Protestant schools in the Eastern provinces fall in the month of July, and two weeks at the end of the Summer course; with most Catholic schools, and generally throughout the province of the Rhine, and in part in Westphalia, the vacation of six weeks comes at the end of the annual course. School-books and means of instruction.—According to instructions for royal consistories, of October 23d, 1817, the examination of school-books in use at the time, as well as the selection of books to be rejected or of new ones to be introduced, and the supervision in the publication of new school-books, was committed to this authority, submitting all decisions to the approval of the Department of Instruction. A general revision of all the school-books introduced was ordered by ministerial rescript of April 24th, 1837; but such liberty reigned in the use of the same, that not only directors, but single teachers selected after their own opinion. This caused the regulation of June 14th, 1843, which instructed directors to obtain the approbation of the provincial school-board for every new book to be introduced. The school-board, unless the book had been approved previously, reported to the Department of Instruction. Attention was called again to this regulation under date of April 28th, 1857, together with an instruction to work for greater simplicity and uniformity in the means of instruction, and with this limitation: "When the introduction of a book for one gymnasium or progymnasium in a province has been approved, other gymnasiums, etc., of the province can introduce the same without further consent; the same with regard to real-schools and secondary burgher-schools; but a book approved for gymnasiums and progymnasiums is not at the same time approved for real-schools and secondary burgher-schools." Special books or other means of instruction are recommended in circulars, without obligation to adopt them; all in use must be mentioned in the annual programme of the school.

School Programmes.-The publication of school-programmes is of old date. In these the director advised the public annually, inclosing an invitation to the public examination of the most important events in his school. A scientific or pedagogic subject of general interest was generally connected with it. Mutual exchange of these programmes among the different gymnasiums occurred rarely before 1822, in which year their exchange by all gymnasiums was ordered. Circular of Aug. 23d,

other classes not above fifty, should be admitted. With a permanent greater number, parallel divisions of classes must be arranged. The tabular summaries show how difficult it has been in many places to be confined to these limits." The tables are given, p. 466, and demonstrate an overcrowding, dangerous to the result of instruction. If in classes I and II, are fifty-three and seventythree pupils, as during the summer of 1863 in Lyck, or fifty-two and sixty-four, as in Brieg, in the first class sixty-one, as in Rossenberg, fifty-five, as in Zullichau, fifty-three, as in Glognu and Ratisbon; or in classes IV, V and VI, seventy-five, seventy-three, fifty-nine, as in Konigsberg: sixtyone, fifty-nine, fifty-four at the same: sixty-two, seventy-nine, sixty-three in Elbing; seventy and seventy-five in Tilsit; fifty-four, sixty-two, ninety in Culm; fifty-eight, eighty-four, one hundred and ten in Prenzlau; seventy-two, sixty-eight, seventy-one in Posen; seventy-five, sixty-nine, seventy in Bromberg, etc., then the maximum has been passed to a dangerous extent, and the en deavor of the administration to remedy this evil by a division of classes is but too just.

1824, directed uniformnity in form and contents of the programmes. The first part should consist of a treatise on a subject not foreign to school matters, of general interest at least for the educated, instructive for public schools in general or for gymnasiums in particular, the choice of which, within this description, to be left to the author; it is also permitted, in place of such treatise, to publish a suitable discourse delivered in the gymnasium during the year. This scientific treatise had to be composed alternately in the German and Latin languages, and the director and each teacher, one after the other, were to write the same. The second part, in German only, to be furnished by the director, contained information on school matters and plans of teaching. Copies of these programmes were sent to all the universities in the State, and to public libraries, and for exchange with all higher schools were remitted to the provincial school board; this exchange has been extended, through the Department of Instruction, since 1836, to nearly all the German States, the empire of Austria, and for a time to Denmark.

Books of Reference, Cabinets, etc.-Libraries, some of great value, as for instance that of the Joachimthal gymnasium at Berlin, can be found at all higher schools, and considerable funds are provided for their increase. Many institutions, since 1830, possess libraries for scholars which have been made up almost exclusively by contributions from the scholars and their patrons, for the object of putting within reach of students a suitable selection of publications, and to guard them against injurious reading. There are no general regulations in the administration of libraries, but each school has its own rules. The annual schoolprogramme contains a list of all new books procured within the year. Moreover, gymnasiums have cabinets of musical instruments, of apparatus for natural philosophy and chemistry, cabinets of zoology, botany, etc., and other collections, generally the result of donations.

Discipline in Schools.-Though a general order of discipline for these schools does not exist, they are conducted in a uniform manner on the basis of instructions for directors and class-professors, and other circulars. A spirit of order, obedience and industry, to call forth which and to preserve, is the earnest endeavor of all and every teacher, together with a mutual esteem and affection between teachers and scholars, which lasts far beyond the years at school, predominates at all the higher schools of Prussia, and furthers and secures the good result of their labors. The principal means of discipline are, a sincere fear of God, the example of teachers in morality and learning, a mutual amicable understanding between school and family, an exciting method of teaching, awakening and rewarding a well regulated industry, constant assistance and discreet approval of progress. Thus most discipline is of a positive kind, as promotion to higher positions or classes, tokens of merit, gradation of țestimonials, premiums; but the most effective means for many scholars and in most cases is the approval of the teacher and the consciousness of deserving it. A censure from the teacher, particularly when entered on

the class-book, is already a severe punishment, as the class is revised monthly by the directors. Remaining after school is considered a corrective against idleness or inattention, but can not be inflicted without the presence of a teacher or the consent of the director. Extra lessons as a punishment, a remedy frequently applied in English schools, must be given to a limited extent only, with a view to being exercises for improvement. Incarceration for misdemeanor is decreed by the director only, and proves more effective by its character than by long hours or fear of prison; in many schools they have no carcer, (prison,) and this name given to a school-room has the same effect. According to the order of discipline for the province of Westphalia, this punishment can be extended to several days without the usual comfort or diet. Corporal punishments, which at the commencement of this century still were an ordinary means of discipline, but disappeared almost entirely in the course of time, should be dispensed with as much as possible, (circular of the school-board of the province of Brandenburg, March 9th, 1843,) and when inflicted, it should be on the principle that the moral impression of this punishment is a greater means of correction than bodily pain. Exclusion from school may take place, when the scholar has twice attended the annual course of a class unsuccessfully; or, as an extreme remedy, when other means of discipline have failed, or for acts of malice or immorality. But to those removed in this manner, other schools are still open; only they are placed under special surveillance, and in case of relapse they are immediately turned out again. The most effective means of discipline are certificates, recording conduct, attention, industry and progress, and furnishing an extract from the class-books, which from time to time are sent to the parents of scholars for their information, and by numbers I, II a, II, II b, III, indicate the moral standing and degree of knowledge of the scholar.

The position in classes, or, as it is called, order of rank, is fixed at the commencement of each semi-annual course, according to the number of the certificate; and in the upper classes according to date of entry or to the decision of the teachers' conference. But during the course these positions are frequently changed, often weekly, according to merit in recitations or extempores. In the lower classes, the system of change for every lesson is favored, because, with younger boys, beyond the pedagogic object of exciting attention and assiduity by a proper ambition, it answers also a dietetic purpose of interrupting by regulated exercise the fatigue of sitting continually.

The admission of scholars from abroad is left to the choice of their parents or guardians; but none are admitted who are not placed under suitable domestic control. To ascertain this is the duty of the director, and a change of boarding-place must be immediately brought to his knowledge, and he may demand that a scholar conform to his wishes or leave the institution.

Privileges.--A great number of branches of the administration and of

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