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OR, A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, AND MISCELLANEOUS

LITERATURE;

ENLARGED AND IMPROVED.

THE SIXTH EDITION.

Illustrated with nearly str hundred Engravings.

VOL. IX.

INDOCTI DISCANT; AMENT MEMINISSE PERITI.

EDINBURGH:
PRINTED FOR ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE AND COMPANY;

AND HURST, ROBINSON, AND COMPANY, 90, CHEAPSIDE,

LONDON.

AE 5 Eбо | 2 3 V.4

HIST. Austa
WILFOKL

زارا 17-۱۱

FULL

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

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FOR

FOR Fordyce.

ORDYCE, , an elegant and learned wri. the tbird on the delusive and bloody spirit of popery, Fordyce.

ter, was born at Aberdeen in the year 1711. Hav- preached before the synod of Perth and Stirling But
ing received the early part of his education at the gram still greater wonder and astonishment were excited by
mar school, at the age of 13 he was entered at the Greek bis inimitable sermon on the folly, infamy, and misery
class in Marischal college, Aberdeen; in 1728 he took of unlawful pleasure, preached before the general as.
the degree of A. M. and was afterwards, in 1742, ad- sembly of the church of Scotland in 1760. It contains
mitted professor of philosophy in the same college. He such masterly composition with respect to description,
was originally designed for the ministry ; to prepare spirit, and elegance, and was delivered with such un-
himself for which was the whole object of his ambition, common solemnity, animation, and pathos, that it filled
and for a course of years the whole purpose of his stu his learned fathers and brethren with astonishment, and
dies. How well be was qualified to appear in that cha- justly raised him to unrivalled eminence among bis cle-
racter, appears from his " Theodorus, a dialogue con- rical cotemporaries. About this time he was compli.
cerning the art of preaching." Having finished this mented with a degree of doctor in divinity by the uni-
work, he went abroad in 1750 on his travels, in order versity of Glasgow, probably on account of the fame he
to obtain fresh stores of knowledge: but after a success acquired by this extraordinary sermon.
ful tour through several parts of Europe, be was, on The friends of Dr Fordyce being mostly in London,
his return home, unfortunately cast away in a storm on he was invited to that metropolis to be the colleague of
the coast of Holland, in the 41st year of his age. Be. Dr Lawrence, minister of a respectable congregation
sides the above work, he wrote Dialogues on Educa. in Moukwell-street, on whose death, which happened a
tion, 8vo, and a Treatise of Moral Philosophy, pub- few months after, Dr Fordyce became once more fa-
lished in the Preceptor. The third edition of his mous for his pulpit eloquence, always preaching to
Theodorus was published in London, in 1751, after overflowing audiences. This popularity he justly de-
his death, by his brother James, the subject of the fol- served, whether with respect to the elegance of his com-
lowing article.

positions, or their happy tendency to impress the heart
Fordyce, James, a Scotch divine, justly esteemed with the love of virtue and religion. Yet even Dr For-
for his piety and ingenuity, as well as for his pulpit dyce lived to see his popularity on the decline ; for
eloquence, was born at Aberdeen in the year 1720. such as attend a place of worship from mere motives
He received his classical education at the public gram- of curiosity must have fickle and unstable minds, chang-
mar school, and went afterwards to the Marischal col. ing their preachers as they do their dress, loving to be
lege, where he went through the usnal course of studies where others are, of doing what others do, and of ad-
necessary for a minister of the gospel. His natural abi- miring what others admire, for they have no taste of
lities were excellent, and he improved to the utmost the their own.
favourable opportunities be enjoyed at the university, His pets were thinned from another cause, which
which made him be considered as well qualified for a was the failure of a younger brother, an extensive bank.
preacher of the gospel at an early period of life. His er, which ruined many of the doctor's constant bear-
first appointment was that of second minister in the ers and most liberal supporters. Although the doctor
church of Brechin in the county of Angus, after which could not be reasonably blamed for the failure of his
he accepted of a call to Alloa near Stirling. The peo- brother, yet it is certain that it brought a degree of
ple of that parish were prepossessed in favour of another, odium on the whole family. Another cause of the di.
and prejudiced against Mr Fordyce, which could not minution of bis hearers was an unhappy difference be-
fail to be a most unpleasant circumstance ; yet by his tween him and Mr Tolier his colleague, which hap-
impressive delivery, and indefatigable attention to every pened in the year 1755, and which ended in a division
part of his ministerial duty, he soon changed their pre- of the congregation, many respectable families follow-
judice into esteem, and their esteem into admiration. ing Mr Toller to another place of worship. Soon af-

During his residence at Alloa, he drew on him the ter this he declined officiating as a minister, the impair.
notice of the public by three excellent sermons; the first ed state of his health rendering such a step necessary.
on the eloquence of the pulpit, the second on the me. The best specimen of pulpit eloquence which perhaps
thod of promoting edification by public institutions, and ever came from bis pen, was delivered at the ordina-
Vol. IX. Part I.

+

A

tior

ver.

