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ber therefore, in whatever you intend to draw, first to sketch its several Parts, measuring the Distances and Proportions between each with your Finger or Pencil, without using the Compasses; and then judge of them by your Eye, which by Drees will be able to judge of Truth and Proportion, and will become your best and principal Guide. And here let me observe to you, as a general Rule, always to begin with the right Side of the Piece you are copying; for by that means you will always have what you have done before your Eyes; and the rest will follow more naturally, and with greater Ease: whereas if you begin with the left Side, your Hand and Arm will cover what you do first, and deprive you of the Sight of it, by which Means you will not be able to proceed with so much Ease, Pleasure, or Certainty.

As to the Order and Manner of your proceeding in drawing the human Body, you must first sketch the Head, then the Shoulders in the exact Breadth; then draw the Trunk of the Body, beginning with the Arm-pits, (leaving the Arms till af. terwards) and so draw down to the Hips on both Sides, and be fure

you observe the exact Breadth of the Waist. have done this, then draw that Leg which the Body stands upon, and afterwards the other which stands loose; then draw the Arms, and last of all the Hands.

Take notice also of the Bowings and Bendings that are in the Body, making the Part which is opposite to that which bends, correspond to it in bending with it. For instance, if one Side of the Body bend in, the other must stand out answerable to it. If the Back bend in, the Belly, muft stick out; if the Knee bend out, the Ham must fall in;, and so of any other Joint in the Body. Finally, endeavour to form all the Parts of your Figure with Truth, and in just Proportion. Not one Arm, or one Leg bigger or less than the other; not broad Herculean Shoulders, with a thin and slender Waist; nor raw and bony Arms, with thick and gouty Legs; but let there be a kind of harmonious Agreement amongst the Members, and a beautiful Symmetry throughout the whole Figure.

I will conclude this Leflon by giving you from Fresnoy,

When you

The Measures of a human Bedy,

The Ancients have commonly allowed eight Heads to their Figures; though some of them have but seven. But we ordinarily divide the Figures into ten Faces; that is to say, from the Crown of the Head to the Sole of the Foot, in the following manner:

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From the Crown of the Head to the Forehead, is the third Part of a Face.

The Face begins at the Root of the lowest Hairs which are upon the Forehead, and ends at the Bottom of the Chin.

The Face is divided into three proportionable Parts; the first contains the Forehead, the second the Nose, and the third the Mouth and Chin.

From the Chin to the Pit betwixt the Collar-Bones, are two Lengths.of a Nose.

From the Pit betwixt the Collar-Bones to the Bottom of the Breaft, one Face.

From the Bottom of the Breast to the Navel, one Face.
From the Navel to the Genitors, one Face.

From the Genitors to the upper Part of the Knees, two Faces.

The Knee contains half a Face.
From the lower Part of the Knee to the Ancle, two Faces.
From the Ancle to the Sole of the Foot, half a Face.

A Man when his Arms are ftretch'd out, is, from the longest Finger of his right Hand, to the longest of his left, as broad as he is long.

From one Side of the Breasts to the other, two Faces.

The Bone of the Arm called Humerus, is the Length of two Faces, from the Shoulder to the Elbow.

From the End of the Elbow to the Root of the little Finger, the Bone called Cubitus, with Part of the Hand, contains two Faces.

From the Box of the Shoulder-Blade, to the Pit betwixt the Collar-Bones, one Face.

If you would be fatisfied in the Measures of Breadth from the Extremity of one Finger to the other, so that this Breadth should be cqual to the Length of the Body, you must obferve that the Boxes of the Elbows, with the Humerus, and of the Arumerus with the Shoulder-Blade, bear the Proportion of half 2 Face, when the Arms are stretch'd out.

The Sole of the Foot is the sixth Part of the Figure.
The Hand is the Length of the Face.
The Thumb contains a Nose.

The Inside of the Arm, from the Place where the Muscle difappears, which makes the Breast, called the pectoral Muscle, to the Middle of the Arm, four Noses.

From the Middle of the Arm to the Beginning of the Hand, five Nofes.

The longest Toe is a Nose long,

The two utmost Parts of the Teats, and the Pit betwixt the Collar-Bones of a Woman, make an equilateral Triangle.

For

For the Breadth of the Limbs, no precise Measures can be given; because the Measures themselves are changeable according to the Quality of the Perfons; and according to the Movement of the Muscles.

LESS ON VIII.

Of Drapery.

