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Any prejudice against "singing the gospel" fades away under the spell of his magic voice. Why should there be any prejudice? For generations most of the Highland ministers-and some of the Lowland ministers, as well-have sung the gospel, sung their sermons, ay, sung their prayers also. The difference is that they sing very badly and he sings very well. He accompanies himself on the organ, it is true, and some of us who belong to the old school can't swallow

Sweet's the laverock's note and lang, Lilting wildly up the glen;

But aye to me he sings a sang,

Will ye no come back again?-Cho.

the kist of whistles yet. But then the American organ "is only a little one.' ." When a deputation from the session waited on Ralph Erskine to remonstrate with him on the enormity of fiddling, he gave them a tune on the violoncello, and they were so charmed that they returned to their constituents with the report that it was all right-"it wasna' ony wee sinful fiddle" that their minister was thus in the habit of operating upon, but a grand instrument, full of grave, sweet melody.




Tbegins with July No. We take pleasure in ac

he New Volume (36th) of The School Journal

knowledging the following orders for subscription, many of which are from old subscribers who have long been on our mailing list. With prompt renewal The Journal can be mailed regularly with each monthly issue, which is always more satisfactory to the subscriber.

The more general the circulation of The Journal the better for the schools everywhere. We shall always try to make it worth more than its cost to the reader, and of especial value to Teachers and to School Officers. Can the average Board of School Directors better expend Seven Dollars in the interest of their Schools than by ordering The School Journal to each of its Members for one year? The law of the State assumes that it cannot; and the experience of the most progressive School Boards has for many years approved the wisdom of this law.

Adams.-Butler District, A. A. Wierman, Secretary; Huntingdon, J. W. Wierman; Latimore, Geo. L. Deardorff; Reading, Augustus Deatrich.

Allegheny -Bethel, T. M. Walker; Braddock twp., A. C. Coulter; Coraopolis, W. B. Dillon; Elizabeth twp., R. S. Stewart; Indiana, W. J. Robinson; Lincoln, Alex. Calhoun; McKeesport, Jno. W. Stewart; Plum, C. Kane; Richland, D. D. McKelvy; Scott, E. P. Holland.

Armstrong-Kiskiminetas, H. C. Knappenberger; Madison, Henry M. Keller; Parks, R. G. Parks.

Beaver-Bridgewater, J. C. Woodruff.

Berks-North Heidelberg, R. M. Gruber; Long Swamp. James F. Wertz; Penn, Jno. K. Balthaser.

Blair.-Logan, J. W. Smiley; North Woodbury, H. D. Kensinger.

Bradford-Asylum, W. H. Benjamin; Orwell, H. H. Atwood: Wyalusing, T. C. Lee.

Bucks.-Bristol Boro., Byram C. Foster; Hilltown, Samuel H. Moyer; New Hope, J. P. Smith: Plumstead, Harvey Gayman.

Butler.-Buffalo, S. S. Fleming.

Cambria,-Cambria Twp., G. J. Jones. Millville, Enoch


Carbon-Banks, Hugh Ferry; Kidder, A. P. Carter; Lehighton, F. P. Lentz.

Centre-Bellefonte, Wm. B. Rankin; College, Theo. S. Christ; Haines, J. H. Wyle.

Chester-Bradford East, Chas. S. Carter; Coatesville Boro., Dr. H. E. Williams; North Coventry, Wm. Smith; Newlin, Mrs. A. E. Stone; Spring City, W. J. Wagoner; East Vincent, C. W. Brown.

Clarion.-East Brady, R. Robinson; Elk, T. W. Upde


Clearfield-Greenwood, G. W. Dickey; Lawrence, Peter Gearhart; Morris, C. E. Belcher; Woodward, Thos. Beynon. Clinton.-Allison, J. A. Leitzell,

Columbia.-Greenwood, I. K. Titman; Pine, Ezra Eves. Crawford-Meadville, D. D. Leberman; Saegertown, G. W. Rhodes; Sparta, E. A. Elston; Summit, N. W. Read. Cumberland-Carlisle, C. P. Humrich; Hampden, David Dietz; South Middleton, Chas. E, Wolf, Monroe, J. M. Niesley Newville, D. S. McCoy; Penn, F. G. Williamson; E. Pennsboro, J. P. Wilbar; Shippensburg Twp., John I. Cox. Dauphin-Halifax Twp., Hiram Yeager; Middletown, W. W. Reitzell; Lower Paxton, David Smeltzer; Steelton, C. A. Reehling; Swatara, J. H. Walter; Lower Swatara, S. B. Shaffner; Lykens, W. S. Young.

