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at his loss was diminished by the line of enterprise and discovery, has circumstance that he would be re- tended to obliterate the impression moved from them no farther than which it originally produced. to the neighbouring city of Lime- The popularity of Captain Frankrick. Such mutual feelings, when lin's “ Narrative" is easily accounted not purchased by any sacrifice of for. It is the narrative of a journey principle or duty, are bonourable to through countries very little known, both parties, and open a way to in search of that vast unexplored results of incalculable importance. ocean which forms the northern So far as the Irish clergy can secure boundary of America. The ac this amiable disruption of prejudice counts of Hearne and Mackenzie by zeal, and love, and conciliation, confer the highest honour on their and kind offices, either to the bodies courage and enterprise, as travelor the souls of their Roman Catholic lers; but they are meagre and unparishioners, it is both their duty satisfactory when compared with and their privilege to endeavour to the information afforded by the do so; but with equal earnestness present volume. Captain Franklin should they guard against obliterat- enjoyed advantages of which they ing the distinctive principles of the were entirely destitute. He was Protestant church; a church built commissioned by the British Goexclusively upon the Bible; which vernment; and his narrative comes gives the Bible to all her members; before the public under the express and which, as her best boon to Ire sanction of its authority. Well furland, would wish to see every pea- nished with recommendations to the sant in that country taught to read two great trading companies in the the Scriptures, and possessing a neighbourhood of Hudson's Bay, he copy of the Scriptures to read. was sure of meeting with all possible
facilities for the accomplishment of his arduous undertaking *. The
object of his expedition was, . not Narrative of a Journey to the Shores merely to trace the northern coast.
of the Polar Sea, in the Years of the American continent, but, if
1819-20-21-22. ByJ. FRANK- practicable, to form a junction with . LIN, Captain R. N., F.R.S. Pub- Captain Parry, who was at that
lished by Authority of the Earl of time on a voyage of discovery in Bathurst. Second edition. 2 vols. the same quarter. All these cirSvo. London. 1824. 24s. cumstances would have imparted a
considerable interest to his journey, Few volumes of voyages or travels, even though it had not contained a we believe, have excited a more narrative of some of the most ex. lively interest in the public mind traordinary sufferings, hardships; than those which are to form the and privations that ever were ensubject of our présent article. Nor countered : as it is, it has excited a do we think that this interest is strong and general sympathy in the likely soon to pass away. We should public mind, which has far more not be surprised if these volumes than counterbalanced any disapwere to live as long, and be'as ge- pointment arising from the failure of nerally perused, as Lord Anson's the original design of the expedition. Voyage round the World; a work This sympathy has been wrought which, from its artless narrative, and up into feelings of the highest affecting details of hardship and respect and admiration towards suffering, still continues to rivet the Captain Franklin and his four attention of every reader, though He was accompanied by scientific men, upwards, of seventy years have now qualified for collecting and communicating elapsed since its publication, and a all the useful and interesting inforination .copstant series of novelties, 'in the which the journey might supply: .
British companions. To the forti York Factory, one of the principal tude of the enterprising traveller, settlements of the Hudson's Bay they appear to have added, what Company, is situated in north renders the volume to us ten-fold latitude 57 deg. and west longiinteresting, the piety of the serious tude 92 deg. 26 min. From this Christian. They have given the point, the travellers took at first a world one more edifying example of westerly direction, to Cumberland the efficacy of religious principles, House, where they arrived in Dehopes, and prospects, in supporting cember, after a journey of about the human mind under the severest 690 miles. On the 19th of January, bodily distresses, and enabling it to 1820, Captain Franklin, with Mr. sustain tliem, not only without mur- Buck, and Hepburn the sailor, muring, but with cheerful resigna-, quitted Cumberland House, leaving tion. Upon all these accounts, we Dr. Richardson and Mr. Hood to are glad to see this work now pub- spend the winter there, and afterlished in a more 'portable and less wards to join them at Fort Chipewexpensive form than in the original yan, partly by another route. At edition ; and we shall feel a real Carlton House, a distance from pleasure, should our review of it Cumberland of 260 miles, their exbe the means of recommending it pedition began to take a decidedly to the notice of any of our readers, northern direction, and brought who may not be fully acquainted them, by way of Isle a la Crosse, with its merits.