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N the Art of cloathing your Figures, or casting the Dra

pery properly and elegantly upon them, many Things are to be observed. 1. The Eye muft never be in doubt of its Object, but the Shape and Proportion of the Part or Limb which the Drapery is supposed to cover, must appear; at least so far as Art and Probability will permit; and this is so material a Consideration, that many Artists draw first the naked Figure, and afterwards put the Draperies upon it. 2. The Drapery must not fit too close to the Parts of the Body; but let it seem to flow round, and as it were embrace them; yet so as that the Figure may be easy, and have a free Motion. 3. The Draperies which cover those Parts that are exposed to great Light, must not be so deeply shaded as to seem to pierce them; nor should those Members be cross'd by Folds that are too strong; left, by the too great Darkness of their Shades the Members look as if they were broken. 4. The great Folds must be drawn first, and then stroked into lesser ones; and great Care must be taken that they do not cross one another improperly. 5. Folds in general should be large, and as few as possible. However they must be greater or less according to the Quantity and Quality of the Stuffs of which the Drapery is supposed to be made. The Quality of the Persons is also to be considered in the Drapery. If they are Magictrates, their Draperies ought to be large and ample; if Country Clowns or Slaves, they ought to be coarse and short; if Ladies or Nymphs, light and loft. 6. Suit the Garments to the Body, and make them bend with it, according as it stands in or out, strait or crooked; or as it bends one way or another; and the closer the Garment fits to the Body, the narrower and smaller must be the folds. 7. Folds well-imagin'd give much Spirit to any kind of Action; because their Motion implies a Motion in the acting Member, which seems to draw

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10.

them forcibly, and makes them more or less ftirring as the Action is more or less violent. 8. An artful Complication of Folds in a circular Manner, greatly helps the Effect of Foreshortenings. 9. All Folds consist of two Shades and no more; which you may turn with the Garment at Pleasure, Ihadow ing the inner Side deeper, and the outer more faintly. The Shades in Silk and fine Linen are very thick and small, requiring little Folds and a light Shadow. 11. Observe the Motion of the Air or Wind, in order to draw the loose Apparel all flying one Way; and draw that Part of the Garment that adheres closest to the Body, before you draw the loofer Part that flies off from it; left by drawing the loose Part of the Garment first, you should mistake the Position of your Figure, and place it awry. 12. Rich Ornaments, when judicioufly and sparingly us’d, may fometimes contribute to the Beauty of Draperies. But fuch Ornaments are far below the Dignity of Angels or heavenly Figures ; the Grandeur of whose Draperies ought rather to confift in the Boldness and Nobleness of the Folds, than in the Quality of the Stuff, or the Glitter of Ornaments. 13. Light and dying Draperies are proper only to Figures in great Motion, or in the Wind ; but when in a calm Place, and free from violenı Action, their Draperies should be large and flowing; that by their Contrast, and the Fall of the Folds, they may appear with Grace and Dignity. And thus much for Drapery, some few Examples of which you will find in Plate 10. I will now endeavour to give you a Taste of that, which, though it may be the most difficult, is certainly the most agreeable Part of this Study, I mean the Art of exprefling the Passions.

LESSON IX.

On the Palions.

HE Paffions, says Mr. Le Brun, are Motions of the

Soul, cither upon her pursuing what she judges for her good, or shunning what she thinks hurtful to her ; and commonly, whatever causes Emotion of Passion in the Soul, creates also fome Action in the Body. It is therefore necessary for a Painter to know which are the different Actions in the Body that express the several Paffions of the Soul, and how to delineate them. But firft of all, it may be proper you I

should learn somewhat of the Syftem of the Paffions, and their Connection with and Relation to each other; I will therefore give you a short moral Account of them from Mr. Watts.

“ An Object which is suited to excite the Passions, says he,

must have one of these three Properties, viz. it must be “ either, J. Rare and uncommon; or, 2. Good and agreeable ;

or, 3. Evil and disagreeable : Or at least we must have some “ such Ideas and Apprehensions of it, before it can excite any « Passion in us.

« Now if we will distinguish the chief Paffions of our Na“ ture according to their Objects, and confine ourselves to “ the common Words and Names whereby they are usually “ called, we may make three Ranks of them; which, for “ Distinction's fake, I shall name the first, fecond, and third " Rank. The two first are Primitive, the third is Deri« vative.

“ The firt Rank of Passions are these three; Admiration, Love, and Hatred.

« If the Object be rare and uncommon, it excites Admira« tion or Wonder.

“ If we look on it as good, or any way agreeable to us, “ it may engage our Love; but if it be evil or disagreeable, it

moves our Hatred.

“ The second Rank of chief Passions are the divers Kinds « of Love and Hatred, which are also distinguished by their 66 Objects.

“ If the Object appear valuable, it raises a Love which we call Efteem; if worthless, the Hatred is called Contempt.

“ If the Object appear fit to receive Good from us, it is “ Love of Benevolence, or Good-will: If it appear rather fit to “ receive Evil from us, the Hatred is called Malevolence, or « Ill-will,

“ If the Object appear pleasing, and fit to do us good, “ it raises the Love of Complacence, or Delight; if it be dis

pleasing, and unfit to do us good, it excites a Difplicence, or

• From Love and Hatred in their different kinds, (but “ chiefly from Complacence and Difplicence) arise several more “ chief Paffions, which may be called the third Rank, and

which are also distinguished by their Objects.

" Note, In this pair of Paffions, and in all the third Rank, for which is chiefly derived from them, the pleasing Object is

more properly called Good, and the displeasing Object is

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Dislike.

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