Delaware.-North Chester, David Aaron; South Chester, W. J. Hewes; Upper Darby, Geo. E. Burnley; Ridley, T. F. Kreeger: Upland, Lewis J. Smith,

Erie-Edinboro, J. J. McWilliams; Mill Creek, R. H. Arbuckle; North East Twp., F. A. Mallick; Springfield, H. G. Harvey: Erie City, Thomas O'Dea.

Forest.-Kingsley, H. A. Zuendel; Tionesta Twp., Geo. B.

Franklin-Montgomery, Henry B. Angle,
Fulton-Wells, J. R. Foster.
Greene-Gilmore, T. M. Hennen.

Huntingdon-Huntingdon, Geo. W. Sanderson.
Indiana-Banks, C. D. Smith; Cherry Hill. J. W. How-
earth; S. Mahoning, Wm. Morrow; White, Joseph Griffith.
Jefferson-Warsaw, Lewis Evans.

Lackawanna-Ransom, Thomas Johnston.

Lancaster-West Cocalico, John E. Gehman; Columbia, L. W. May; East Donegal, Jas. F. Johnstin; West Donegal, Solomon Hoover; Damore, J. C. Helm; East Earl, I. H. Handwork; Wet Flady Frankhouser; Ephrata, Jacob Gorgas; East Hempfild H W C

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Wm. Lockhart; La Fayette, E. W.

Mercer-Delaware, Geo. W. Magee; Lackawannock, J.
W. Hope; Salem, W. A. McLean.
Mifflin-Union, David H. Zook.


Montgomery-Jenkintown, Mary L. Thompson;
Providence, Isaac Z. Reiner; Trappe, P. Williard.
• Montour.-Danville, J. R. Phillips.
Northampton.-Allen, E. W. Fenstermaker; South Easton,
John F. Vivian; Hanover, Geo. O. Kleppinger.

Northumberland.-Chillisquaqua, R. M. Cummings; Coal,
Samuel Clayberger; Mt. Carmel, James H. Smith; Shamokin,
John J. W. Schwartz; Turbot, Wm. A. Reed.

Perry-Juniata, James Stephens; Penn, Wm. A. Holland.
Pike-Greene, John Marsch.

Potter-Abbott, Dr. Chas. Meine; West Branch, Geo. W.


Schuylkill-Gilberton, M. A. Leary: Minersville, D. A. Jones; Pine Grove Twp., Edward Hummel; Port Carbon, Jacob H. Reiter; Rahn, Bernard Boyle; Reilly, Patrick Lyons; Shenandoah, S. W. Yost; Tremont Twp., James O'Neil; Union, H. D. Rentschler; Pottsville, Geo. W. Kennedy.

Snyder-Spring, Geo. Lambert; Washington, Henry Brown. Susquehanna-Gibson, Jno. S. Bennett; Herrick, S. O. Churchill; Harford, Lee Tiffany.

Sullivan-Fox, A. B. Kilmer; Laporte Twp., Wm. J. Low. Tioga-Charleston, W. D. Jones; Duncan, James Pollock; Elk, J. H. Hubers; Richmond, V. R. Pratt; Tioga Twp., C. L. Thomas; Covington twp., Jas. T. Cushing.

Union.-East Buffalo, Geo. H. Wagner; Gregg, John Galloway; Lewisburg, John P. Miller; Limestone, John F.


Venango-Clinton, Wm. Ashton.

Warren.-Cherry Grove, T. Ewing; Farmington, R. E.


Washington.-East Finley, A. K. Craig.
Wayne-Damascus, G. Á. Kessler.

Westmoreland-Allegheny, R. Miller; Derry Twp., Wm.
M. Ferguson; Franklin, J. F. Hoey; Latrobe, E. S. Womer;
Salem Twp., W. W. Martz.

Wyoming-Clinton, J. G. Copwell.

York-Delta, E. Arnold; Glen Rock, L. W. Shafer; New
Freedom, John Sechrist; Peach Bottom, Wm. J. Barnett;
Stewartstown, Allen I. Frey; Lower Windsor, Jacob Leithiser;
Wrightsville, J. P. Levergood.

