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XVI. MARK HOPKINS.

MARK HOPKINS, D. D., LL. D., the fourth president of Williams College, was the eldest son of Archibald Hopkins and Mary Curtis, and was born in Stockbridge, Mass., on the 4th of February, 1802. The foundation of his vigorous character and attainments was laid in his early and thorough training in the family and district school, When about twelve years old, young Hopkins went to Clinton Oneida county, N. Y., where he passed a year in the family of his uncle, Dr. Sewall Hopkins. While here he attended Clinton Academy, and commenced the study of the Latin language. After leav ing Clinton he worked on a farın, and pursued his studies mostly at home, receiving but little private instruction. For some months of this time he was the almost constant companion of Timothy Woodbridge, D. D., both in Green River and Pittsfield; reading to him and prosecuting his own studies to some extent. It was not the purpose of his father to send him to college, but to give him the profession of his grandfather; and accordingly at the age of seventeen, when he was nearly or quite ready to enter college, he was placed in the office of Charles Sedgwick, Esq., to study law. Here he became, after no long time, dissatisfied with his general attainments, and resolved to obtain, if possible, a public education. From that time, commencing with the district school in the neighboring town of Richmond, he alternately taught and studied until he became a member of Williams College the second term, sophomore year 1821-2, soon after the institution came under the presidency of Dr. Griffin. His studies were here prosecuted with uniform diligence and success. He early discovered a decided preference for metaphysical studies. His taste and skill in writing while in college was much admired. Some of his productions attracted much attention. One of these was his Oration at the junior exhibition, entitled "Modern ChemistryRevelation confirmed by its Discoveries." He was graduated in the fall of 1824, when he pronounced the valedictory oration on "The formation of a practical rather than a speculative character by literary men." Directly after his graduation he became connected with the Medical Institution at Pittsfield. During the next spring and summer he taught an Academy at Stockbridge. In the fall of 1825, he was ap

pointed a tutor in his Alma Mater, and officiated in that capacity for two years. The duties of his office were discharged with fidelity and success. During the first year of his tutorship there was a revival of religion in college which has been considered the most signal mark of divine favor the institution ever enjoyed. "That revival," said Dr. Griffin, "saved the college." It did settle its destiny. It led to efforts which resulted in putting the college on a permanent and prosperous footing. In that revival, those associate tutors, Harvey and Hopkins, took a prominent part, and their instrumentality was extensively felt. At the close of his tutorship, he delivered his master's oration, on "Mystery," which was published in Silliman's "Journal," and has been twice republished. In the fall of 1827, he went to New York, where he resumed his medical studies, and devoted a portion of his time to teaching. At the end of the year he returned to Pittsfield, and continued his professional studies, and aided Prof. Dewey in a High School then recently established. He received the degree of Doctor of Medicine, at Pittsfield, in the fall of 1829. Early the next spring the professorship of moral philosophy and rhetoric in Williams' College had become vacant in consequence of the death of Prof. William A. Porter. At a meeting of the board of trustees, in August, 1830, Dr. Hopkins was unanimously elected to fill the vacancy. He had just completed his arrangements for a permanent residence in New York, but this event turned the whole current of his life into another channel. It gave him an opportunity to devote himself to teaching-a pursuit most agreeable to his taste and feelings. He accepted the appointment, and entered at once upon the duties of his office. He made a public profession of religion in 1826, uniting with the Congregational Church in Stockbridge. He was married to Miss Mary Hubbell, of Williamstown, December 25th, 1832. He was licensed to preach the gospel by the Berkshire Association at Dalton, May, 1833. He had never enjoyed the advantages of a regular course of theological instruction, but consented to apply for a license at the suggestion of friends, that he might be able to assist Dr. Griffin in supplying the pulpit, whose health at that time began perceptibly to decline.

At the Commencement in 1836, Dr. Griffin resigned the presidency of the college. This event was not entirely unexpected. Dr. Hopkins was unanimously elected his successor, and professor of moral and intellectual philosophy. This appointment was in perfect coincidence with the expectations of the students and the public. He had been designated as the most suitable candidate for the place. With the condition and prospects of the college, he had long been

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familiar. He was an alumnus of the Institution. He had officiated two years as tutor, and six years as professor; during the latter part of which time, the instruction of the senior class was wholly committed to him. Having accepted the appointment on the 15th day of September, 1836, he was inaugurated president of the college, and ordained pastor of the College Church.

Dr. Hopkins received the honorary degree of D. D. from Dartsmouth College in 1837, and from Harvard University in 1841, and that of LL. D. froin the Board of Regents of New York in 1857. Dr. Hopkins was elected president of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions at Providence, Rhode Island, in the fall of 1857, then vacant in consequence of the resignation of the Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen. Dr. Hopkins' interest in the Missionary, Bible, Education and Tract cause, has ever been earnest and efficient. Whenever called upon to advocate the cause of these philanthropic enterprises, his able and earnest pleadings in their behalf have not been withheld.

To all the urgent invitations which he has received to occupy other posts of usefulness, his uniform reply has been, "I dwell among mine own people."

