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line Zachert, Libraries; C. V. Kirby, Art; J. A. Foberg, Mathematics; J. L. Barnard, Social Studies; F. T. Struck, Industrial Education.

Lee Driver was drafted for courses in Rural Education by State College, Thiel College, Clarion Normal and Slippery Rock Normal. His assistants R. C. Shaw and T. A. Bock gave courses in Rural Education at Grove City College and the University of Pennsylvania, respectively.

At the University of Pittsburgh, James N. Rule gave a course in High School Education and J. M. Glass, in Junior High School work. A. L. Rowland gave a course in Teacher Training; Erna Grassmuck, in Geography; H. C. Eicher, in Educational Administration and H. L. Holbrook, in Guidance.

The University of Pennsylvania, in addition to T. A. Bock, drafted Ortor Lowe for a course in English and Erna Grassmuck for Geography.

G. C. L. Reimer organized Bucknell's first summer school but was soon drafted by the Bloomsburg State Normal School.

Hollis Dann, organizer of the West Chester Summer School of Music, again directed the work there. He was assisted by Clara Sanford.

C. Valentine Kirby gave a course in art at Carnegie Tech and O. D. Evans, a course in Continuation School Work at Columbia.

A. W. Castle gave courses in Americanization at the University of Pennsylvania, Temple University and the University of West Virginia.

Several of the Department members took courses at different summer schools as follows: Muriel Brown, Leland Stanford University; Edna M. Kugler, Temple University; Mildred Fischer, New York School of Social Workers; Lu M. Hartman and J. Y. Shambach, Columbia University; H. C. Fetterolf, W. P. Loomis and G. D. Whitney, State College.

COLLEGES AND NORMAL SCHOOLS
GRADUATE LARGEST NUMBER
IN THEIR HISTORY

Forty-six hundred teachers were graduated from teacher training institutions in Pennsylvania during last year.

Figures from the 47 accredited colleges show the number of graduates to be over 7,000, the largest in the history of the State. Among these graduates were E. G. Gushee, sixty-three years old of Philadelphia and Mrs. S. Shoemaker Farley, age fifty-seven, of Swarthmore, who received the Bachelor of Science Degree from Temple University and State College, respectively.

Of the 7,000 graduates, 1,980 took educational courses and will enter the teaching profession.

The normal schools established high water mark in the number of graduates, 2,618 having received diplomas in June. These figures include the largest number of male graduates since the establishment of normal schools in

1859. Cheyney Normal School, organized two years ago, graduated 21.

Record classes prevailed in secondary education, 31,000 having finished in the first class high schools. This large number is attributed to the influence of junior high schools. These have had a phenomenal development in Pennsylvania and hold many students in high school until the completion of the course.

It is estimated that 30 per cent of the high school graduates will enter higher institutions this fall.

STATE CONFERENCE ON AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION

The eleventh annual State Conference for directors of vocational schools and teachers of vocational agriculture was held at State College August 20-22. Approximately one hundred twenty-five were in attendance, including in addition to those mentioned above, members of the Vocational Bureau of the State Department, of the Rural Life Department of Penn State, and a number of teachers of agriculture from West Virginia_under the leadership of Dr. C. H. Winkler, Professor of Agricultural Education in West Virginia University.

The keynote of the conference "A Bigger Program for Vocational Education in Pennsylvania" was stressed by L. H. Dennis, State Director of Vocational Education. Out-ofstate speakers included T. E. Browne, State Director of Vocational Education for North Carolina; W. F. Stewart, Professor of Agricultural Education, University of Ohio and Dr. C. H. Lane of the Federal Board for Vocational Education, Washington, D. C. One day was devoted to recent developments in technical agriculture, under the direction of Dean R. L. Watts and Professors F. D. Gardner, A. A. Borland, R. V. Blasingame, W. H. Tomhave, J. E. McCord and D. E. Haley, all of Pennsylvania State College.

BULBS AND FLOWERS

Fragrant, sweet-scented winter flowers in the school room and in the home are a delight to every one, as are also the Easter flowers and the early outdoor flowers of spring. They grow from bulbs-narcissi, hyacinths, tulips, daffodils-grown in the low fertile lands of Holland for several years until large and strong and then sent to this country.

Bulbs must be planted in the fall, just before the ground freezes, and allowed to lie in the ground over winter. Some of them can be grown in water and pebbles instead. Any good book on flowers or any bulb catalog will furnish detailed information on planting or a circular can be had from the State Department of Public Instruction.

