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the merchants of Montreal have been chiefly employed in a commerce, of which furs and peltry have been the principal materials. But the period is at no great distance when they will devote their attention to general commerce. The settlement of the countries, which border the lakes Ontario and Erie, is already far advanced ; and in its progress outruns the most sanguine calculation. Adventurers have already begun to plant themselves on Huron and Michigan. Within a century, the shores of these waters will probably be filled with villages, towns, and cities. To the immense population of these vast regions the river St. Lawrence will be the common channel of trade, and a common bond of union. Some difficulties will always attend this commerce. The ice will obstruct it throughout a considerable part of the year, and the navigation of the Gulph of St. Lawrence will always be exposed to some degree of hazard. The effect of these inconveniences will be the necessity of employing a larger capital, the demand of interest on it for a longer period, and a somewhat higher price of insurance. The business, also, must all depend on two voyages across the Atlantic each year. But a moderate lapse of time will necessarily introduce into it such a degree of system as will reduce the inconveniences to trifles, and conform to the existing circumstances all the plans and measures of these people. Under greater inconveniences Russia has rapidly increased in commerce and wealth.

That the trade in question will flow into this channel, ultimately, is scarcely less than certain ; because the inhabitants of these countries will find here more convenience, and more profit, than they can find elsewhere.

shores of Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior; and to the inhabitants living on the borders of the rivers which empty into these inland seas. Could we take a survey of these countries as they may appear fifty years hence, when the enterprise of the hardy sons of our country shall have converted the wilderness into fruitful fields; when this iinmense region shall be filled with towijs aad cities, and the people, amounting probably to twenty millions, are living in a state of competence; we should be able in some measure to appreciate the immense utility of this Herculean labour. There can be no doubt, that the people who will then reap the advantages of this great work will hold in respectful and affectionate remembrance those patriots, who have devised, carried on, and completed a task, which brings happiness to so mighty a mass of the human family.- Preb.

Gypsum abounds in the township of Camillus, in quantities sufficient, it is said, to supply an extensive tract with that valuable article.

The sulphur springs, in the township of Phelps, will, probably, furnish hereafter, not only the necessary supplies for the region around them, but a vast quantity also for commerce. The largest of these springs is the property of Sir William Pulteney; the other two, if I mistake not, of the Honourable Oliver Phelps. The water is perfectly clear; but both the taste and the smell are strong, and very offensive. The temperature is cold. The water is used as a bath for the rheumatism; and, it is said, with success. The mase of sulphur, deposited by them in the neighbourhood, was estimated to me at more than one hundred tons. No attempts have hitherto been made to purify it, and prepare it for commercial purposes.

There is a sulphur spring in the township of Litchfield, in the county of Herkimer, about ten miles from Utica. This, also, is resorted to for relief from the rheumatism, and from several other diseases.

Concerning the inhabitants of the western country I shall make some observations hereafter.

I am, Sir, &c.

LETTER IX.

Return slowly along the Mohawk to Albany. Kinderhook.

Hudson. Uncommon Phenomenon observed on Taghkannuc Mountain.

DEAR SIR;

I LEFT Stanniford's Tuesday, October 15th, and rode to Vernon, about twenty miles, in the stage waggon. We started at 12 o'clock. It had rained most of the preceding day, the whole night, and the whole forenoon of this day. The road had become a mass of deep mire, and the horses were obliged to walk, or rather to wade, at the rate of two miles an hour. In the afternoon it rained again, but with less violence. We were seven passengers in a vehicle, so small as to be crowded, and so crazy as to be threatened, even by a slight accident, with being broken down. We were, also, from very distant countries, and of different nations. The day was sufficiently gloomy; and the country presented little to our view beside thick forests, interspersed here and there with log-houses. In solitary instances some have a better appearance. In the township of Sullivan, a large tract lying immediately eastward of Manlius, we found, however, an exception. As we descended a hill of considerable height, we were presented with a delightful prospect of the Oneida lake, and a noble view of the circumjacent country. When the trees shall be sufficiently cut down, this hill will furnish one of the most interesting views between Albany and Buffaloe.