The president of a college is placed in a peculiar and responsible position. He is the representative of the institution. He stands at the head of an intelligent and influential Board of Trustees. He has an opportunity which, perhaps, no other man has of impressing his character on the age in which he lives, through the influence of those who come under his example and instruction. To do this to the best advantage, he must have the respect and confidence of the surrounding community-of society at large. He must possess sufficient weight of character to reconcile the claims and secure the coöperation of the subordinate officers. He must be able to conduct a college through scenes of special exigency and trial. He must be qualified to guide the studies of an ardent and aspiring class of young men through the last stages of their college course, and to do it thoroughly and well. The successful government of a college is a task of no ordinary difficulty. College students come from different states; they differ in age, in attainments and disposition. Some are under a strong moral influence, while others are ready to do what they can to weaken that influence. Now the president must be a kind of parent or guardian to all the young men in college. He must give attention to all their wants, real or imaginary. He must be able to turn promptly from one engagement to another. Students while in college have a claim, not only to the stated instructions of the lecture

room, but to all that can be done for their preservation from vice and indolence, and for their advancement in morals and religion. No college will be what it can be, and what it ought to be, unless the officers give personal attention to the students. It is a principle adopted and acted upon by Dr. Hopkins, that personal attention to the intellectual and moral improvement of students will do more to promote the peace, order and usefulness of a college, than all the pains and penalties of the strictest code of laws. Occasionally students have wasted their time and contracted evil habits, which might have been prevented by a few words of timely and affectionate advice. Dr. Hopkins has ever been the friend and adviser of students; not unfrequently calling at their rooms for the purpose of imparting words of kind advice and admonition, respecting their health, their studies and their deportment. There can be no higher or more gratifying evidence of his rare qualifications to stand at the head of a college, than the successful results, which a presidency of twenty-five years, have furnished.

During the presidency of Dr. Hopkins, the course of study in Williams College has been pursued on a much more extended and liberal scale than before. The public has not been fully aware of the amount and diversity of the labors he has performed. He has discharged at least the duties of two officers. He hears the morning recitation of the freshman class for a short time at the opening of every college year. In this way he becomes personally acquainted with the members of every class at the commencement of their college course, and never forgets them. He has uniformly given instruction to the senior class in anatomy and physiology, metaphysics and ethics, and until quite recently, in the department of rhetoric, besides preaching one-third of the time on the Sabbath. Since the commencement of the term in January, 1860, the students have attended public worship in the chapel, and Dr. Hopkins is in the habit of preaching to them every Sabbath morning. On Saturday forenoon the senior recitation is theological, the Assembly's Shorter Catechism being the text-book. Perhaps no recitation in college is more highly prized, nor has proved more beneficial to the students. It is interesting to know that they have more than once requested that this recitation be continued one hour and a half instead of one hour. This is probably the only college in the land that retains the catechism as a text-book. Before public worship was attended in the chapel on the Sabbath, Dr. Hopkins uniformly appeared in the college conference room on Saturday evening as the college pastor. His exercises on these occasions comprised a series of lectures, in which were happily blended doc

trinal discussions, with close and affectionate appeals to the heart. And these lectures have contributed in no small degree to give the college its deep religious character.

Dr. Hopkins' system of discipline is his own. His opinion is, that "the end of a college is education-there should therefore be no regulation or restraint which is not subservient to that end; and when it becomes necessary to enforce those regulations that are thus subservient, it would be treason to the cause of education not to do it at any sacrifice whatever." "That college is in the best state in which the least government is necessary." "It is always unfortunate when much is thought or said about government."

The revivals of religion which have occurred in Williams College during the presidency of Dr. Hopkins, have been repeated and powerful. But on this topic we can not dwell in this connection, nor on the temporal prosperity which the college has enjoyed since 1886. In that year the Astronomical Observatory-the first building exclusively for that object in the country-was erected. Since then, Lawrence Hall, Kellogg Hall, Jackson Hall, Alumni Hall, and the new Chapel, have been erected, and expensive alterations and improvements have been made in other buildings, especially in the Old West College, and in Griffin Hall.

If our limits would permit we should be glad to speak of the additions which have been made to the college grounds, to the libraries, the philosophical and chemical apparatus, and of the enlargement of the productive funds of the college. It would be equally pleasant to show the honorable position the college has taken in the department of Natural History. Williams College has now been incorporated sixty-eight years. The present year completes twenty-five of the presidency of Dr. Hopkins. Before 1836, eight hundred and sixtyone students had been graduated, nine hundred and forty-eight since. When the presidency of Dr. Hopkins commenced, the whole number of students was one hundred and nineteen. The college now numbers not far from two hundred and forty. This is a large increase considering the close proximity of Williams to similar institutions.

In the year 1858, Mr. Jackson, of New York, established a professorship of Christian theology in Williams College, and Dr. Hopkins

appointed for the chair. It was the purpose of Mr. Jackson that those who desired to study theology professionally without going through the full course prescribed by the seminaries, should have the opportunity of doing so at this college. It is intended that such opportunity shall hereafter be given.

It is an established custom for Dr. Hopkins to deliver a Valedictory

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