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J. C. WERNER
Supervising Principal, Coraopolis, Pa.

IN

In this comparison the relative importance of public education in each borough is shown by the distribution of the local tax. The range is wide but the average compares very favorably with what is being done elsewhere. Table number 2 shows the inequality among the twenty boroughs while table number 3 shows the comparison with cities in population groups of various sizes.

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N a former article the inequality in ability

to support public education in twenty

boroughs in Allegheny County having a population between 5,000 and 10,000 was considered. The range in ability was found to be wide. In this article the effort, regardless of ability, will be considered.

In any discussion of effort four measures may be considered, namely: (a) the tax rate in mills, (b) the percentage of local tax devoted to public education, (c) the expenditure for public education per inhabitant on the basis of the 1920 census and (d) the amount of aid received by the local district from the state through appropriations.

(a) The tax rate in mills

Table number one shows the comparison in effort as measured by the tax rate in mills. Inequality exists here with a range in rate from 10 mills to 18 mills. The average for the group is 14.06 mills with a standard deviation of 2.26 and a coefficient of dispersion from the average of 16 per cent. When the rank of the various boroughs in this table is compared with their rank in ability it will be noted that in general the boroughs with a low valuation have a high rate of taxation. An interesting comparison is also possible for the boroughs under consideration with a group of 58 cities of the same population as shown in Table A of the N. E. A. Bulletin. The average for the 58 cities is 15.1 mills while that of the 20 boroughs is 14.06 mills. Table number one follows:

TABLE NO. 2
Percentage of Local Tax for Public Education
Coraopolls

65 Avalon
Clairton

65 Glassport Mt. Oliver

63 Pitcairn Turtle Creek

62 Sharpsburg Dormont

62 Etna East Pittsburgh

60 Munhall Rankin

58 Crafton Wilmerding

57 Tarentum Bellevue

56 St. Clair
Knoxville

56 Millvale
Average 60%
Standard Deviation 6.35
Coefficient of Dispersion 10.6%
Average for 58 cities 5,000 to 10,000 Table A
N. E. A. Bulletin 45.2%

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The above table shows gradual reduction in the percentage of local tax for public education as the size of the city increases.

(c) Cost per Inhabitant for Public Education.

In table number 4 the cost per inhabitant is considered. Here some peculiar conditions exist. For instance Clairton is spending nearly five times as much per inhabitant as St. Clair, yet when the total expenditure per pupil is considered Clairton is spending only 1.09 times as much as St. Clair. Again Coraopolis ranks second in this table and fifteenth when the total expenditure per pupil is considered. This table probably better than any of its

Standard Deviation 2.26
Coefhcient of Dispersion 16%
Average for 58 cities 5,000 to 10,000
Table A, N. E. A. Bulletin 15.1 mills

Percentage of local tax for public edu

(b) cation

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Coefficient of Dispersion 29%

Average for United States 1922, 15.7% Inequality in ability and inequality in effort have been pointed out. What may be done to eliminate these inequalities? A larger tax unit was suggested to remove part of the inequality in ability. A modification of the method of distributing State funds has received considerable attention. The AbilityEffort Method was strongly recommended. Certain phases of this were included in the 1923 amendments to the Edmonds Act. With the inequalities existing the application of such a plan will not greatly aid in the solution of the problem. So long as the relatively small district remains as in the present organization inequality in ability and effort will remain.

(d) State Aid

In connection with the effort put forth by the various districts to support their Schools recognition of the support given by the State should be considered. All the boroughs under consideration are third class districts and receive the same rate of appropriation. Under such conditions inequality in the proportion of State aid should be at a minimum. What are the facts? Under the Appropriation Act in effect during 1918-1919 the 20 districts received from the State $81,541. Under the Woodruff Act the same districts received from the State in 1920-1921 $178,798, an increase of 119 per cent over 1918-1919. Under the Edmonds Act the same districts received from the State in 1921-1922 $249,794, an increase of 39 per cent over 1920-1921 and of 206 per cent over 1918-1919. With such increases in State aid the local burden would seem to have been greatly reduced.

In spite of this aid, however, the percentage borne by the State is still below that of the nation at large; the average for the nation being 15.7 per cent and for the boroughs under consideration 10.2 per cent. In table No. 5 the percentage of State aid for the various districts is shown. The last four boroughs had extensive expenditures for Capital Outlay and may be disregarded. By doing so the range is still from 8.5 per cent to 15.5 per cent.

