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ber therefore, in whatever you intend to draw, first to sketch its feveral Parts, measuring the Distances and Proportions between each with your Finger or Pencil, without ufing the Compaffes; and then judge of them by your Eye, which by Degrees will be able to judge of Truth and Proportion, and will become your beft and principal Guide. And here let me obferve to you, as a general Rule, always to begin with the right Side of the Piece you are copying; for by that means you will always have what you have done before your Eyes; and the reft will follow more naturally, and with greater Eafe whereas if you begin with the left Side, your Hand and Arm will cover what you do firft, and deprive you of the Sight of it, by which Means you will not be able to proceed with fo much Eafe, Pleasure, or Certainty.

As to the Order and Manner of your proceeding in drawing the human Body, you must first sketch the Head, then the Shoulders in the exact Breadth; then draw the Trunk of the Body, beginning with the Arm-pits, (leaving the Arms till afterwards) and fo draw down to the Hips on both Sides, and be fure obferve the exact Breadth of the Waift. When you have done this, then draw that Leg which the Body ftands upon, and afterwards the other which ftands loofe; then draw the Arms, and laft of all the Hands.


Take notice alfo of the Bowings and Bendings that are in the Body, making the Part which is oppofite to that which bends, correfpond to it in bending with it. For instance, if one Side of the Body_bend in, the other muft ftand out anfwerable to it. If the Back bend in, the Belly, muft stick out; if the Knee bend out, the Ham muft fall in; and fo of any other Joint in the Body. Finally, endeavour to form all the Parts of your Figure with Truth, and in juft Proportion. Not one Arm, or one Leg bigger or less than the other; not broad Herculean Shoulders, with a thin and flender Waift; nor raw and bony Arms, with thick and gouty Legs; but let there be a kind of harmonious Agreement amongst the Members, and a beautiful Symmetry throughout the whole Figure.

I will conclude this Leffon by giving you from Frefnoy,

The Meafures of a human Body,

The Ancients have commonly allowed eight Heads to their Figures; though fome of them have but feven. But we ordinarily divide the Figures into ten Faces; that is to fay, from the Crown of the Head to the Sole of the Foot, in the following


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From the Crown of the Head to the Forehead, is the third Part of a Face.

The Face begins at the Root of the lowest Hairs which are upon the Forehead, and ends at the Bottom of the Chin.

The Face is divided into three proportionable Parts; the first contains the Forehead, the fecond the Nofe, and the third the Mouth and Chin.

From the Chin to the Pit betwixt the Collar-Bones, are two Lengths of a Nose.

From the Pit betwixt the Collar-Bones to the Bottom of the Breaft, one Face.

From the Bottom of the Breaft to the Navel, one Face.
From the Navel to the Genitors, one Face.

From the Genitors to the upper Part of the Knees, two Faces.

The Knee contains half a Face.

From the lower Part of the Knee to the Ancle, two Faces. From the Ancle to the Sole of the Foot, half & Face.

A Man when his Arms are ftretch'd out, is, from the longeft Finger of his right Hand, to the longest of his left, as broad as he is long.

From one Side of the Breafts to the other, two Faces.

The Bone of the Arm called Humerus, is the Length of two Faces, from the Shoulder to the Elbow.

From the End of the Elbow to the Root of the little Finger, the Bone called Cubitus, with Part of the Hand, contains two Faces.

From the Box of the Shoulder-Blade, to the Pit betwixt the Collar-Bones, one Face.

If you would be fatisfied in the Measures of Breadth from the Extremity of one Finger to the other, fo that this Breadth fhould be equal to the Length of the Body, you must obferve that the Boxes of the Elbows, with the Humerus, and of the Numerus with the Shoulder-Blade, bear the Proportion of half a Face, when the Arms are ftretch'd out.

The Sole of the Foot is the fixth Part of the Figure.

The Hand is the Length of the Face.

The Thumb contains a Nofe.

The Infide of the Arm, from the Place where the Muscle difappears, which makes the Breaft, called the pectoral Muscle, to the Middle of the Arm, four Nofes.

From the Middle of the Arm to the Beginning of the Hand, five Nofes.

The longeft Toc is a Nofe long..

The two utmoft Parts of the Teats, and the Pit betwixt the Collar-Bones of a Woman, make an equilateral Triangle.


For the Breadth of the Limbs, no precife Meafures can be given; because the Measures themselves are changeable according to the Quality of the Perfons; and according to the Movement of the Muscles.


Of Drapery.