to the above mentioned fort, after a Our limits will not permit us' to farther journey of nearly 600 miles. follow the expedition step by step, They arrived at Fort Chipewyan, on through the successive stages of its the Athabascan Lake, in the latter progress: we must therefore, after end of March, and were joined there, the example of the epic poets, has on the 13th of July following, by ten into the midst of things," pass Dr. Richardson and Mr. Hood. over in silence the few incidents of On the 18th, the whole party prothe voyage outward, and join the ceeded northward, and arrived at Fort travellers at York Factory, on the Providence, on the great Slave Lake, shores of Hudson's Bay, the point by the close of that month. Here from which they commenced their dangers and difficulties began 'rajourney into the interior. . pidly to increase upon them. The : Captain Franklin's expedition may navigation of the rivers became be conveniently distributed into more difficult, and the portages three parts; consisting of hisjourney longer and more laborious. Their northwards to Fort Enterprise,-his store of provisions also began to fall progress thence to the mouth of the short; a circumstance, which had Coppermine River, and sea-voyage nearly created a mutiny among the along the coast of the Arcticocean, Canadian voyagers who accompaand his calamitous return across the nied them. Their party had now barren grounds. It may be just increased to the number of twentypremised, that the party embarked eight persons, including about twenat Gravesend on the 23d of May, ty Canadian voyagers whom Cap1819, and, after some perils and tain Franklin had hired, with much delays, arrived at York Factory on difficulty, to enable him to proceed the 30th of August following. It with the expedition. Or these, the consisted at first of the following greater number acted as carriers; persons: Lieutenant (now Captain) some as hunters ; two or three as Franklin, of the royal navy, the interpreters. Here, too, they formed commander ; Dr. Richardson, a navy a connexion with a tribe of Copper surgeon; Mr. Buck, and Mr. Hood, Indians, chiefly for the purpose of admiralty midshipmen; and John obtaining supplies and information ; Hepburn, an English sailor, ş of which latter, however, very little
that could be relied upon was com: the climate in these parts is far municated. Captain Franklin, having more severe than at equal degrees appeased his Canadians for the pre- of European latitudes. Over this sent, pushed forward, on a visit of vast central district of North Ameobservation, to the nearest point of rica, lying to the east of the Rocky the Coppermine River ; but, finding Mountains, are dispersed various the cold fast setting in, he returned, tribes of Indians, distinguished by * on the 13th of September, to å spot varieties of aspect and manners. which they called, properly enough, They are scattered with that thinFort Enterprize. Here they erected ness of population which might be a wooden house, and took up their expected from the extreme rigour winter quarters. It was not before of the climate, and the scanty and the middle of June, in the following precarious subsistence to be derived year (1821) that they were able to from hunting, which is almost their recommence their progress towards only occupation. Of these tribes the Arctic ocean. They had now the principal are the Cree, the Stone, travelled from York Factory a dis, the Chipewyan, and the Copper tance of about 2200 miles, including Indians. The latter border on the their short excursion to the upper Esquimaux, who inhabit still more part of the Coppermine River. northerly districts, and of whom
The course which they followed several traces were found on the throughout this long journey con- coast of the Polar Sea. The Crec sists of one vast chain of lakes and Indians inhabit the country in the rivers ; not, however, uninterrupted, vicinity of Cumberland House. The but broken by frequent portages, scantiness of their population may occasioned either by rapids or by be estimated from the followirg the absence of a navigable stream, circumstance; that a district, comThe conveyance of their baggage prehending, on a rough calculation, across these portages cost them im- upwards of 20,000 square miles, is mense pain and fatigue. The prin- frequented at present by only about cipal lakes which they touched upon, 120 Indian hunters with their famior traversed, were the Lake Winni. lies. Yet, small as this population peg, the Athabasca and the Slave is, they are exposed to great sufferLakes. The country through which ing from cold, famine, and fatigue. they passed presents very various They are also frequently attacked features ; much primitive country; with hooping cough, measles, small low alluvial grounds; thickly wooded pox, and other epidemical diseases, tracts of pine, poplar, and willow. which keep their numbers rather in In some parts, -the banks of the a state of diminution than increase. rivers are bounded, on both sides, The goitre is a very common comby hills of considerable elevation ; plaint among them. We shall here in others, they present low plains of present our readers with a few exmuddy soil, covered with wood; in tracts from Dr. Richardson's account others, they are broken into small of this tribe. The following passand-hills. Some parts are plenti- sage exhibits a trait of mingled fully supplied with game. Besides fortitude and feeling, which, in a deer, buffaloes, black and brown savage, calls for admiration.. bears, and wolves are the principal “ One evening, early in the month of quadrupeds. Between Slave Lake January, a poor Indian entered the Northand Fort Enterprize the wood be. West Company's house, carrying bis gins to be more scanty, and granitic only child in his arms, and followed by his formations to be more abundant.
starving wife. They had been hunting
apart from the other bands, had been This part also is frequented by large
unsuccessful, and whilst in want were herds of rein deer, who live on the seized with the epidemical disease. AN various mosses with which the coun Indian is accustomed to starve, and it is try abounds. It is well known that not easy to elicit from him an account of
CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 266.
