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more properly called Evil, than in the Paffions before mentioned.

"If the Good be abfent or unpoffeffed, and poffible to be "obtained, the Paffion of Love grows up to Defire; if the "Evil may poffibly come upon us. the Hatred expreffes it"felf in Averfion, or Avoidance. Though there may be alfo "an Averfion to fome Evil from which we are fufficiently * fecure.

"If there be any Profpect of obtaining the abfent Good, the "Paffion excited is Hope; but if the abfent Evil be likely to "come upon us, it raifes the Paffion of Fear.

"Fear alfo arifes from a prefent or expected Good in danger "of being loft: And there is a Hope of Security from fome ab"fent threatening Evil, or of Deliverance from fome Evil that « is prefent.

"If the Good be actually obtained, or the Evil prevented, "it excites Fey and Gladness; if the Good be actually loft, or

the Evil come upon us, it caufes Sorrow or Grief.

"Whoever helps us to attain this Good, or prevents the "Evil, excites in us Gratitude: Whofoever hinders our "Attainment of Good, or promotes the Evil, raises our "Anger.

"There are very few, if any, of the Paffions for which "we have any Name, and which are ufually taken notice "of in the Heart of Man, but what may be reduced to fome "or other of thefe general Heads. And tho' I don't pretend to lay down this Diftinction and Arrangement of the Paffions

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of Man, as an uncontroverted or certain Thing; yet upon "the beft Survey I can take of the various Works of the Heart, BC as well as of the feveral Authors who have written on this "Subject, I don't find any of them lead me into an eafier or

better Scheme than this."

Thus far Mr. Watts: which, as it is a concife, as well as fenfible Account of the Paffions, I thought it not improper to put into your Hands at this Time; for though it be not directly to the Purpose, yet it is far from being altogether foreign to it; fince he who fearches into and understands the fecret Springs and Caufes of the Paffion, will in all Probability exprefs them with greater Judgment and Spirit, than he who merely copies them from the external Appearance.

Mr. Le Brun has been extremely happy in expreffing many of the Paffions, and you cannot ftudy any thing better than the Examples which he has left us of them; fome of which are carefully copy'd in the Plate which correfponds to this Lef

fon.

fon. However, I am of Opinion, with Mr. De Piles, that it is abfurd as well as impoffible to pretend to give fuch particular Demonftrations of them as to fix their Expreffion to certain Strokes, which the Painter fhould be obliged to make use of as effential and invariable Rules. This, fays he, would be depriving the Art of that excellent Variety of Expreffion, which has no other Principle than Diverfity of Imagination, the Number of which is infinite. The fame Paffion may be finely expreffed several Ways, each yielding more or lefs Pleafure in proportion to the Painter's Understanding, and the Spectator's Difcernment.

Tho' every Part of the Face contributes toward expreffing the Sentiments of the Heart, yet the Eye-brow, according to Mr. Le Brun, is the principal Seat of Expreflion, and where the Paffions beft make themselves known. 'Tis certain, fays he, that the Pupil of the Eye, by its Fire and Motion, very well fhews the Agitation of the Soul, but then it does not exprefs the Kind or Nature of fuch an Agitation; whereas the Motion of the Eye-brow differs according as the Paffions change their Nature. To express a simple Paffion, the Motion is fimple; to exprefs a mixt Paffion, the Motion is compound: if the Paffion be gentle, the Motion is gentle; and if it be violent, the Motion is fo too. We may obferve farther, fays he, that there are two Kinds of Elevation in the Eyebrows. One, in which the Eye-brows rife up in the Middle; this Elevation expreffes agreeable Senfations; and it is to be obferved that then the Mouth rifes at the Corners: Another, in which the Eye-brows rife up at the Ends, and fall in the Middle; this Motion denotes bodily Pain, and then the Mouth falls at the Corners. In Laughter all the Parts agree; for the Eye-brows, which fall toward the Middle of the Forehead, make the Nofe, the Mouth, and the Eyes, follow the fame Motion. In Weeping, the Motions are compound and contrary, for the Eye-brows fall toward the Nofe and over the Eyes, and the Mouth rifes that Way. Tis to be obferved alfo that the Mouth is the Part of the Face which more particularly expreffes the Emotions of the Heart: For when the Heart complains, the Mouth falls at the Corners; when it is at Eafe, the Corners of the Mouth are elevated; and when it has an Averfion, the Mouth fhoots forward, and rifes in the Middle.

"The Head, fays Mr. De Piles, contributes more to the "Expreffion of the Paffions, than all the other Parts of the "Body put together. Thofe feparately can only fhew fome

❝ few

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"few Paffions, but the Head expreffes them all. Some, "however, are more peculiarly exprefs'd by it than others; as, Humility, by hanging it down; Arrogance, by lifting "it up; Languifhment, by inclining it on one Side; and "Obftinacy, when with a ftiff and refolute Air it stands "upright, fixt, and stiff between the two Shoulders. The "Head alfo beft fhews our Supplications, Threats, Mildness, "Pride, Love, Hatred, Joy, and Grief. The whole Face, "and every Feature, contributes fomething; efpecially the "Eyes, which, as Cicero fays, are the Windows of the Soul. "The Paffions they more particularly difcover are, Pleasure, "Languifhing, Scorn, Severity, Mildnefs, Admiration, and "Anger; to which one might add Joy and Grief, if they did "not proceed more particularly from the Eye-brows and "Mouth; but when thofe two Paffions fall in also with the "Language of the Eyes, the Harmony will be wonderful. "But tho' the Paffions of the Soul are moft vifible in the Lines "and Features of the Face, they often require the Affiftanee

