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torical reading should in some measure, be introduced.
The same circumstances occur more frequently and more heightened in epic poetry; and, therefore, as well as on account of the lofty measure and elevated language, an epic poem requires of the reader a more dignified and exalted strain, and a manner almost constantly sustained above the ordinary level. Descriptions, in such poetry, abound more, and are more highly ornamented than in the most interesting history; similes and other poetical figures, are introduced in all their grandeur and beauty ; battles are described with the most terrible and striking precision, and speeches are delivered with all the ornaments, and all the powers of elo. quence. Thus, every thing sublime and beautiful, awful and pathetic, being assembled in an epic poem, as in a tragedy, the reader must be all awake, if he would deliver either with just effect; he must be filled with his subject, governed by taste and judgement, alive to feeling, and inspired, like the poet himself, with a degree of enthusiasm.
Of. Recitation and Declamation.
If the public speaker desire to give to the composition, which he delivers, more interest than it can derive from mere reading ; or rather desire to give it the highest interest of which it is capable ; he must commit it perfectly to memory, and adorn and enforce it with all the aids of the various modulations of the voice, expression of the countenance, and suitable gesture. ' So that, even though he should deliver the sentiments of another
person; he must appear altogether to adopt and feel, and recommend them as his own. When the composition thus delivered is poetical, this mode of public speaking is called recitation. When it is argumentative, and pronounced or composed on an inaginary occasion, for the purpose of exercising the speaker's rhetorical talents, it is called declamation. And when the speaker delivers in this manner, a composition of his own on a real occasion, it is oratory : for the acquiring of the external art of which, recitation and declamation are chiefly practised.
Recitation, as not implying the composition of the speaker, may be considered according to the order of the requisite acquirements in the place, immediately after rhetorical reading; to all the requisites for which, recitation must add perfect memory and suitable gesture. In recitation, and all the other modes of public speaking, the whole person is, or may be exhibited, and every part takes its share in the gesture. Recitation being properly the rhetorical delivery of poetical compositions and pieces of imagination, the performer should stand apart from the company. In its first degrees, recitation is practised in private, as a rhetorical exercise by young persons ; in its most perfect degrees, it is exhibited in public, as a very high species of dramatic entertainment. The great variety in poetical composition and works of imagination, must afford equal variety for the modes of recitation.
Declamation, which is properly a prose exercise, composed by the speaker on some imaginary subject or occasion, on account of the requisite ability in composition, as well as in the exercise of all the arts of delivery, may be considered as next in order above recitation. The ancient Roman orators bestowed extraordinary attention upon the composition and practice of declamation.
Cicero continued this practice many years after he had arrived at the highest eminence orator ; and, after his example, the most celebrated of the Roman Grators followed the same plan.
Oratory, which is public speaking upon real an: interesting occasions, is the most splendid object of all literary exertion, and the highest scope of all the study and practice of the art. To oratory belongs whatever the perfection of composition can produce, as well as all which the perfection of delive ery can externally recommend and enforce. Ora. tory is the power of reasoning, united to the various arts of persuasion, presented by external grace, and by the whole energy of the human powers. Reasoning divested of rhetorical composition and rhetorical delivery, becomes strict demonstration. Such reasoning is found in logic, mathematics, evidences of facts, and law arguments. Reason ing, in this sense, is distinct from oratory : both, indeed, aim at bringing over men to their opinions, but by different means. Reasoning, appeals to the understanding alone ; oratory deals with the pas-" sions also. Reasoning, proceeds directly to the truth, and exhibits it in the simplest language." Oratory chooses the most favorable view of the subject, engages the attention of the hearer by the detail of circumstances, interests him by the coloring which he gives them, delights him by ornament, and, having won his favorable attention, appeals at once to his understanding and to his heart. When the subject admits of demonstration, reasoning is the most powerful ; it is irresistible : but when strict demonstration cannot be had, oratory has then the advantage. And since, in a very few of the most interesting inquiries, which occupy the attention of men, strict demonstration can be obtained, so the demand for the talents of the orator is frequent and indispensable in the business of life. Reasoning is, therefore, applied principally to philosophical research, and to objects of science : oratory to the interests of men, and to objects admitting choice. It is an advantage which oratory possesses above
reasoning, that oratory constantly avails itself of reasoning ; but strict reasoning does not call in the aid of oratory.
The public speakers of this country have been celebrated as excellent reasoners ; while their orators have been few. For this, various reasons have been assigned : the truest, perhaps, may be indolence with respect to the requisite labour, and inattention to the high value of eloquence ; as to natural inability, every idea of such an impediment is to be rejected, as no less false than unworthy of a learned and independent people. An extreme attachment to every thing which bears the appearance of demonstration, may also, in part, account for the paucity of orators among us.
Accurate reasoners affect to despise the assistance of oratory, and to consider truth and reason, when fairly presented, sufficient to make their way. If sophistry could never delude, under the pretence of demonstration, and if men were constituted without passions, reason would, indeed, be sufficiently powerful; but the passions hold such a dangerous correspondence with the understanding, that mere reason cannot always vindicate the truth ; therefore, the aid of eloquence is required, in order to expose their treachery : and it were well for mankind, if the triple alliance of reason, truth and eloquence, proved always victorious.
Our public speakers, it has been often remarked, content themselves with reasoning well ; and, owing to some of the causes mentioned, indolence, inattention, and the want of splendid examples, aim at no higher excellence, and stop short of eloquence.
The true foundation of oratory, no doubt, is sound logic; but then, it should be remembered, that it is only the foundation; and that, to complete the plan, the superstructure, with all its accommodations, and with all its ornaments, is wanting. To be an orator, is more difficult than to be a reasoner, and demands, in addition, many other talents and perfections, both natural and acquired. The consummate orator is, therefore, rare, and a wonder in every age and in every country. And, perhaps, Demosthenes in Athens, and Cicero in Rome, were the only perfect orators (if even they reached perfection) whom the world has yet seen. But there are many degrees of excellence far below theirs, and below perfection, by reaching any of which, a public speaker may acquire considerable fame and honour. The high degrees of excellence, should a man aspire to them, can be attained only by those, whom nature has endowed with great abilities, and who attempt perfection itself. For this object, long and laborious exertion must be made ; but the very effort will bring its adequate reward in every stage, and will carry the aspiring mind, farther and farther, beyond the dull boundaries of mediocrity ; and place him within the regions of honorable excellence*.
A correct speaker, does not make a movement of a limb or feature, for which he has not a reason. If he addresses heaven, he looks upward. If he speaks to his fellow creatures, he looks round upon them. The spirit of what he says, or is said to him, appears in his look. If he expresses amazement, or would excite it, he lifts up his hands and eyes. If he invites to virtue and happiness, he spreads his arms, and looks with benevolence. If he threatens the vengeance of heaven against vice, he bends his eyebrows into wrath, and menaces with his arm and countenance. He does not needlessly saw the air with his arm, nor stab himself with his finger. He does not clap his right hand upon his breast, unless he has occasion to speak of himself, or to introduce conscience, or something sentimental. He does not start back, unless wants to express horror or aversion. He does not come forward, but when he has occasion to solicit. He does not raise or lower his voice, but as the nature of the sentiment requires. His eyes by turns, according to the
* Austin's Chironomia..