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public institutions, with the increased demands by the progress of time on their own accomplishments, have also increased their demands upon the education of those who desire admittance, and the requirements on the one side have become privileges on the other, for those who fulfilled them. Thus the following privileges are attached to secondary-schools, equally for gymnasiums and real-schools:

1, Passing the third class: admittance into the first division of the royal horticultural institute at Potsdam.

2, Admittance to class II: a, entering the postal service; b, qualification as technical teacher.

3, Frequenting class II, for six months: a, entering apprentice of pharmacy; b, privilege of one year's military service; (without knowledge of Greek, a six months' attendance at class 1, is required for this latter privilege.)

4, Frequenting class II, for one year, qualifies for assistant postmaster, and some civil offices.

5, Admittance in class II, upper division, entitles to admittance as pupil of the veterinary school.

6, Admittance in class I: a, entering as clerk in bureaus of subsistence; b, qualifies for civil engineer; c, for clerkships in the offices of the civil administration of a province; d, for clerkships in the subaltern courts of justice.

7, Frequenting class I, entitles to admittance at royal academies of agriculture.

8, One year's attendance of class II, qualifies for, a, clerkships in the bureaus of subsistence, etc., of the army; b, of those of the navy; c, of those of the revenue service; d, entitles to admittance at the final examination of technical schools.

9, Testimonial of maturity: a, admittance at universities; b, qualification for the position of ensign in the army; c, gives admittance to the royal academy of architecture in Berlin; d, to the royal academy of mining at Berlin; e, to the forester's school at Neustadt Eberswalde (provided that a satisfactory examination in mathematics was passed ;) f, the postal service; g, to the royal polytechnic institute at Berlin.

Corresponding privileges have been granted to the real-schools of the second order and to higher burgher-schools.

Private Schools and Institutions.-According to the enactments of common law, private institutions and individuals, who intend to follow the vocation of instructing the young, are required to prove their capacity before the provincial school-board, and obtain a testimonial of qualification. This law was revoked in 1811 by the "regulation for Trades, etc.," but reenacted in 1834, together with the provision that the above testimonial of qualification should not only have regard to knowledge, but also to morality and loyalty in religion and politics. For foreigners the approval by the Department of Education and of the Bureau of Police was required. This regulation was published Dec. 31st, 1839, and di

rected also that private schools and institutions should be permitted in such places only, where there was sufficient provision for education in public schools. The consent for establishing a private school may be revoked, and is not transferable to another person; it expires when instructions have been suspended for six months. With regard to supervision, private schools are subject to the same regulations as public schools; generally a clergyman is president of the visiting board. By circular from the department, of June 17, 1862, the provincial authorities have been empowered to give to foreigners permission for the establishment of private schools without resort to the Department of Education.

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The higher schools of Prussia may be classified according to date of their foundation:

A. Century VIII. and IX.-1, Cathedral School at Halberstadt, from the time of Charlemagne, transformed in 1818 into Cathedral Gymna sium; 2, Cathedral School at Paderborn, in 1614 Gymnasium Theodorianum; 3, Convent School at Pruem, in 1814 école sécondaire, in 1852 Progymnasium; 4, Cathedral School at Münster, in 1588 Gymnasium of the Jesuits.

B. Century X. to XIII.—Convent School at Zeitz about 967, Gymnasium since 1820; 2, School at Treptow on the Rega, in 1170, (Bugenhager's Gymnasium since 1857;) 3, Cathedral School at Stendal, 1194, Gymnasium since 1819.

C. Century XIII.-1, School of St. Maria-Magdalene in Breslau, 1266, Gymnasium in 1643; 2, School of St. Peter's at Berlin in 1276, Coeln Real-Gymnasium in 1829; 3, Latin School at Herford in 1265, Gymnasium Fredericianum in 1766; 4, Cathedral School at Naumburg in 1290, became Cathedral Gymnasium in 1822; 5, School of the Church of St. Elizabeth in Breslau in 1293, Gymnasium in 1562; School of the Convent of Barefeet at Sagan in 1294, turned over to the Jesuits by Wallenstein, Gymnasium in 1846; 7, School at Marienwerder, Gymnasium in 1812; 8, School at Königsberg, Gymnasium in 1818; 9, Kneiphoff's Gymnasium at Königsberg.