Fordsce. tion of his successor Mr James Lindsay, and highly me. tation, he was appointed to furnish the navy with sour. Fordyce writing the attentive perusal of every clergyman. The krout, which we believe he executed with advantage remainder of his valuable life he spent chiefly at a re both to himself and the public,

Foreigner.
tirement in Hampshire in the vicinity of the earl of His constitution discovered symptoms of premature
Bute, with whom he lived in the greatest intimacy, decay, yet he continued to discharge his professional du-
and to whose valuable library he had unlimited access. ties till be sell a victim to an irregular gout, and a wa.
He afterwards went to Bath, where he suffered much ter in his chest, on the 25th of June 1802, in the 66th
from an asthmatic affection, but bore it with the heroic year of liis age. If his lectures wanted the charms of
fortitude of a Christian, and expired without a groan an eloquent delivery, he made ample compensation by
on the first of October 1796, in the 76th year of bis the originality of his ideas and bis scientific informa-
age.

tion, and by a memory which was uncommonly reten.
The doctor's writings discover much genius and ima tive. His works are, Elements of Agriculture and
gination, a correct taste, extensive knowledge of the Vegetation ; Of the Practice of Physic; A Treatise on
world, and a happy method of engaging the attention; the Digestion of Food; and Four Dissertations on Fe.
full of ardent piety, and a zeal for the interests of ge-
nuine virtue. His religious sentiments were manly and FORE, applied to a ship, denotes all that part of a
rational; in private life he was highly amiable, and de- ship's frame and machinery which lies near the stem.
servedly beloved by all who knew him. He was au Fore and aft, is used for the whole ship's length, or
thor of Sermons to Young Women, in two volumes from end to end.
1 2ino, which have been translated into several Euro FORECASTLE of a Ship, that part where the
pean languages ; A Sermon on the Character and foremast stands. It is divided from the rest by a bulk-
Conduct of the Female Sex; Addresses to Young Men, head.
in two volumes 12mo; Addresses to the Deity; A vo FOREIGN, something extraneous, or that comes
lume of Poems ; A discourse on Pain, and Additions from abroad. The word is formed from the Latin
to his brother's Temple of Virtue.

fores, “ doors;" or foris, " out of doors ;" or forum,
FORDYCE, George, a writer and lecturer on medi market," &c.
cine, was born in the year 1736, and studied at the Foreign minister, foreign prince, foreign goods, &c.
university of Aberdeen, where he obtained the literary are those belonging to other nations.

See MINISTER,
degree of M. A. at the early age of 14, perhaps not &c.
altogether owing to the superior cast of his genius, or Foreign to the purpose, signifies a thing remote or
the extent of his acquirements, which could not be ex. impertinent,
traordinary in a boy of his years. He became appren Foreign, in the English Law, is used in various
tice to an uncle who practised surgery at Uppingham in significations. Thus,
Rutlandshire, when he was only 15, and afterwards Foreign Attachment, is an attachment of the goods
went to the university of Edinburgh, where his dili of foreigners found within a city or liberty, for the sa-
gence

and progress attracted the attention of Dr Cullen, tisfaction some citizen to whom the foreigner is in-
at that time professor of chemistry, wbo very generously debted; or it signifies an attachment of a foreigner's
promoted bis improvement. He graduated in 1758, money in the hands of another person.
when only 22 years of age; after which he resided one Foreign Kingdom, a kingdom under the dominion
winter at Leyden. The greater part of his patrimony of a foreign prince.
being spent on his education, be resolved to try bis for At the instance of an ambassador or consul, any
tune in London, where he settled in the year 1759. offender against the laws bere may be sent for hither
He commenced with a course of lectures on chemistry; from a foreign kingdom to which he bath fled. And,
and although his encouragement at first was by no means where a stranger of Holland, or any foreign coun-
Battering, yet be steadily and diligently persevered, not try, buys goods at London, for instance, and there
withstanding such unfavourable appearances, till his li- gives a note under bis band for payment, and then
terary merit began gradually to be discovered and pro- goes away privately into Holland; in that case, the
perly appreciated. A number of young men who came seller may have a certificate from the lord mayor, on
to study in London did not think that their medical the proof of the sale and delivery of such goods, where-
course was complete, without availing themselves of the

upon a process will be executed on the party in IIol-
benefit of his course of lectures.

land.
In the year 1768, he published his Elements of the FOREIGN Opposer, or Apposer, an officer in the ex-
Practice of Physic, which formed the text book of his chequer that opposes or makes a charge on all sheriffs,
medical course, and were much read as a valuable epi. &c. of their green wax; that is to say, fines, issues,
tome of medicine, His private practice was very re• amerciaments, recognizances, &c.
spectable; and in the year 1770 bis medical reputation Foreign Plea, signifies an objection to the judge of
was so great, that he was chosen physician to the hospi- the court, by refusing him as incompetent, because the
tal of St Thomas, although he had to contend against matter in question is not within his jurisdiction.
a gentleman with very powerful interest; and his merit Foreign Seamen, serving two years on board Bri-
as a man of science made him a member of the Royal tish ships, whether of war, trade, or privateers, du-
Society in 1776. He was chosen in 1787 a fellow of ring the time of war, shall be deemed natural-born
the College of Physicians; and his chemical knowledge subjects.
was of singular importance to that body for a new edi. FOREIGNER, the natural-born subject to some so-
tion of their Pharmacopoeia. By the influence of his reign prince.
connections, but probably more so by his literary repu Foreigners, though made denizens, or naturalized,

are,

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