The bulbs should be purchased early in the fall. Each year the Pittsburgh teachers order many hundred thousands of bulbs for their pupils. Why should not every teacher in Pennsylvania do the same this fall, so that every child may grow at least one flower?

COURSES OF STUDY IN AGRICULTURE.

A pamphlet entitled "Courses of Study in Agriculture” has recently been published_by the Department of Public Instruction. The pamphlet is available to any one in Pennsylvania having need of outlined courses in agriculture.

Courses for three types of agricultural education are given: prevocational agriculture for rural schools and junior high schools; general agriculture for high schools and vocational agriculture for high schools.

The syllabus in agriculture for rural schools is arranged for the seventh and eighth grades and outlined on the basis of four lessons a month. The work in the seventh grade covers work with farm crops and in the eighth grade, work with farm animals. Class work is developed around junior home projects.

The syllabus in general agriculture for high schools has a threefold aim: first, to present historical background of the development of agriculture in America; second, to become familiar with the social, economic, scientific and occupational phases of farm life; third, to provide such activities as will give those contemplating agriculture as a vocation sufficient experience to enable them to determine more wisely their adaptability to farming as

career.

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The syllabus in vocational agriculture for high schools is developed in considerable detail, giving the courses to be taught, methods of instruction, program of studies and outlines for various agricultural home projects correlating with the school instruction. Appropriate reference works and lists of equipment and supplies are given.

79 STATE SCHOLARSHIPS AWARDED

Results of the State Scholarship examinations, conducted in the various first class high schools of the State on May 4, show that 1,419 candidates, an increase of 339 over last year, took the examinations, Allegheny county leading with 212. South Philadelphia had the largest number of any high school. Thomas Elkins of Schenley High, Pittsburgh, made the highest mark of all the candidates, securing 282 points out of a possible 300. Theodore Broecker of the same school was second with 281. Dorothy Hollar, Chambersburg High, ranked third with 278; Gladys York of Marywood Seminary, Scranton, was fourth with 277; Eli M. Engle of Mt. Joy High and Myra O. Sheaffer, New Bloomfield High, tied for fifth place with 276.

Section 4303 of the school code provides one scholarship for each county except those having more than one senatorial district. Philadelphia, Allegheny and Luzerne, because of this provision, get eight, six and two scholarships, respectively. A scholarship holder may attend any approved Pennsylvania college or university.

The names of the winners are:

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J. Glenn McCausland. Allegheny Virginia Rumble.. Clairton

Thomas Elkins.

.Schenley

Theodore Broecker.... Schenley

George Schied.

.Tarentum

Mildred Haffner.

Fifth Ave.

Annabelle Frantz..

Michael Matz..

William Shaffer..

Helen Seltzer.. Glenn Zeiders. Jennie Roberts. . John Meredith. .. Earl Price.. .Alice Murtha.

George Bair...
Elizabeth Sherer..
Cora Foster..
Anne Rommell.
. John Miller.
Thomas Lewis..
. John Noecker..
. Boyd Beagle.
John Henrietta.
Velva Diven.
.George Keitel.

. Helen Pennypacker.
Leona Anderson.
Harry Kulberg.
Thomas Waggoner.
Eleanor J. Brown..
.Dorothy Hollar...
Arthur McCullough.
...Clare Butler

Norman Shick..

V. Lunette Johnson..
Herman Keiter..

Lackawanna....Gladys York...

Lancaster..

Lawrence..
Lebanon..
Lehigh.
Luzerne.
Lycoming..

McKean..
Mercer.
Mifflin.
Monroe.

Eli M. Engle..

. Edward Brown.. Thelma Kreiser..

..A. Louise Schaeffer.

Alice Phelps... George Palmer. Dominic Kalinoski..

Cecilia Johnson.. ..Mary Renoll. .Sara Bell.

Elwood Mosier.

Montgomery.... Elmer D. Wilt.

Donald E. Jones..

Northampton... Charles H. Love..

Montour.

Perry...

'Northumberl'd.. William Troutman..

Philadelphia...

Pike. Potter.. Schuylkill.. Snyder.. Somerset. Sullivan.

..Myra O. Sheaffer.

Irene Label.

Edward Furia..