D. Century XIV-1, City School at Elbing, (1300,) Gymnasium, (1536;) 2, School at Reuss, (1302,) Electoral Gymnasium, (1773–1802,) école sécondaire (1806,) Gymnasium (1852;) 3, Convent School at Muenchen-Gladbach (1315,) Progymnasium (1846;) 4, Parochial School at Königsberg, about 1335, Gymnasium (1811;) 5, Latin School at Wesel, (1342;) Gymnasium Academicum (1613;) 6, Classical School at Liegnitz, by combination of two parochial schools (1369,) Gymnasium (1814;) 7, Latin School at New Ruppin (1365,) Gymnasium (1812;) 8, Parochial School of St. John in Danzig (1350,) Real-School of first order (1860;) 9, Latin School of Marienburg (1351-1382,) Gymnasium (1860;) 10, Latin Schools of the Knights of St. John (1365,) of the Augustines (1350,) united at Glatz into Jesuits' College (1626,) Catholic Gymnasium

since 1773; 11, Academy at Culm (1386,) Secondary Burgher-School (1862;) 12, from the schools connected with the Norbertine Convent at Wedinghouse, near Arnsberg, was formed in 1643 the Gymnasium Norberti-Laurentianum; 13, two Secondary Schools in the old and new city of Quedlinberg (1540,) Lutheran Classical School in 17th century, and formed into Gymnasium illustre; 14, The old Latin School of the Church of St. Nicholas at Goerlitz, removed to the city in the 14th century, Gymnasium Augustum (1565.)

E. Century XV.-1, Gymnasium Montanum (1420,) Laurentianum (1440,) Cucanum (1450,) at Cologne transformed (1820,) after many changes since 1815 into the Catholic Gymnasium of Marzellen, into Evangelical Frederic Wilhelm Gymnasium (1830,) Catholic Gymnasium of the Apostles (1860 ;) 2, St. Peter's School at Danzic (1457,) Real-School, first order (1860;) 3, School at Trottau (1480,) Gymnasium (1825,) RealSciences introduced (1861;) 4, Latin School at Seehausen, i. A. M. 1482, Progymnasium (1863,) Gymnasium (1865;) 5, Latin School at Aschersleben, Real-School, second order, (1859;) 6, Latin School at Anclam, Gymnasium (1847.)

F. Before the Reformation, in old time, undetermined.—1, Latin School at Linz on the Rhine, called Gymnasium Martianum, Progymnasium since 1855; 2, Latin School of the Catholic Convent Church at Essen, after the Reformation a Lutheran Burgher-School, Gymnasium since 1819; 3, Convent School at Vreden, since 1842 Progymnasium Georgianum; 4, Parochial Schools in the old and new city of Salzwedel, in 1744 united Latin School, in 1819 Gymnasium; 5, Parochial School at Guben, Gymnasium in 1818; 6, Great School at Spandau, Progymnasium since 1053, Gymnasium (1862;) 7, Great City-School at Perleberg, Real-School of first order, (1861;) 8, School at Prenzlau, Gymnasium (1812;) 9, Latin School of the Convent of the Holy Ghost at Breslau; 10, Latin School at Lauban, Gymnasium (1827;) 11, St. Martin's School at Halberstadt, Real-School, first order, (1863;) 12, Latin School at Schleusingen, Gymnasium (1853;) 13, School at Lippstadt, Real-School, first order, (1859;) 14, City-School at Emmerich, Gymnasium (1832;) 16, Parochial School at Luckau, Gymnasium, (1818;) 17, Convent School at Eupen, école sécondaire communale (1794,) Secondary City-School (1814,) Secondary Burgher-School (1863.)