THE RELATION BETWEEN THE PUBLIC LIBRARY AND THE SCHOOL

(Continued from page 282) later. Their knowledge of how to find fact material easily and quickly must be given them during their years in the elementary school if they are to have a ready means of self education lasting throughout their after years. It is, therefore, peculiarly fitting that we give close attention to the matter of providing all the pupils in the graded schools of our Commonwealth with an adequate supply of the books which belong to them. This great task the Department of Public Instruction of Pennsylvania has set for itself. We hope so to train the boys and girls of our Commonwealth in the habit of using books for information, that they will turn naturally to the supply of books awaiting them in the public libraries of our State. The public library is the university of all the people. The public schools teach intensively for a short time, the public library offers education extensively for all the rest of lifetime. Boys and girls who have been trained in the use of books as tools in our schools, who have formed the habit of reading books, of finding pleasure in them, of getting profit from them, will become the appreciative and supporting patrons of public libraries.

The relation between public libraries and schools therefore has developed a richer meaning during recent years than was hoped for when the phrase originated. It is a distinct obligation upon the schools to do their part in training the boys and girls in the book laboratories in their schools for the wider use of all the treasures provided for them by the community in the public libraries.

TABLE NO. 5

Percentage of School Expenditure Borne by the State

Tarentum

15.5 Clairton Glassport

14.6 Pitcairn Turtle Creek

14.1 Rankin Millvale

14.0

St. Clair Coraopolis

12.8 Etna Crafton

12.6 Mt. Oliver Sharpsburg

11.4 Knoxville Wilmerding

11.1 Munhall Avalon

10.9 Dormont Bellevue

10.9 East Pittsburgh
Average 10.2%
Standard Deviation 3

10.8 10.6 10.3 10.1

8.8 8.5 7.5 6.9 2.2 2.1

use of:

THE ERIE CONVENTION

Wayne County

233 100% While this number of the JOURNAL is being

Waynesboro

62 100% mailed the annual convention of the Penn

Wilkes-Barre

424 100% Wyoming County

128 sylvania State Education Association is in ses

100% sion in Erie (December 29-31). The official

York County

602 100% program, containing reports of various com

York

273 100% mittees, was distributed to all who enrolled at the convention. A limited number of those

MEASURING YOURSELF programs are available and will be sent free

Why not check up on yourself occasionally? to members upon request.

1. Progress: Am I improving? Do I plan

to improve as the years go by, by reading, goLOCAL BRANCHES

ing to school and by learning from my fellow

teachers? The following local branches in addition to

2. Modern Ideals: Am I making suitable those published in earlier numbers of the JOURNAL have reported an enrollment of 100%

a. Application of principles of educational for the current year and have sent their dues and enrollment cards to Headquarters:

psychology? Allentown

410 100%

(ethods of working in the background?

c. Efficiency that eliminates drudgery? Ashland

29 100% Blakely Borough

45 100%

d. Problems, projects and motives? Bradford County

385 100%

e. Application of principles of standardizaBradford

84 100%

tion, use of tests when they may be Bucks County

488 100%

helpful? Carlisle

65 100%

3. Do I give proper attention to each indiCentral State Normal School 21 100%

vidual and allow him the chance to advance as Clairton

103 100%

rapidly as possible? Clearfield

65 100%

4. Am I socializing my school and using Clinton County

171 100%

the social motive to the proper extent? Cumberland County

323 100%

5. Is my administration satisfactory as to

morale, co-operation, attention to details? Darby

54 100% DuBois

88 100%

6. Am I taking proper hygienic care of the

children? Dunmore

121 100%

7. What am I doing to connect school life East Conemaugh

33 100%

with that outside in: Elk County

180 100% Erie

556 100%

a. Recognition of home interests?

b. Stimulation to better employment of outFranklin

68 100%

side time? Greene County

322 100%

c. Acquaintance with parents? Hanover

53 100%

8. What am I doing to make myself a betHomestead

129 100%

ter teacher in: Indiana State Normal School 66 100%

a. Personal appearance? Juniata

57 100%

b. Disposition? Lancaster County

727 100%

c. Professional knowledge? Lancaster

213 100%

d. Physical and mental health? Lower Merion Township

147 100%

e. Recreation and enjoyment of life? Luzerne County

1647 100%

9. Results in subject matter. McKeesport

304 100%

a. What definite results am I able to show Meadville

91 100%

in each subject I teach? Millersville State Normal School. 33 100%

10. Results aside from subject matter. Monessen

160 100%

a. What special attitude am I developing Mononga hela City

71 100%

in the children aside from the taught Montour County

84 100%

subjects? Mount Carmel

64 100%

From Dr. Geo. E. Freeland's new book, The New Castle

324 100%

Improvement of Teaching, p. 8, 9. Courtesy Olyphant

79 100%

F. H. Linder.
Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans'
Industrial School

6 100% Perry County

199 100%

SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAM CONTEST

CLOSES FEBRUARY 20, 1925 Pottsville

92 100% Punxsutawney

66 100% The School Health Program Contest time Reading

574 100% limit has been extended from January 10 as Ridgway

42 100% formerly announced to February 20, 1925. Rostraver Township

69 100% Sayre

58 100% “Mamma," complained little Elsie, “I don't Sunbury

109 100% feel very well." Tamaqua

59 100% “That's too bad, dear,” said mother sympaTaylor

60 100% thetically. “Where do you feel worst?" Warren

117 100% "In school, mamma."

