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Supervising Principal, Coraopolis, Pa.

N a former article the inequality in ability to support public education in twenty boroughs in Allegheny County having a population between 5,000 and 10,000 was considered. The range in ability was found to be wide. In this article the effort, regardless of ability, will be considered.

In any discussion of effort four measures may be considered, namely: (a) the tax rate in mills, (b) the percentage of local tax devoted to public education, (c) the expenditure for public education per inhabitant on the basis of the 1920 census and (d) the amount of aid received by the local district from the state through appropriations.

(a) The tax rate in mills

Table number one shows the comparison in effort as measured by the tax rate in mills. Inequality exists here with a range in rate from 10 mills to 18 mills. The average for the group is 14.06 mills with a standard deviation of 2.26 and a coefficient of dispersion from the average of 16 per cent. When the rank of the various boroughs in this table is compared with their rank in ability it will be noted that in general the boroughs with a low valuation have a high rate of taxation. An interesting comparison is also possible for the boroughs under consideration with a group of 58 cities of the same population as shown in Table A of the N. E. A. Bulletin. average for the 58 cities is 15.1 mills while that of the 20 boroughs is 14.06 mills. Table number one follows:

In this comparison the relative importance of public education in each borough is shown by the distribution of the local tax. The range is wide but the average compares very favorably with what is being done elsewhere. Table number 2 shows the inequality among the twenty boroughs while table number 3 shows the comparison with cities in population groups of various sizes.

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Mt. Oliver




Turtle Creek





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East Pittsburgh













St. Clair







Average 60%

Standard Deviation 6.35

Coefficient of Dispersion 10.6%

Average for 58 cities 5,000 to 10,000 Table A N. E. A. Bulletin 45.2%

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The above table shows gradual reduction in the percentage of local tax for public education as the size of the city increases.

(c) Cost per Inhabitant for Public Education.

In table number 4 the cost per inhabitant is considered. Here some peculiar conditions exist. For instance Clairton is spending nearly five times as much per inhabitant as St. Clair, yet when the total expenditure per pupil is considered Clairton is spending only 1.09 times as much as St. Clair. Again Coraopolis ranks second in this table and fifteenth when the total expenditure per pupil is considered. This table probably better than any of its

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In connection with the effort put forth by the various districts to support their Schools recognition of the support given by the State should be considered. All the boroughs under consideration are third class districts and receive the same rate of appropriation. such conditions inequality in the proportion of State aid should be at a minimum. What are the facts? Under the Appropriation Act in effect during 1918-1919 the 20 districts received from the State $81,541. Under the Woodruff Act the same districts received from the State in 1920-1921 $178,798, an increase of 119 per cent over 1918-1919. Under the Edmonds Act the same districts received from the State in 1921-1922 $249,794, an increase of 39 per cent over 1920-1921 and of 206 per cent over 1918-1919. With such increases in State aid the local burden would seem to have been greatly reduced.

In spite of this aid, however, the percentage borne by the State is still below that of the nation at large; the average for the nation being 15.7 per cent and for the boroughs under consideration 10.2 per cent. In table No. 5 the percentage of State aid for the various districts is shown. The last four boroughs had extensive expenditures for Capital Outlay and may be disregarded. By doing so the range is still from 8.5 per cent to 15.5 per cent.

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Coefficient of Dispersion 29%

Average for United States 1922, 15.7%

Inequality in ability and inequality in effort have been pointed out. What may be done to eliminate these inequalities? A larger tax unit was suggested to remove part of the inequality in ability. A modification of the method of distributing State funds has received considerable attention. The AbilityEffort Method was strongly recommended. Certain phases of this were included in the 1923 amendments to the Edmonds Act. With the inequalities existing the application of such a plan will not greatly aid in the solution of the problem. So long as the relatively small district remains as in the present organization inequality in ability and effort will remain.


later. Their knowledge of how to find fact material easily and quickly must be given them during their years in the elementary school if they are to have a ready means of self education lasting throughout their after years. It is, therefore, peculiarly fitting that we give close attention to the matter of providing all the pupils in the graded schools of our Commonwealth with an adequate supply of the books which belong to them. This great task the Department of Public Instruction of Pennsylvania has set for itself. We hope so to train the boys and girls of our Commonwealth in the habit of using books for information, that they will turn naturally to the supply of books awaiting them in the public libraries of our State. The public library is the university of all the people. The public schools teach intensively for a short time, the public library offers education extensively for all the rest of lifetime. Boys and girls who have been trained in the use of books as tools in our schools, who have formed the habit of reading books, of finding pleasure in them, of getting profit from them, will become the appreciative and supporting patrons of public libraries.

The relation between public libraries and schools therefore has developed a richer meaning during recent years than was hoped for when the phrase originated. It is a distinct obligation upon the schools to do their part in training the boys and girls in the book laboratories in their schools for the wider use of all the treasures provided for them by the community in the public libraries.

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Why not check up on yourself occasionally? 1. Progress: Am I improving? Do I plan to improve as the years go by, by reading, going to school and by learning from my fellow teachers?