alfo of the other Parts of the Body. Without the Hands, "for Inftance, all Action is weak and imperfect; their Mo❝tions, which are almoft infinite, create numberless Expref"fions: It is by them that we defire, hope, promife, call,

fend back; they are the Inftruments of Threatening, Prayer, Horror, and Praife; by them we approve, condemn, refuse, "admit, fear, afk; exprefs our Joy and Grief, our Doubts, "Regrets, Pain, and Admiration. In a Word, it may be "faid, as they are the Language of the Dumb, that they "contribute not a little to speak a Language common to all "Nations, which is the Language of Painting. But to fay "how thefe Parts must be difpos'd for expreffing the various "Paffions, is impoffible; nor can any exact Rules be given for it, both becaufe the Tafk would be infinite, and be"caufe every one must be guided in this by his own Genius, "and the particular Turn of his own Studies."

All that I have farther to add on this Leffon, is to tell you, that the Examples of the Paffions, which are here fet before you for your Imitation, are taken from the best Masters, and endeavoured to be contrafted in such a Manner as to heighten and fet off each other, and engage you more agreeably in the Study of them.

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LESSON

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LESSON X.

On drawing Landfkips, Buildings, &c.

F all the Parts of Drawing, this is the moft ufeful and neceffary, as it is what every Man may have occafion for at one time or another. To be able, on the Spot, as I obferved before, to take the Sketch of a fine Building, or a beautiful Profpect; of any curious Production of Art, or uncommon Appearance in Nature; is not only a very defirable Accomplishment, but a very agreeable Amusement. Rocks, Mountains, Fields, Woods, Rivers, Cataracts, Cities, Towns, Caftles, Houses, Fortifications, Ruins, or whatsoever elfe may prefent itself to View, on our Journies or Travels, in our own or foreign Countries, may be thus brought home, and preferved for our future Ufe, either in Business or Converfation. On this Part therefore I would have you bestow fomewhat more than ordinary Pains; and I have referved it to the last, that it may dwell the longest upon your Mind.

All Drawing confifts in nicely measuring the Diftances of each Part of your Piece by the Eye. In order to facilitate this, you are to imagine in your own Mind that the Piece you copy is divided into Squares. As for Example: Suppofe or imagine a perpendicular and a horizontal Line croffing each other in the Center of the Picture you are drawing from: Then fuppofe alfo two fuch Lines croffing your own Copy. Obferve in the Original what Parts of the Defign thofe Lines interfect, and let them fall on the fame Parts of the fuppofed Lines in your Copy: I fay the fuppofed Lines, because tho' Engravers and others who copy with great Exactnefs, divide both the Copy and Original into many Squares, as in the Margin,

yet this is a Method I would have you endeavour to do without; as it will be apt to deceive the Learner, who will fancy himself a tolerable Proficient, till he comes to draw after Nature where thefe Helps are not to be had, when he will find himself miferably defective and utterly at a Lofs.

If you are to draw a Landfkip from Nature, take your Station on a rifing Ground, where you will have a large Horizon; and mark your Tablet into three Divifions, downwards from the Top to the Bottom, and divide in your own Mind the Landskip you are to take, into three Divifions alfo. Then turn your Face directly oppofite to the Midft of the Horizon, keeping your Body fixed, and draw what is directly before your Eyes, upon the middle Divifion of your Tablet; then turn your Head, but not your Body, to the left Hand, and delineate what you view there, joining it properly to what you had done before; laftly, do the fame by what is to be seen on your right Hand, laying down every thing exactly, both with refpect to Distance and Proportion.

The beft Artifts of late, in drawing their Landfkips, make them fhoot away one Part lower than another. Those who make their Landfkips mount up higher and higher, as if they flood at the Bottom of a Hill to take the Profpect, commit a great Error: The beft Way is to get upon a rifing Ground, make the nearest Objects in your Piece the highest, and those that are farther off, to fhoot away lower and lower till they come almost level with the Line of the Horizon, leffening every Thing proportionably to its Diftance, and obferving alfo to make your Objects fainter and lefs diftinct, the farther they are removed from your Eye. Make all your Lights and Shades fall one Way; and let every Thing have its proper Motion, as Trees fhaken by the Wind, the fmall Boughs bending more, and the large ones lefs; Water agitated by the Wind, and dafhing again ft Ships or Boats; or falling from a Precipice upon Rocks and Stones, and fpirting them up again into the Air, and fprinkling all about; Clouds alfo in the Air, now gathered with the Winds, now violently condenfed into Hail, Rain, and the like; always remembering that whatever Motions are caufed by the Wind, muft all be made to move the fame Way, because the Wind can blow but one Way at once.

If you intend to make any confiderable Proficiency in this Part of Drawing, a Knowledge of Perfpective is abfolutely neceffary: But for the common Ufes which in all Probability you will have to make of Drawing, a careful Imitation of the Examples here laid before you, and other good Prints and Drawings which you may procure, together with frequent Trials from real Objects, fuch as Houfes, Trees, Rocks, Ruins, and the like, will be fufficient; and in a little Time enable you to make fuch Imitations of natural and artificial Objects, as will fully answer the Ends which a Gentleman can propose in learning the Art.

The End of the First Volume,

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