"NEW SCHOOL BUILDINGS" NUMBER

OF THE JOURNAL In December, the Association published a special number of the PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL devoted to New School Buildings and the State Department of Public Instruction. It is an administrative number of especial interest to Superintendents, Supervising Principals, High School Principals, Heads of Departments, Boards of Education, Architects and Builders.

This 9 x 12-inch book of 200 pages has an art cover designed by C. Valentine Kirby, Director of Art, and is made of the finest of materials. The edition consists of 5,000 copies.

The table of contents is as follows: Pennsylvania's Educational Program J.

George Becht Directory of the Department of Public Instruc

tion The School Plant and the Building Program

HuBert C. Eicher The Administration Bureau-Francis B. Haas Increase in County Distribution of State Ap

propriation School Board Officials Statistical Summary 1922-1923 Health Education-C. H. Keene Accredited Colleges and Universities Extension Education-A. W. Castle A Purposeful Art Education for Pennsylvania

-C. Valentine Kirby Geography-Erna Grassmuck School Libraries—Adeline B. Zachert Special Education—F. N. Maxfield Secondary Education–J. N. Rule The Junior High School Movement in Penn

sylvania-J. M. Glass High School Supervision and General Field

ServiceJames G. Pentz Mathematics and Science Music-Hollis Dann School Attendance—W. M. Denison Pennsylvania's Twenty-Four Million Dollar

School Building ProgramJonas E. WagThe Social Studies). Lynn Barnard The School Building-Thomas S. Baker English in the Pennsylvania SchoolsOrton

Lowe Report of Activities of the Teacher Bureau

Albert Lindsey Rowland Vocational Education in Pennsylvania-L. H.

Dennis Pre-Professional and Professional Credentials

Bureau-C. D. Koch Rural Education-Lee L. Driver Philadelphia School Building Program-Louis

Nusbaum
Temple University's Building Program-Laura

H. Carnell
Monongahela High School Building

Copies are available at $1.00 each, postpaid. Send your order to P. S. E. A. Headquarters, 10 S. Market Square, Harrisburg.

CINCINNATI CONVENTION

February 22-26, 1925 The opening service of the Department of Superintendence of the N. E. A. will be held Sunday afternoon, February 22 at four o'clock at Cincinnati, Ohio. The last general session will be on Thursday evening, February 26. The general theme for the week, selected by President William McAndrew, is Schools for Service not for Self.

Exhibits The convention will emphasize the finer things in education, and exhibits in the Cincinnati Music Hall will be arranged to show progress in such activities. The creative work of children in the fine arts will have a prominent place. The exhibit will include paintings, drawings, wood cuts, plastics and embroideries. Posters showing participation of schools in movements for civic betterment will form an interesting section of the exhibit. All schools having material suitable for exhibit are invited to contribute. William H. Vogel, art authority of the Cincinnati public schools, will be in charge.

Hotels Reservations of hotel rooms already made forecast an unusually large attendance. Single rooms in hotels are exhausted but the Housing Committee has an ample supply of such rooms in private residences. Hotel rooms for occupancy by two or more persons are still available. Communications regarding sleeping room accommodations should be addressed to Thomas Quinlan, Chamber of Commerce, Cincinnati, Ohio.

ner

Special Railroad Rates One and one-half fare for the round trip on the identification certificate plan. Certificates will be ready for distribution January 10.

Special Pullman from Harrisburg A special Pullman with accommodations for 27 men will leave Harrisburg Saturday evening, February 21 at 8:19 o'clock for Cincinnati. If more than 27 desire to go with the “bunch," additional Pullman service will be provided.

A convenient schedule on the Cincinnati Limited, No. 53 is Lv. North Philadelphia

Saturday 5:50 P. M. Ly. Washington

Saturday 4:50 P. M. Ly. York

Saturday 7:26 P. M. Lv. Harrisburg

. Saturday 8:19 P. M. Lv, Altoona

.Saturday 11:11 P. M. Ar. Cincinnati

.Sunday 9:10 A. M.

The return trip may be made on the Gotham Limited, No. 154-54 Lv, Cincinnati

Thursday 9:55 P. M. Ar. Altoona

Friday 12:10 P. M. Ar. Harrisburg

Friday 2:57 P. M. Ar. York

Friday 4:25 P. M. Ar. Washington

.Friday 7:00 P. M. Ar. North Philadelphia

.Friday 7:34 P. M. These trains are not extra fare trains in and out of Harrisburg. The extra fare from Philadelphia to Harrisburg on No. 53 is $2.40.

