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complete course of study plus all suggestions and modifications and to see that every teacher had everything up-to-date.

The committee met approximately every two weeks with a final half-day session the last week of school. It put most of its attention on minimum essentials, term by term, concentrating on the first two years. These were made as few and simple as possible, method was left to the teacher and nothing was said about desirable requirements at all. These essentials were listed under the heads of form, punctuation, spelling, grammar and sentence structure and were spread over the four semesters instead of being concentrated in the first. The parts were correlated and the work made cumulative.

After the report was complete but before any of us had used it, I wrote out my opinion of our collective work:

"It is definite. A single simple form for all English papers is required. The work in sentences is progressive: simple, first semester; compound, second; complex, third. Punctuation goes hand in hand with sentence structure. The few working essentials of grammar are distributed over the first four terms. Troublesome forms of noun, pronoun, adjective and adverb are disposed of the first term; the verb is studied for two years, definitely, and special verbs as well as forms are listed. Work in outlining and paragraphing is progressive. There is a spelling list of twenty to thirty simple words for each term. Definite habits in letter writing must be formed. All classics must be read, ten themes must be written, two books read outside must be reported on, before a pupil can pass a term's work.

"As I look at it, I see Miss Davis's emphasis on grammar, Miss Hammond's interest in outlining and my own feeling for letter writing standing out. I see, too, shortcomings due to the fact that liberties could not be taken with the city curriculum. Aims were stated for us. Activities might be suggested in desirable requirements which we have not yet touched. It was essential knowledges, habits and attitudes with which we dealt. It is certainly far from perfect; it is as certainly better than nothing."

The work was submitted to the principal, who was entirely in sympathy with it, and who put it in the hands of all English teachers for trial the first semester. The original plan was for the minimum requirements to be re

written and given to pupils and parents as well as teachers in February, 1924; but curriculums grow after the manner of Jack's beanstalkovernight. The new junior high school curriculum has been introduced, a senior high school curriculum committee came suddenly into existence last September and expects to have its work ready for us by next fall. Our minimum essentials will die young; but their life, though it bids fair to be brief, has been and is useful.

Now, after five months' use, they seem to some of us, more in the order of most desirable points, rather than minimum essentials; they guide the teacher, experienced as well as inexperienced, tell her on what to lay the stress. But this is not a thesis on the working necessity of such a guide in the modern cosmopolitan high school. This is a simple record of our mode of procedure and of one small task partly completed. Finished curriculums tell so little of the struggle behind and ahead. It may be this one chapter of the story will help others along the way.

PECULIAR BUT TRUE It's hard to believe, isn't it— That the Pacific end of the Panama Canal is farther east than the Atlantic end?

That Venice, Italy and Montreal, Canada are in about the same latitude?

That if an express train had started out from the earth for the planet Neptune at the birth of Christ, and had traveled 60 miles an hour day and night ever since, it would not be halfway there?

That Cuba would reach from New York to Chicago?

That the mouth of the Amazon River is as near to Europe as it is to New York?

That Texas is as large as 212 Rhode Islands?

That, when measured in degrees of longitude, San Francisco is about in the middle of the United States, including Alaska?

That the entire continent of South America lies farther east than Florida?

That Glasgow, Scotland, is in the same latitude as Alaska?

That if the southern end of Chile, South America, were placed at the southern limit of Florida, it would extend northward entirely across the United States and Canada and halfway across Hudson Bay?

This list of odd things about the earth was compiled by Professor R. H. Whitbeck of the geology department of the University of Wisconsin.

"To know pictures is to know history, biography, mythology, literature, to feel religion and to respond to the gentle teachings of nature."

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W

E. E. HICKS

Principal, Junior High School, Wilkinsburg

ILKINSBURG is the largest thirdclass school district in the State of Pennsylvania. Its population at the last census was 24,403 and it has grown considerably since then.

It is a residential district and has no large industries within its limits. Its residents are, for the most part, a well-educated class. A large percentage are Westinghouse employees; another large group are office people of the Pittsburgh district; while a considerable number own businesses in the city and make their homes in the Borough. It goes without saying that the citizenry of Wilkinsburg is of a high order. They are all interested in higher education for their children-the drop-out problem is a minor one.