Also, from County Superintendents J. H. Werner, W. A.
Cochran, J. M. Coughlin, Matthew Savage, J. W. Sturdevant,
R. M. McNeal, M. J. Brecht, J. O. Knauss, J. S. Grimes,
M. F. Cass, W. B. Bodenhorn, Geo. B. Lord, C. L. McNutt,
G. W. Kerr, T. W. Arird, and from D. R. Owens, B. F.
Shaub, W. L. Thacher, Sarah I. Carter, J. F. Sickel, W. H.
Samuel, N. O. Wilhelm, Nora Crawford, Jno. R. Groves, W.
B. Miller, Geo. W. Twitmyer, J. D. L. Counsil, and others.


The distance via the Short Line is 2,355 miles, and the time consumed in making the journey is about four days. The CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE & ST. PAUL RAILWAY COMPANY, in addition to having its own direct lines from Chicago to Milwaukee and St. Paul, also owns and operates the Short Line (487 miles) between Chicago and Council Bluffs and Omaha, connecting at the Union Pacific Railway transfer station in Council Bluffs with the great system of roads running to the Pacific Coast.

The Chicago, Council Bluffs and Omaha Short Line of the
Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway passes through
some of the best manufacturing towns of Northern Illinois,
crosses the Mississippi River at Savanna, and traverses the best
portion of the agricultural State of Iowa.

In going from Chicago, about 600 feet above the sea level, one
goes right up over the Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains at
a height of 8,000 feet, and down to San Francisco, less than
1,000 feet. By this route through Northern Illinois and Cen-
tral Iowa, the traveler passes Des Moines, Omaha, Cheyenne,
Denver, Great Salt Lake, Carson City, and Sacramento.
Everything in the way of checking baggage, providing berths
in Pullman sleeping cars, dining on trains, and other accommo-
dations, is looked after with the most scrupulous care, the aim
being first and always to secure the comfort of the
Tourists and others going from all parts of the East to San
Francisco, the Sandwich Islands.

China and


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HE thirty-third annual session* of the

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State Teachers' Association of Pennsylvania met in the opera house at Clearfield, on Tuesday, July 7, 1887, at 10 o'clock, a. m., and was opened with prayer by Rev. R. A. MCKINLEY, of the Presbyterian church. The first address of welcome was made by County Supt. MATT SAVAGE, as follows:

Ladies and Gentlemen of the Penna. State Teachers' Association: It is with no ordinary diffidence that I attempt to pronounce to you words of welcome in behalf of our teachers, directors and friends of education. All of us have observed that certain stereotyped expressions are found incorporated in every address of welcome, and so often have they been heard by the older members of the Association that doubtless they have become seemingly trite, and, I may say, entirely formal. Considering, however, that this assembly comprises the representative school men of our great State-and probably those of other States-men, whose lives are interwoven with the development of the public school system, and from whose promptings have emanated most of the needed legislation of the past thirty years, your presence here is regarded with evident satisfaction and grateful appreciation.

It is eminently fitting that the Association should meet in Clearfield, since it will be remembered by all, and attested by members present, that while the Free School System was emerging from its formative period, the gubernatorial chair was honored by a Clearfield statesman, one who, with Stevens and Burrowes, was willing to sacrifice personal and political prospects for the establishment and perpetuation of what has since grown to be the crowning system of the centuries. Governor Bigler attended and * Reported by J. D. Pyott, Lancaster, Pa.

No 8.

addressed the convention which organized the first State Teachers' Association, and on divers occasions during the term of his office addressed meetings of an educational character, extending words of encouragement and giving assurance of his personal aid and influence. Having occupied the highest position in the gift of the State, and havin sat in the councils of the nation, his influen was a power, felt near and far, and so high an estimate did he place upon the office of School Director that, after having served in these high places, and having afterwards been elected a School Director of this borough, he remarked to Dr. Wickersham that he then was serving in the most responsible position to which he had ever been elected. The people of our State, and especially of Clearfield county, looked up to him in this matter, as in all others of a public character, while he lived, and revere his memory now that he has gone. A splendid monument marks his resting-place on yonder hillside, but his deeds will live long after the marble shaft shall have crumbled to dust. His name and his fame have been written in living letters upon the pages of history and in the hearts of his countrymen. Again we say that it is meet that you should assemble here, since his advice and example early led us to the support of the "system," and as the years have come and gone, we have endeavored to be found worthy the bestowal of some mark of your approbation.