“Who gave ye the black eye, Mark?" "Nobody give it t' me, I had tfight fer it."

School; Secretary Treasurer, H. M. Wessel of Cheltenham High School.

It is the hope of the Society to expand this year and to have at the end of this school year 100 per cent increase in the number of its member schools. A special drive for membership will be started shortly.

Further information can be had by addressing H. M. Wessel, Cheltenham High School, Elkins Park, Pa.

19.

Regular one-way fares to Cincinnati are From Philadelphia

$23.77 From Harrisburg

20.02 From Pittsburgh

11.19 Pullman fares to Cincinnati are From Harrisburg, lower berth

$5.63 From Harrisburg, upper berth.

4.50 From Harrisburg, drawing room.

21.00 Send request (no money) for reservation to the Executive Secretary, 10 S. Market Square, Harrisburg.

Pennsylvania Headquarters and Dinner Pennsylvania Headquarters will be in the Hotel Sinton, just opposite the Hotel Gibson.

The Pennsylvania dinner will be held Tuesday evening, February 24 promptly at 6:00 o'clock in the Ballroom of the Hotel Sinton. Price per plate is $3.00. Make early reservation (with or without money) through the Executive Secretary, 10 S. Market Square, Harrisburg. INTERSCHOLASTIC FORENSIC

SOCIETY Last spring the Interscholastic Forensic Society was organized at a meeting of delegates of five public high schools, held at the Cheltenham High School, Elkins Park. Before the end of the school year twelve schools had become members of this Society, eleven Pennsylvania schools and one of New Jersey. The schools are, Cheltenham High School, Collegeville High School, Abington High School, Lehighton High School, Ridley Park High School, Souderton High School, East Greenville High School, Spring City High School, Media High School, Glen-Nor High School, Lansdale High School,—all of Pennsylvanna and the Millville High School of New Jersey.

The purpose of this organization is to stimulate debating and oratorical contests among high schools and to award to debaters and orators an established insignia which gives to these school activities that recognition which athletics has already claimed.

It should be understood that the nature of this Society is purely honorary. It is not and does not intend to be another debating league. Of the twelve schools which are members of this Society, there are three Debating Leagues represented.

Each school is obliged to pay a small annual fee for membership, and in return receives a charter in this organization. Any pupil participating in one interscholastic debate or oratorical contest, is eligible to membership in this Society upon recommendaton of the faculty coach and high school principal. These individual members are awarded certificates indicating their membership and are entitled to wear the official insignia.

On November 1, a special meeting of the delegates of six of our member schools was held in the Cheltenham High School building. The following officers were elected to serve until next spring, when the Constitution provides for the regular election: President, C. A. Fulmer of Collegeville High School; Vice President, Mrs. Z. G. Wyatt of Abington High

39.

HONOR ROLL IN SCHOOL SAVINGS

BANKING FOR 1923-24 The Fifth Annual Report of School Savings Banking, compiled by the American Bankers Association, 110 East 42nd Street, New York City, lists the following Pennsylvania cities on an Honor Roll which indicates at least 75 per cent pupil participation: Class A-Enrollment over 10,000

Per cent National Rank

City

Participating 6. .. Allentown

94.8
16
. Scranton

85.
18. ..Johnstown

83.3
.Pittsburgh

83.
Class B-Enrollment 5,000 to 10,000
5....
.Braddock

95.9
19.
. Kingston

75.4
21. .McKees Rocks

75.1
Class C-Enrollment 2,000 to 5,000
6... .Duquesne

99.6
12.
. Pittston

96.1
14.
. Clairton

95.4
17
..Sharon

95.
..Bellevue

86.5 40. . Washington

86.5 43.

85.3
45. .Canonsburg

85.1
48.
.Lebanon

83.4
51. ..Pottsville

82.1 52. ..Belle Vernon

82.
59. .Jeannette

80.7
61.
.Frackville

80.
. Ambridge

76.
73. . Mount Carmel

75.
Class D-Enrollment under 2,000
8.
...Clearfield

... Plains

71.

99.9 9. ..Meadville

99.5 11. . Stroudsburg

98. 18. . Midland

95.5 26. .Dravosburg

94.4 41 . Turtle Creek

91. .Bridgeville

90. 55 . Athens

86.8 66. . Sewickley

85. 72. Reynoldsville

83.5 88. .Charleroi

79.4 91. . Trafford

78.2 94. .Bentleyville

77. 97. . McDonald

76.6 100. .Hastings

76.1 101. Manor

75.9 102. . Latrobe

75.3 104. .. Conemaugh

75.

42.

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