This interest in education assures the election of a school board of the highest order, one composed of men and women who are intensely interested in school problems and who are wiliing to sacrifice the time which the great amount of detail requires.

This bit of local color is given to show that the school problem of Wilkinsburg differs just a little from that of many other districts. For instance, the necessity for education for immediate gain in occupation is not nearly so great as in a district where a large percentage go into industry between the ages of fourteen and sixteen. On the other hand, these men of affairs have very little use for a school system that does not function in its proper sphere. They feel that the schools must give a thorough grounding in the fundamentals, and must also give the moral and vocational aspects of life their proper setting.

Since the drop-out problem is a minor one, it is necessary to give such training in the Junior High School as will equip the pupils for successful participation in the work of the Senior School. This requires a core curriculum of sufficient extent to provide training in the fundamentals. Since it is the work of the school, also, to help pupils find their life work, some exploratory work is necessary.

It is the feeling of the writer that a pupil who has found from his study of a subject that the class of thing represented by that subject is not within his grasp, has profited

for the good of society just as much, though he fail, as others do who pass. In other words, try-out material should be of such a nature, though not prohibitive, that it will give the pupil's ability a fair test.

There seems to be a danger in too much "Six Week's Trial Material," "Baby Latin," etc., where selection is made on the basis of mere liking, after such a brief experience. It is possible that "quitters" may be developed instead of real "stickers."

It is a very common thing, for pupils who have no idea what they want to do in life, to be taking subjects in high school merely on the basis of likes and dislikes-sometimes of teachers. We are in danger of forgetting that there is no royal road to learning-that to be the individual we feel called to be, we sometimes must do the thing we might prefer not to do. Our guidance, many times, must carry with it that spirit of fight that overcomes possible obstacles.

The tone of this paper, to this point, may give the reader the opinion that the writer is a reactionary. The writer hopes this idea has not been gained. He only wishes to issue a warning against the danger of swinging too far from what has been considered sound practice in the past. The administrators of the Wilkinsburg Junior High School feel that they, instead of being reactionaries, have been quite progressive in modernizing the system. As far as we know, the Wilkinsburg Junior High School is the first in the United States to be organized throughout into homogeneous groups.

At the time this organization was effected, in the fall of 1919, the writer was taking work at the University of Pittsburgh, and it was in class there that the idea was conceived.

The Wilkinsburg Junior High School is thought also to lead in the careful organization of teachers' participation in school administration. This is effected through a system of committees involving the entire faculty. The committees are:

1. Instruction-Mathematics, Social studies and Special subjects.

2. Activities-Dramatics, etc.

Languages,

4. Organization—Grouping, subject matter, etc.

5. Welfare-Poor helped, sick visited, cards sent, etc.

These committees meet alternate weeks at a luncheon in the school dining room and discuss their problems.

Each class has its Welfare Committee and it is around this center that student participation in school affairs is effected, and that school spirit is maintained.

The curriculum provides for differentiation at the beginning of the eighth grade. Three courses are provided to meet the requirements of three possible fields, the professional, the industrial and the commercial. All eighth grade pupils are required to take English, history in 8B and civics in 8A and mathematics, the fourth subject depending upon the field chosen. If the pupil elects the professional, through the medium of a college course, he takes Latin or French; if industrial, shop work, where the auto and its electrical equipment form the basis of study; if commercial, junior business practice, where a view of business organization is given, with a try out in shorthand and bookkeeping.

Any pupil choosing one of these fields and finding that he cannot master effectively the try-out subjects, or wishing to change for some other legitimate reason, may change his course at the end of 8B. The experiment of both 8B and 8A should leave the pupil in a position to choose intelligently in ninth grade. The experience of the school is that very little shifting occurs after ninth grade election. Another limitation for further election in a language is the requirement of an average grade in any one year.