With unerring tread our county has been marching forward to win a place in the forefront among the counties of the State. This is as true of the advancement in school affairs as it is of its material progress. It might not be amiss to remark that for more than half a century the axe of the woodman has been clearing off our dense forests of timber until at present the aspect of the county is almost entirely changed. By this process a thousand landscapes have


been made beautiful by waving grain fields and thrifty orchards, while farming and grazing take no mean place among our industries. While it is true that during this period lumbering has been the chief resource, recent developments have discovered to us vast beds of coal and ore which have been peeping out at our people all these years, and yet they have scarcely realized that such acres of diamonds" have thus long been winking at them. Of late years railroads have been finding and winding their way into almost every section of our county, and our hills are being honey-combed for their priceless treasures. This latter industry is destined to eclipse the lumber business, and will soon make us one of the richest and most populous counties in the state.

The growing importance of our diversified industrial interests and business progress may be indicated by the statement that an increase of three dozen schools but half accommodated the increase in population. It is, indeed, gratifying to state, too, that while our county has become the hunting-ground of the speculator and railroad magnate, the school officers, in point of duty done, have kept pace with the manifest progress in other things. Allow me to say, further, that your welcome is all the more hearty since it is known that the growth of this organization is so closely allied with the growth and history of the free school system. It is a fact that there has been no other force so potent in giving inspiration and character to the claims and fights for new advantages in methods and legislation. The leaders of this body have been watched with critic eye and followed with loyal firmness by the rank and file in the profession, and by the friends of the system among the people. Thus favorable public sentiment has been created from time to time in favor of better laws; and it is worthy of note that the deliberations of the Association have been sanctioned by the representatives of the people in legislative assembly, and the ideas advanced here have been crystallized in enactments for the betterment of the schools and in the interest of the teachers. Possibly no feature of the meeting has contributed so much to the accomplishment of the objects attained as the social feature, because it has cemented the Association-goers in bonds of fraternal unity and has divined the prediction that the gradual culture of kind intercourse must bring it finally to perfection. May we not, therefore, invite the largest freedom of discussion and the fullest measure of social privilege?

There are occasions which remain in our minds like fixed stars in the heavens, and, I dare say, this pleasant occasion, with its meaning and dignity, will remain as unfading in the memories of our people as is the lustre of gems that deck the canopy above us, and when this occasion shall be viewed by us through the dim vista of future years, may we look back to it with the same pride and enthusiasm with which we have looked forward to it during the past year. We again bid you a hearty welcome.

The welcome on the part of the citizens

of the town of Clearfield was given by THOS. H. MURRAY, esq., in the following able and interesting address:

Teachers of Pennsylvania: The people of this place welcome you to their town and county. They are pleased to regard you as the representatives of a system of public instruction, which, starting but half a century ago under circumstances which were not favorable, has grown with our growth and strengthened with our strength until it has reached out and linked to itself every heart and every home in our great State. We are honored by the fact that you have selected this as the place of your present annual assemblage.

Allow me to suggest that there are reasons why we ought to appreciate this, your coming. In material development and in actual and prospective wealth our county is already in the front rank. In men, too, we are not behind other places, and this is a product of no ordinary value.. It was the one thing which Diogenes said he was not able to find amid all the glittering art and monumental grandeur of old Athens, and is that without which, in all the ages since, wealth has been able to rise but little above the lower level from which it is dug. This place, however, has been the very home of distinguished men. From here they have gone out to fill the highest places in the State and nation-and the list is by no means exhausted!

But in no other direction have we made more rapid progress than in the encouragement we have given to free school education. During the first quarter of a century under the free school system, so little progress had been made in this county that the County Superintendent of 1859 reported to the State department that there were but three school buildings fit for the purpose. During the last quarter of a century so much progress has been made that the Superintendent last year reported about 200 school buildings well suited for the purpose, and only

one log school house left to remind us of pioneer work." He also reported a larger percentage of our people as attending the Teachers' County Institute from day to day than was reported from any other county in the commonwealth. This growth has been largely due to the fact that the men from our midst who have had most to do in moulding and directing pub. lic sentiment have been, as has been already stated, both in public place and in private station, staunch supporters and defenders of the system which you represent. Two of our citizens have given enduring value to a portion of their wealth by erecting temples of learning and dedicating them to the common schools and the common children of this county. I refer to the "Leonard school building" here, and the “Patton school building " in Curwensville.


These are some of the things which indicate that we are in a measure qualified to appreciate the honor conferred by your presence. These men, and others who aided and encouraged their work, caught a little of the spirit of Thaddeus Stevens himself, when, in the great battle

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