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habitual and immovable attachment to it; accustom-ing yourselves to think and speak of it as the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.
For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Citizens by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of American, which belongs to you, in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism, more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits and political principles. You have in a common cause fought and triumphed together; the independance and liberty you possess arethe work of joint councils, and joint efforts, of common dangers, sufferings and successes.
But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to your interest. Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the whole.
The north, in an unrestrained intercourse with the south, protected by the equal laws of a common government, finds in the productions of the latter, great additional resources of maritime and commercial enterprise and precious materials of manufacturing industy. The south in the same intercourse, benefitting by the agency of the north, sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand. Turning partly into its own channels the seamen of the north, it finds its particular navigation invigorated; and while it contributes, in different ways, to nourish and increase
the general mass of the national navigation, it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength, to which itself is unequally adapted. The east, in a like intercourse with the west, already finds, and in the progressive improvement of interior communications, by land and water, will more and more find a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at home.-The west derives from the east, supplies requisite to its growth and comfort-and what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for its own productions to the weight, influence, and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of the union, directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation.-Any other tenure by which the west can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate strength, or from an apostate and unnatural connection with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious.
While then every part of our country thus feels an immediate and particular interest in union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts greater strength, greater resources, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations and what is of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighbouring countries, not tied together by the same government; which their own rivalships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments and intrigues would stimulate and embitter.
In contemplating the causes which may disturb our union, it occurs as a matter of a serious concern, that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations; northern and southern--atlantic and western ;whence designing men may endeavor to excite a be
lief that there is a real difference of local interests and views. One of the expedients of party to acquire influence, within particular districts, is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts. You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection.
All obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, controul, counteract, or awe the regular deliberations and actions of the constituted authorities, are destructive of the fundamental principles of our government, and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction; to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put in the place of the delegated will of the nation, the will of a party, often a small but artful and enterprizing minority of the community; and according to the alternate triumphs of different parties,to make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans, digested by common counsels, and modified by mutual inter<
However combinations or associations of the above description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men, will be enabled to subvert the power of the people, and to usurp for themselves the reigns of government; destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion.
How far in the discharge of my official duties, I have been guided by the principles that have been delineated, the public records and other evidences of my conduct must witness to you and to the world. To myself, the assurance of my own conscience is, that I have at least believed myself to be guided by them.
General Rules for Reading Poetry.
RULE I. As the exact tone of the passion, emo tion, or sentiment, which verse excites, is not, at the commencement of a piece with which we are not acquainted, easy to hit, it will be proper to begin a poem in a simple and almost prosaic style, and so proceed till we are warmed by the subject, and feel the passion or emotion we wish to express.
RULE II. Pronounce poetry with that measured, harmonious flow, which distinguishes it from prose.Avoid, in humouring the smoothness and melody of verse, all monotony sing-song, and bombastic cant, which too often usurp the place of graceful and harmonious reading.
RULE III. In verse, every syllable must have the same accent, and every word the same emphasis as in prose. If by observing this rule, some poetry should be reduced to prose, the fault must rest with the poet, not with the reader.
In the first example which follows, the word as should have no accent, i, e, it is a light syllable in both lines the word excellent in the second, and eloquence in the third example, must have the accent upon the first syllables, and not upon the last, as the verse requires :
Eye nature's walks, shoot folly as it flies,
RULE IV. The vowel e, which is frequently cut off and supplied by an apostrophe, as th', ev'ry, gen’rous, dang'rous, &c. ought to be both written and pronounced. Such words as giv'n, heav'n &c. should have the e in the last syllable written but not pronounced. To should not be written t' but to and also pronounced. Why the present poets write looked, loved, asked, &c. instead of look'd, lov'd ask'd, &c. when the verse neither admits of them, nor are they ever so pronounced in prose when it is properly read, is a query I leave to themselves to solve.
RULE V. In familiar, strong, argumentative subjects, the falling inflexion should prevail, being more adapted to express activity, force, and precision : whereas light, beautiful, and particularly plaintive subjects, naturally take the rising inflexion as more expressive of such sentiments and feelings.
RULE VI. Sublime, grand, and magnificent description in poetry, frequently require a lower tone of voice, and a sameness of inflexion approaching to
RULE VII. A simile in poetry must be read in a lower tone than that which precedes it.
RULE VIII. Where there is no pause in the sense at the end of a verse, the last word must have the same inflexion it would have in prose."
Over our heads a chrystal firmament