The guidance problem, then, in Junior High School is as follows: The guidance teacher, meeting the seventh grade pupils once a week, discusses with them the different kinds of work in which people engage, the advantages and disadvantages of each kind, and helps to set up standards for judging desirable and undesirable occupations. In 7A, special attention is given to the education required in the various occupations. At the close of seventh grade, election is made in the field the pupil wishes to enter. The eighth year is spent on the core curriculum and the fourth subject representative of his chosen field. This subject is made sufficiently difficult to give the pupil an honest view of what will be required

of him in that field. In Latin, for instance, one-half as many lessons are covered as are required in ninth grade, while the contribution to English and vocabulary is stressed, thus providing for sufficient difficulty to test the pupil's ability and at the same time gaining valuable 8th grade content. Credits are counted on the basis of the semester recitation period, where preparation is required .outside of class. Where preparation is not required outside of class, two recitation periods are counted as one.

The requirement of the Wilkinsburg Junior High School is 128 recitation periods. The school has an enrollment of 1,100 pupils with 43 teachers. It is housed in a modern building with a well-equipped gymnasium, 50 by 70 feet, an excellent swimming pool, shops for metal work, woodwork and mechanical drawing, and a sewing and cooking department unsurpassed in the Pittsburgh district.

Provision is made for extra-curricular activities as follows:

Monday and Friday-Chapel

Tuesday and Thursday-Club periods
Wednesday-Home room

The first part of the chapel service is religious. The latter part is given over to programs of various kinds, sometimes by pupils, sometimes by outside speakers.

The clubs are organized under several divisions-Dramatic, Music, Domestic Art, Art, etc. At the completion of a definite piece of work, a pupil may transfer to another club in the department he has chosen, and to any club at the beginning of a semester. These activity periods are designed to give opportunity for doing the thing taught in class. For instance, a pupil in public speaking may join a dramatic club and take part in plays, etc., thus putting into practice what he has learned in class work.

Clubs are elective, over 90 per cent of the pupils take part at all times, and may be organized at the request of pupils. The home room period furnishes opportunity for programs by pupils, for various school business, such as banking, social planning, etc.

It has long been the pride of the school to say, "If you want anything done ask the Junior High School."

THE Lancaster Kiwanis has appointed a committee to plan ways and means for furthering Americanization work in that city.

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S

Pennsylvania Colleges

FRANK G. DAVIS

Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pa.

SCHOOL procedure in Pennsylvania has been changed considerably during recent years, but perhaps in no particular more than in college departments of education. From a situation where theory reigned supreme they have developed into teacher-training departments with laboratory teaching and courses designed to fit graduates for real professional work from the beginning. This plan is designed to eliminate the old trial and error stage formerly taken for granted in the experience of college graduates entering the field of education.

What is the status of observation and practive teaching in Pennsylvania colleges? Desiring an answer to this question the writer addressed a questionnaire to sixteen colleges which prepare students for the teaching profession. Sixteen replies were received from colleges enrolling from 275 to nearly 10,000 students. The median college had five hundred students, the 25 percentile 335 and the 75 percentile 1,050. The approximate number of graduates that enter the teaching profession yearly from these colleges ranges from 20 to 149, the median number being 40. Thirteen of these institutions maintain observations and practice teaching departments, twelve of them training their students in the public schools.

In all of the colleges the practice teaching is directed by the professor of education. In two cases he is assisted by the superintendent of schools and in a third by other professors in the college.

Eighty-five per cent of the schools give to the work from 90 to 108 hours. One school devotes to it ten hours per week for one semester. Another school gives it from three to six hours per week, the time varying. The proportion of time given to observation and practice teaching varies greatly. In the meIdian school students devote the same amount of time to observation as to practice teaching. The range is from one-ninth observation to full time observation.

The work is carried on in the senior year of all colleges replying. Eleven schools have

one group conference per week and the usual practice is to have one or more individual conferences, the number depending on the needs of the class and the time the director can give to the work.

Seven of the sixteen colleges give a special course in observation and practice teaching, three offer the work with secondary education Three and three with high school methods. schools use no textbook, three use the same textbook and of the remaining schools no two use the same basal text, several using more than one book. The books most frequently mentioned are well-known texts on the high school, high school methods or technique of teaching.