Kittanning Woodlawn Harrisburg Tech. . Reading Girls Altoona Athens Perkasie

.. Butler

Mt. Aloysius Acade-
my, (Cresson)
Emporium

. Lehighton
State College
Coatesville
..New Bethlehem
Clearfield
Renovo
Berwick
Meadville
.Shippensburg

. Harrisburg Tech.
W. Phila. Girls
.Ridgway
Albion

S. Brownsville
Tionesta
Chambersburg
Waynesburg

. Orbisonia
Indiana

. Brockwayville
.Harrisburg Tech.
Marywood Semi-
nary, (Scranton)
Mt. Joy

.New Wilmington
.Lebanon

. Allentown
Hazleton
Wilkes-Barre
.St. Joseph's,
(Williamsport)

Kane
Mercer
.Lewistown
.E. Stroudsburg
.Abington
Danville
Easton
Shamokin

New Bloomfield
W. Phila. Girls
Central

Wilfred Lichtenstein. . Central Abraham Marcu......Central John H. H. Morrow... Central Alexander L. RosenthalCentral Samuel Finestone..... Frankford Helen Klopfer.. Raymond Angle.. . Charles James.. Elizabeth Horman.

. Irene Fasold.

. Charles A. Claus. .Lucy Evans..

Susquehanna.... Patrick Cleary.

Tioga..
Union..
Venango.
Warren..

Washington..

Wayne..

Minnie MacLean.
Helen Krebs..
Edith Shannon.

Hazel Devereaux. . Charles Neu.

.. Ira Rutherford.

Westmoreland... Adeline Reeping.

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Germantown
Milford

. Coudersport
Pottsville
Selinsgrove
.Somerset

. Dushore

. Forest City

Westfield .Lewisburg Emlenton

Tidioute

Washington
Honesdale

. Latrobe

Tunkhannock York

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Attendance

Digest of School Attendance Laws and Employment of Minors

Suggested Forms for Attendance Bureaus Commercial Education

Course of Study

Elementary Education

Arbor and Bird Day Bulletin

Manual and Syllabus for Elementary Schools English

Course of Study-Years VII-XII

Foreign Languagės

Course of Study in Latin, French, German and Spanish

High School

Classification of High Schools

Manual and Syllabus for High Schools Library

Library Manual for High Schools

Library Manual for Elementary Schools Mathematics

Course of Study-Years VII-XII Music

Course of Study for Elementary and High Schools

Pennsylvania Music Week Bulletin Pennsylvania Summer Session Announcement for Supervisors and Teachers Pre-Professional Education

Drugless Therapy, Physio Therapy and Chiropody-Laws, Rules and Information General Information concerning Pre-Professional Bureau

Hospital Intern Information

Midwifery-Laws, Rules and Regulations Rules for conducting examinations for all candidates

State Scholarship Examinations

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standers will not pay much attention to you; but if you should get down on your knees and pray to Almighty God or if you should stand bareheaded while a company of old soldiers marches by with flags to the breeze, some people will think you are showing off.

Of all the signs and symbols since the world began there is none other so full of meaning as the flag of this country. That piece of red, white and blue bunting means five thousand years of struggle upwards. It is the full-grown flower of ages of fighting for liberty. It is the century plant of human hope in bloom.

Your flag stands for humanity, for an equal opportunity to all the sons of men. Of course, we haven't arrived yet at that goal; there are many injustices yet among us, many senseless and cruel customs of the past still clinging to us, but the only hope of righting the wrongs of men lies in the feeling produced in our bosoms by the sight of that flag.

Other flags mean a glorious past; this flag, a glorious future. It is not so much the flag of our fathers as it is the flag of our children, and of all children's children yet unborn. It is the flag of tomorrow. It is the signal of the "Good Time Coming." It is not the flag of your king, it is the flag of yourself and of all your neighbors.

or

Don't be ashamed when your throat chokes and the tears come, as you see it flying from the masts of our ships on all the seas floating from every flagstaff of the Republic. You will never have a worthier emotion. Reverence it as you would reverence the signature of the Deity.

Listen, son! The band is playing the national anthem "The Star-Spangled Banner!" They have let loose Old Glory yonder. Stand upand others will stand with you.

THE SCHOOL LIBRARY

It is impossible to prepare students adequately for their class work or for life, without a generous supply of good books. No school of any grade, whether it be the elementary school or a great university, is properly equipped unless it has a well organized library.

What is a school library? It is a collection of books, periodicals, pamphlets and pictures, grouped and arranged for use, administered by some one who knows how to make books serve both pupils and teachers. The school library is the laboratory of every department. Here boys and girls may acquire a knowledge of how to use books, and the most valuable of all habits-the habit of reading.

The well equipped, properly administered library is the heart of the school it serves. What are the chief functions of a school library? To supply books and magazines to supplement class work, to provide cultural reading, to impart a working knowledge of books and libraries for information, to provide the teacher with professional and cultural reading and with material for use in the preparation of classroom work.

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