Another variety in our journey was the Oneida village, built on the reservation belonging to that people, and lying immediately south of the lake. We saw this village by moonlight. The houses in it appeared to differ very little from the log-houses already described ; except that they are smaller, worse built, and less carefully repaired. Schenando, their

chief, lives in a framed house, which is painted, and decent. He is said to be in easy circumstances. A small church stands in the centre of the village. On the character and situation of this people I propose to make some observations in another place; and shall only add here, that at Young's, an inn, at which we stopped in Vernon, several of them, who were half drunk, disturbed us not a little by their contention and outcries.

We took supper at Young's; and all the passengers, who were bound to Utica, except one, concluded to proceed, in order to take the Albany stage the next morning. Accordingly we set out in a dense mist, which deprived us of the moonlight, and effectually chilled us during the remainder of our journey. Our progress was snail-like, and sufficiently tedious; and our prospect scarcely extended to the horses. But our driver was careful and obliging, and we all determined to make the best of our circumstances, and to lessen with patience and good humour the disagreeableness of our situation. We stopped once at Laird's in Westmoreland, about one o'clock. The family rose without murmuring; and obligingly furnished us such refreshments as we wished, and, what was peculiarly agreeable to us all, a good fire. After we had passed through New-Hartford, we found a better road, and the coachman was able to drive his horses on trot. Here, however, we met a light breeze from the north, which, with the aid of the fog, pierced us through; so that, when we arrived at Utica, just before five, we were almost frozen. In very few instances have I suffered more from the severities of winter. From Young's to Utica the distance is nineteen miles; from Manlius to Young's, twenty-two. In travelling the whole distance we had spent seventeen hours.

My companions had reached Utica the preceding evening.

The country, through which I had travelled from Manlius, consisted of the townships of Sullivan, Vernon, Westmoreland, and Whitestown. Sullivan and Vernon are new settlements, much more recent than most of those, which we had passed on the road. The land is good, and the number of inhabitants fast increasing. Westmoreland is much improved since my journey into this country in 1799. Dark as the nicht was, I saw several well-built houses.

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The village of New-Hartford is also greatly improved. Here the mist had lost much of its density, and permitted us to discern a considerable number of good buildings, surrounded by neat appendages.

Sullivan was formerly in the county of Chenango. By the late division of that county it is become a part of Madison. The other three townships are in the county of Oneida.

Sullivan contained, in 1810, 1,974 inhabitants. Vernon contained, in 1810, 1,519 inhabitants. Westmoreland contained, in 1800, 1,544; and, in 1810, 1,135 inhabitants.

Sullivan and Vernon are not mentioned in the census of 1800. The latter I suppose to have been then included in the township of Westmoreland.

Utica is still more improved. In 1799, there were 50 houses in this village; many of them small and temporary buildings. In 1804, the number was 120. The number of stores, also, and mechanics' shops, is very great in proportion to that of the houses. Utica now exhibits the appearance of a handsome town. Its trade has increased much faster than its buildings, and is greater than that of any other town in the state, New-York, Albany, and Troy excepted. Its advantages for business are its situation on the Mohawk, the junction of several great roads here, and the start which it has gained of other places in the vicinity.

After breakfast I took a seat in the Albany stage, and rode through Deerfield, Schyler, Herkimer, and Manheim, to Palatine; thirty-seven miles. The road, as you may perhaps remember, lies along the north bank of the Mohawk, and is now very good. I found the country generally improved since my former journey through it; the forests more extensively

the number of houses increased; and those, which had been lately built, generally of a better appearance. Settlements were also numerously made on the sides of the hills, bordering the intervals of the Mohawk; and in several places they had lost that disagreeable uniformity, of which I then complained.

We dined at the Little falls, near the eastern limit of Herkimer. From a variety of observations, made in and about the spot, I am entirely satisfied, that the mountains, which bere ascend immediately from the banks of the river,

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