Where observation and practice teaching are done in public schools 67 per cent have no financial arrangements with the local school board. In one case the school board pays $25 per semester to the critic teacher for each student, the college paying nothing. One college gives a four-year scholarship to the local schools; one pays $50 a semester to a critic teacher while another pays $17.50 per student teacher to the high school. Two colleges offer critic teachers free tuition in extension courses.

The attitude of critic teachers is generally favorable to having the practice teaching done in the public high schools. Perhaps the general tone of the comments on this phase of the question is best stated in a notation on one of the returned questionnaires: "Our experience is that individual classroom teachers in most cases come to welcome the assignment of student teachers, not only because it helps them to freshen their own points of view, but because it means the securing of considerable service from these student teachers and the lightening to some degree of their own burdens."

Two motion picture machines (The Victor Safety Cinema), using SAFETY STANDARD NON-INFLAMMABLE FILMS. Film service to be had from Pittsburgh, Albany, and Buffalo. Also one silvered screen (10 x 12). Machines and screen good as new. Will give good offer to schools only.

Communicate, Box 106, Midway, Pa.

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ELMER G. THUMM

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

HOUSANDS of boys and girls are spending valuable time and effort in the study of Latin. If the value derived does not justify the time and energy spent, the schools are inflicting an injustice not only upon the youth who unwittingly elect this dead language but upon those who support the schools. The presentation of satisfactory evidence for the continuance of this obsolete language in the public school is an obligation which devolves upon those who champion the cause of the classics. Those who advocate and insist that the study of Latin should have a place in the school curriculum should back their claims by substantial and invincible proof. It is not my purpose to try to settle this issue, but I do wish to disprove the following statements by throwing the light of analysis upon some of the staple arguments promulgated by the classicists.

1. The Proponents of Latin Contend That It Should be Studied for Its Cultural Value The study of any subject has cultural value to the extent that subject imparts information that will be useful or will in some way enrich the lives of those who receive it. Let us admit for the sake of argument that the most of the information locked up in the Roman language has a positive value. Does it follow that every student should go through the laborious and costly process of learning that language in order to obtain the desired information? The Latin literature has been translated into every modern civilized language by experts who have spent years preparing for this task. Translations by specialists are infinitely more accurate and reliable than those of the student who spends six or even eight years in study. The historical facts written in the Latin tongue are accessible in translated form to anyone who has a reading knowledge of any of the living languages.

2. The Study of Latin Gives the Student Mental Training

If we were to assume that the study of Latin trained the mind, this assumption would not carry with it the inference that Latin to the exclusion of everything else is best suited for this purpose. If we were to leave out the content matter as a consideration would it

not be just as sensible to study Sanskrit? If, however, the content matter is a factor in determining the proper subject from the standpoint of mental discipline would it not be wiser to make a choice which would be most fruitful in both? Isn't it reasonable to assume that the study of more English would have as much disciplinary value as Latin and a still greater value in its wealth of information?

It is not admitted, however, that mental discipline is a reality. Tests by well known psychologists such as James, Thorndike, Coover and Angell indicate that there is no transfer of training from one subject to another except to the extent that there are identical elements in each. The limited amount of transfer where identities are involved is no more than the relearning of what has already been learned, and places the process in the category of habit. The defence of Latin therefore, on the ground of its disciplinary value, is invalid whether the possibility of mental training is granted or denied.

3. Latin is An Indispensable Aid to English It is true that a large number of English words have an ancestry that can be traced back to the mother tongue of the Romans. But what economy can result in learning the meaning of a Latin word in order to know the meaning of its English derivitive? The meanings of a great number of words have changed since their introduction into English and strict dependence upon the meaning of the Latin root word would be confusing and misleading. No more work is involved in the use of the English dictionary and there is surely less possibility of error when one considers the evolution of word structure and word meaning within the last three centuries.

Latin prefixes such as, a, ac, ad, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, ante, dis, ex, and Latin suffixes such as, able, cle, ile, ial, al, ian, can be learned by the English student with as much ease as Anglo Saxon prefixes and suffixes such as "be" as in befriend, "mis" as in misdeed, "er" as in richer, "ful" as in mindful and "less" as in helpless. There are some Latin root words which have a dozen or more English derivatives. A knowledge of these root words and their meaning is worth while.

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