G. Century XVI.—a. Beginning of the century: 1, Secondary-School at Attendorn, Progymnasium (1825 ;) 2, Latin School of the Franciscan monks at Duren, Gymnasium (1826;) 3, School of the Convent of St. Severi at Erfurt, Protestant City Gymnasium, (1561,) Royal Gymnasium, (1820;) 4, Reformed School at Kreuznach, école sécondaire, (1802,) Gymnasium of four classes, (1819,) of six classes, (1821;) 5, Latin School at Lennep, Secondary City-School in 1855; 6, Parochial School of St. Laurentii at Warendorf, Gymnasium Laurentianum (1857;) 7, Old Cathedral School at Colberg, Real-School (1845,) Gymnasium (1858,) at the same time Real-School, second order, (1863,) and Real School, first order,

(1865;) 8, Latin School at Grunberg, Real-School, first order, (1860;) 9, Evangelical Parochial School at Grossglogau, Evangelical Gymnasium, (1812;) 10, City-School at Stargard, United Royal and Groning Gymnasium, (1812.)

H. Century XVI., b. 1520–1560.-1, Evang. Latin School at Wittenberg, (1522,) Gymnasium (1827;) 2, Evangelical City School at Nordhausen, (1524,) Gymnasium, (1808;) 3, Union of three parochial schools at Stralsund to one classical school, in 1525, Gymnasium since end of 16th century; 4, Latin School at Eisleben, founded by Albert, Count of Mansfeld (1525,) united by Luther with St. Andrew's and St. Nicolas' School to a "chiefly Latin" School (1546,) Gymnasium, (1596;) 5, Protestant Latin School at Königsberg in Pr. (1525,) Real-School, first order, (1860;) 6, Lutheran School at Hirschberg (1526,) Gymnasium (1813;) 7, Union of Cathedral and City Schools at Brieg into City School (1529,) Gymnasium illustre (1569;) 8, Evang. School at Minden, (1530,) Real-School, first order, (1859;) 9, Latin School at Soest (1532,) Archigymnasium (1606; 10, Evang. City School at Bunzlau (1532,) Gymnasium (1861;) 11, School of Sts. Albinus and Ægidius at Cottbus, Latin School since 1537, Gymnasium (1820;) 12, City Lyceum at Francfurt on the Oder (1539,) Real-School, first order, (1861;) 13, Archigymnasium illustre at Dortmund (1543,) Gymnasium, with Real-School of first order, (1862 ;) 14, Lutheran Lyceum at Muehlhausen (1543,) Gymnasium (1626;) 15, State School at Pforta (1543;) 16, Pedagogium at Stettin (1543,) united with the Parochial School of St. James (14th century) into Royal and City Gymnasium (1805;) 17, Ducal Gymnasium at Dusseldorf (1545 ;) 18, Ducal Partic. School at Rastenburg (1545,) Gymnasium (1815;) 19, Lyceum at Wernigerode (1550,) Gymnasium (1863;) 20, Institute of the Convent at Rossleben (1554); 21, Evang. School at Wetzlar (1555,) Gymnasium (1743;) 22, School of the Reformed Brothers' Union at Lissa (1555,) Provincial Gymnasium (1624,) Royal Gymnasium (1821;) 23, Ducal School at Oels (1556,) Gymnasium illustre (1594,) recognized as Gymnasium (1812;) 24, Convent School at Bielefeld (1558,) soon after extended to Gymnasium; 25, Evang. Classical School at Danzig (1558,) reopened (1817;) 26, Classical School at Thorn (1557,) Real-School, first order, (1861;) 27, Latin School at Trarbach (1557,) Progymnasium (1855 ;) 28, Gymnasium at Duisburg (1559,) at the same time Real-School, first order, (1862;) 29, School of Sts. Catharine and Amalberg Church at Brandenburg, after the Reformation, Neustadt City School, first director known (1558,) united Gymnasium (1798.)