N the Art of cloathing your Figures, or cafting the Drapery properly and elegantly upon them, many Things are to be obferved. 1. The Eye muft never be in doubt of its Object, but the Shape and Proportion of the Part or Limb which the Drapery is fuppofed to cover, muft appear; at least fo far as Art and Probability will permit; and this is fo material a Confideration, that many Artifts draw firft the naked Figure, and afterwards put the Draperies upon it. 2. The Drapery muft not fit too close to the Parts of the Body; but let it feem to flow round, and as it were embrace them; yet fo as that the Figure may be eafy, and have a free Motion. 3. The Draperies which cover thofe Parts that are exposed to great Light, muft not be fo deeply fhaded as to feem to pierce them; nor fhould thofe Members be crofs'd by Folds that are too ftrong; left, by the too great Darknefs of their Shades the Members look as if they were broken. 4. The great Folds must be drawn firft, and then stroked into leffer ones; and great Care must be taken that they do not cross one another improperly. 5. Folds in general fhould be large, and as few as poffible. However they must be greater or lefs according to the Quantity and Quality of the Stuffs of which the Drapery is fuppofed to be made. The Quality of the Perfons is alfo to be confidered in the Drapery. If they are Magiftrates, their Draperies ought to be large and ample; if Country Clowns or Slaves, they ought to be coarfe and fhort; if Ladies or Nymphs, light and foft. 6. Suit the Garments to the Body, and make them bend with it, according as it ftands in or out, ftrait or crooked; or as it bends one Way or another; and the clofer the Garment fits to the Body, the narrower and smaller must be the Folds. 7. Folds well-imagin'd give much Spirit to any kind of Action; becaufe their Motion implies a Motion in the acting Member, which feems to draw



them forcibly, and makes them more or lefs ftirring as the
Action is more or lefs violent. 8. An artful Complication of
Folds in a circular Manner, greatly helps the Effect of Fore-
fhortenings. 9. All Folds confift of two Shades and no more;
which you may turn with the Garment at Pleasure, shadow-
ing the inner Side deeper, and the outer more faintly.
The Shades in Silk and fine Linen are very thick and fmall,
requiring little Folds and a light Shadow. 11. Observe the
Motion of the Air or Wind, in order to draw the loofe Ap-
parel all flying one Way; and draw that Part of the Gar-
ment that adheres clofeft to the Body, before you draw the
loofer Part that flies off from it; left by drawing the loofe
Part of the Garment first, you should mistake the Pofition of
your Figure, and place it awry. 12. Rich Ornaments, when
judicioufly and fparingly us'd, may fometimes contribute to
the Beauty of Draperies. But fuch Ornaments are far below
the Dignity of Angels or heavenly Figures; the Grandeur of
whofe Draperies ought rather to confift in the Boldness and
Nobleness of the Folds, than in the Quality of the Stuff, or
the Glitter of Ornaments. 13. Light and flying Draperies are
proper only to Figures in great Motion, or in the Wind;
but when in a calm Place, and free from violent Action,
their Draperies fhould be large and flowing; that by their
Contraft, and the Fall of the Folds, they may appear with
Grace and Dignity. And thus much for Drapery, fome few
Examples of which you will find in Plate 10. I will now en-
deavour to give you a Tafte of that, which, though it may be
the most difficult, is certainly the most agreeable Part of this
Study, I mean the Art of expreffing the Paffions.


On the Paffions.


HE Paffions, fays Mr. Le Brun, are Motions of the Soul, either upon her purfuing what the judges to be for her good, or fhunning what the thinks hurtful to her; and commonly, whatever caufes Emotion of Passion in the Soul, creates alfo fome Action in the Body. It is therefore neceflary for a Painter to know which are the different Actions in the Body that exprefs the feveral Paffions of the Soul, and how to delineate them. But first of all, it may be proper you



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fhould learn fomewhat of the Syftem of the Paffions, and their Connection with and Relation to each other; I will therefore give you a fhort moral Account of them from Mr. Watts.

"An Object which is fuited to excite the Paffions, fays he, "muft have one of these three Properties, viz. it must be "either, 1. Rare and uncommon; or, 2. Good and agreeable; "or, 3. Evil and difagreeable: Or at leaft we must have some "fuch Ideas and Apprehenfions of it, before it can excite any "Paffion in us.

"Now if we will diftinguish the chief Paffions of our Na"ture according to their Objects, and confine ourselves to

the common Words and Names whereby they are usually "called, we may make three Ranks of them; which, for "Diftinction's fake, I fhall name the firft, fecond, and third "Rank. The two firft are Primitive, the third is Deri"vative.

"The first Rank of Paffions are these three; Admiration, "Love, and Hatred.


"If the Object be rare and uncommon, it excites Admira❝tion or Wonder.

"If we look on it as good, or any way agrecable to us, "it may engage our Love; but if it be evil or difagreeable, it ' moves our Hatred.

"The fecond Rank of chief Paffions are the divers Kinds "of Love and Hatred, which are alfo diftinguished by their


"If the Object appear valuable, it raifes a Love which we "call Efteem; if worthless, the Hatred is called Contempt.

"If the Object appear fit to receive Good from us, it is "Love of Benevolence, or Good will: If it appear rather fit to "receive Evil from us, the Hatred is called Malevolence, or "Ill-will.

"If the Object appear pleafing, and fit to do us good, "it raifes the Love of Complacence, or Delight; if it be dif"pleafing, and unfit to do us good, it excites a Difplicence, or "Diflike.

"From Love and Hatred in their different Kinds, (but "chiefly from Complacence and Difplicence) arife feveral more "chief Paffions, which may be called the third Rank, and "which are alfo diftinguished by their Objects.

"Note, In this Pair of Paffions, and in all the third Rank, which is chiefly derived from them, the pleafing Object is more properly called Good, and the difpleafing Object is

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