2. Modern Ideals: Am I making suitable use of:

a. Application of principles of educational

b. Methods of working in the background?
c. Efficiency that eliminates drudgery?
d. Problems, projects and motives?

e. Application of principles of standardiza-
tion, use of tests when they may be

3. Do I give proper attention to each individual and allow him the chance to advance as rapidly as possible?

4. Am I socializing my school and using the social motive to the proper extent?

5. Is my administration satisfactory as to morale, co-operation, attention to details?

6. Am I taking proper hygienic care of the children?

7. What am I doing to connect school life with that outside in:

a. Recognition of home interests?

b. Stimulation to better employment of outside time?

c. Acquaintance with parents?

8. What am I doing to make myself a better teacher in:

a. Personal appearance?

b. Disposition?

c. Professional knowledge?

Clinton County

Cumberland County




East Conemaugh

Elk County


Greene County



129 100%

Indiana State Normal School

66 100%


57 100%

Lancaster County

727 100%

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In December, the Association published a special number of the PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL devoted to New School Buildings and the State Department of Public Instruction. It is an administrative number of especial interest to Superintendents, Supervising Principals, High School Principals, Heads of Departments, Boards of Education, Architects and Builders.

This 9 x 12-inch book of 200 pages has an art cover designed by C. Valentine Kirby, Director of Art, and is made of the finest of materials. The edition consists of 5,000 copies. The table of contents is as follows: Pennsylvania's

Educational Program-J.

George Becht Directory of the Department of Public Instruction

The School Plant and the Building Program

HuBert C. Eicher

The Administration Bureau-Francis B. Haas Increase in County Distribution of State Appropriation

School Board Officials

Statistical Summary 1922-1923
Health Education-C. H. Keene

Accredited Colleges and Universities
Extension Education-A. W. Castle

A Purposeful Art Education for Pennsylvania
-C. Valentine Kirby

Geography-Erna Grassmuck

School Libraries-Adeline B. Zachert
Special Education-F. N. Maxfield
Secondary Education-J. N. Rule

The Junior High School Movement in Pennsylvania-J. M. Glass

High School Supervision and General Field
Service James G. Pentz
Mathematics and Science
Music-Hollis Dann

School Attendance-W. M. Denison
Pennsylvania's Twenty-Four Million


School Building Program-Jonas E. Wag


The Social Studies-J. Lynn Barnard
The School Building-Thomas S. Baker
English in the Pennsylvania Schools-Orton

Report of Activities of the Teacher Bureau-
Albert Lindsey Rowland

Vocational Education in Pennsylvania-L. H. Dennis

Pre-Professional and Professional Credentials Bureau-C. D. Koch

Rural Education-Lee L. Driver

Philadelphia School Building Program-Louis Nusbaum

Temple University's Building Program-Laura H. Carnell

Monongahela High School Building

Copies are available at $1.00 each, postpaid. Send your order to P. S. E. A. Headquarters, 10 S. Market Square, Harrisburg.

"Who gave ye the black eye, Mark?"

"Nobody give it t' me, I had t' fight fer it."


February 22-26, 1925

The opening service of the Department of Superintendence of the N. E. A. will be held Sunday afternoon, February 22 at four o'clock at Cincinnati, Ohio. The last general session will be on Thursday evening, February 26. The general theme for the week, selected by President William McAndrew, is Schools for Service not for Self.


The convention will emphasize the finer things in education, and exhibits in the Cincinnati Music Hall will be arranged to show progress in such activities. The creative work of children in the fine arts will have a prominent place. The exhibit will include paintings, drawings, wood cuts, plastics and embroideries. Posters showing participation of schools in movements for civic betterment will form an interesting section of the exhibit. All schools having material suitable for exhibit are invited to contribute. William H. Vogel, art authority of the Cincinnati public schools, will be in charge.

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Last spring the Interscholastic Forensic Society was organized at a meeting of delegates of five public high schools, held at the Cheltenham High School, Elkins Park. Before the end of the school year twelve schools had become members of this Society, eleven Pennsylvania schools and one of New Jersey. The schools are, Cheltenham High School, Collegeville High School, Abington High School, Lehighton High School, Ridley Park High School, Souderton High School, East Greenville High School, Spring City High School, Media High School, Glen-Nor High School, Lansdale High School, all of Pennsylvanna and the Millville High School of New Jersey.

The purpose of this organization is to stimulate debating and oratorical contests among high schools and to award to debaters and orators an established insignia which gives to these school activities that recognition which athletics has already claimed.

It should be understood that the nature of this Society is purely honorary. It is not and does not intend to be another debating league. Of the twelve schools which are members of this Society, there are three Debating Leagues represented.

Each school is obliged to pay a small annual fee for membership, and in return receives a charter in this organization. Any pupil participating in one interscholastic debate or oratorical contest, is eligible to membership in this Society upon recommendaton of the faculty coach and high school principal. These individual members are awarded certificates indicating their membership and are entitled to wear the official insignia.

On November 1, a special meeting of the delegates of six of our member schools was held in the Cheltenham High School building. The following officers were elected to serve until next spring, when the Constitution provides for the regular election: President, C. A. Fulmer of Collegeville High School; Vice President, Mrs. Z. G. Wyatt of Abington High

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