I. Century XVI., c. after 1560.-1, Classical Institute Hosianum at Braunsberg (1565,) Gymnasium (1811;) 2, Evang. Free School of Preparation for Secondary-Schools at Donndorf (1561 ;) 3, Union of the three Primary Schools at Greifswalde to one City School (1561,) Gymnasium (1812,) with Real-School, second order, (1859;) 4, College of the Jesuits at Treves (1563,) Gymnasium (1815;) 5, Evang. City School at NewStettin (1570,) Gymnasium (1640;) 6, Catholic Latin School at Ander

nach (1573,) Progymnasium (1815,) perfected in 1863; 7, the old School at Croffen, extended to a Classical School (1573,) secondary Burgherschool (1862;) 8, School of the Jesuits at Posen, (1573,) Vog. sim. Gymnasium (1804,) divided into Catholic Mary's Gymnasium and Protestant Frederic Wilhelm Gymnasium (1834;) 9, Berlin Gymnasium of the Gray Convent (1574;) 10, Cathedral School at Merseburg (1574,) Cathedral Gymnasium (1820;) 11, School of the Jesuits at Heiligenstadt (1575,) reopened as electoral Mayence Gymnasium (1774,) united with the Catholic Progymnasium at Erfurt (1834;) 12, Latin School at Saarbruck (1580,) Gymnasium and Provincial School (1604,) Gymnasium of six classes (1818-23; 13, College of the Jesuits at Coblentz (1586,) electoral Gymnasium (1773,) école sécondaire (1803,) Gymnasium (1814;) 14, Schola illustris at Mörs (1582,) Progymnasium (1824,) completed (1862 ;) 15, City-school at Tilsit (1586,) Gymnasium (1812;) 16, Provincial school at Lyck (1588,) Gymnasium (1812;) 17, old Latin School, Brandenburg, since 1589 Soldern's School, united with the school in the new city (1797,) Burgher-School (1817-18,) Real-School, first order, (1859;) 18, School in the Convent at Shuttorf, near Bentheim, (1588,) Gymnasium illustre (1591,) removed to Burgsteinfurt, reopened (1853,) with Real-School, second order, from 1861.

K. Century XVI., d. of unknown date.-1, Great School at Coeslin, Royal and City Gymnasium (1821;) 2, City-School at Custrin, RealSchool, second order, (1859;) 3, German and Latin School at Elberfeld, Gymnasium (1789;) 4, Lyceum at Landsberg, a W., Gymnasium (1859,) with Real-School, first order, (1862;) 5, Great City-School at Memel, Gymnasium (1860;) 6, Evang. City-School at Pyritz, Gymnasium (1859;) 7, Beginning of an Evang. Classical School at Wehlau, Real-School, second order, (1859;) 8, at Graudenz, a, Catholic Classical School in a Jesuit College, Catholic Gymnasium (1781,) Seminary for Catholic primary scholars (1817,) b, Evang. Lutheran City-School, Real-School, second order, since 1859; 9, in the second period of the century, Lutheran Parochial School at Insterburg, in 1834 secondary Burgher-School, RealSchool, second order, (1859,) Gymnasium with Real-School (1862,) became Real-School, first order, (1862 ;) 10, Revival of the Classical School at Schweidnitz, suspended during the Thirty Years' War, reopened (1707) as a Lyceum, Gymnasium (1812;) 11, about the end of the century, Gymnasium of the Jesuits at Aix-la-Chapelle, reorganized as Gymnasium (1816;) 12, Secondary-School at Juelich, College of the Jesuits (1664,) Progymnasium (1862;) 13, School of the Franciscan Convent at Wartburg, founded before the 17th century, enlarged to a Gymnasium Marianum (1642,) Progymnasium (1856.)

L. Century XVII.—1, Electoral Institute at Joachimsthal in the UckerMark (1607,) removed to Berlin as Joachimsthal Gymnasium (1650;) 2, Evang. Reformed School at Cleve (1617,) organized after the general plan for Gymnasiums (1782;) 3, School of the Jesuits at Conitz (1620,) Gymnasium (1815;) 4, College of the Jesuits at Neisse (1622,) Catholic Gym

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