his sufferings. This poor man's story was listen to the instructions of Christivery brief: as soon as the fever abated, anity, and as it exhibits an excep. he set out with his wife for Cumberland
a tion, in point of moral conduct, to House, having been previously reduced to
what has been considered a vice feed on the bits of skin and offal which remained about their encampment. Even radically inherent in barbarous nathis miserable fare was exhausted; and tions. they walked several days without eating, “ It might be thought that the Crees yet exerting themselves far beyond their have benefited by their long intercourse strength that they might save the life of with civilized nations. That this is not the infant. It died almost within sight of so much the case as it ought to be, is not the house. Mr. Conolly, who was then entirely their own fault. They are capable in charge of the post, received them with of being, and I believe willing to be, the utmost humanity, and instantly placed taught; but no pains have hitherto been food before them; but no language can taken to inform their minds, and their describe the manner in which the misera White acquaintances seem in general ble father dashed the morsel from his to find it easier to descend to the Indian lips, and deplored the loss of his child." customs and modes of thinking, particuVol. I. pp. 93, 94.
larly with respect to women, than to at“ The Crces are a vain, fickle, im
tempt to raise the Indians to their's. Inprovident, and indolent race, and not
deed such a lamentable want of morality very strict in their adherence to truth,
has been displayed by the White traders, being great boasters; but, on the other
in their contests for the interests of their hand, they strictly regard the rights of
respective companies, that it would require property, are susceptible of the kinder
a long series of good conduct to efface affections, capable of friendship, very hos
from the minds of the native population pitable, tolerably kind to their women,
the ideas they have formed of the White and withal inclined to peace.
character. Notwithstanding the frequent : “Much of the faulty part of their cha
violations of the rights of property they racter, no doubt, originates in their mode
have witnessed, and but too often expeof life : accustomed as a hunter to depend rienced in their own persons, these sagreatly on chance for his subsistence, the vages, as they are termed, remain strictly Cree takes little thought of to-morrow; honest. During their visits to a post, and the most offensive part of his beha- they are suffered to enter every apartment viour—the habit of boasting—has been in the house, without the least restraint; probably assumed as a necessary part of and although articles of value to them are his armour, which operates upon the fears scattered about, nothing is ever missed. of his enemies. They are countenanced, They scrupulously avoid moving any thing however, in this failing, by the practice of from its place, although they are often the ancient Greeks, and perhaps by that prompted by curiosity to examine it. In of every other nation in its ruder state, some cases, indeed, they carry this prinEvery Cree fears the medical or conjuring ciple to a degree of self-denial which would powers of his neighbour ; but at the same hardly be expected. It often happens time exalts his own attainments to the that meat, which has been paid for, (if skies. 'I am god-like,' is a common the poisonous draught it procures them expression amongst them; and they prove can be considered as payment,) is left at their divinityship by eating live coals, their lodges until a convenient opportunity and by various tricks of a similar nature. occurs of carrying it away. They will A medicine bag is an indispensable part rather pass several days without eating of a hunter's equipment. It is generally than touch the meat thus intrusted to furnished with a little bit of indigo, blue their charge, even when there exists a vitriol, vermilion, or some other showy prospect of replacing it.” Vol. I. pp. 101 article; and is, when in the hands of a -103. . noted conjuror, such an object of terror to the rest of the tribe, that its possessor is
“* Since these remarks were written, the enabled to fatten at his ease upon the labours of his deluded countrymen.".
union of the rival companies has enabled
the gentlemen who have now the manageVol. I. pp. 97-99.;
'ment of the fur trade, to take some decided The following passage deserves
steps for the religious instruction and imto be inserted, both, as it points out
provement of the natives and half-breed one principal cause of the backward- Îndians, which have been more particularly ness of pagan and sayage tribes to referred to in the introduction."... !
Our readers will be interested in has met with very general support from the nature of the improvements al- the resident chief factors, traders, and luded to in the note under the last clerks. The Directors of the Company extract. The following is our au
are continuing to reduce the distribution thor's account of them, in the in- .
of spirits gradually among the Indians troduction to the second edition of view to the entire disuse of them as soon
as well as' their own servants, with a his work; and it is highly to his as this most desfrable object can be accomhonour, that, on his return to Eng. plished. They have likewise issued orders land, he strongly recommended to for the cultivation of the ground at each the Church Missionary Society the of the posts, by which means the residents case of the wandering tribes among
will be far less exposed to famine whetiwhom he had travelled, and excited
ever, through the scarcity of animals, the great sympathy in their behalf.
sickness of the Indians, or any other cause, "In the ensuing Narrative, the notices
their supply of meat may fail. ' of the moral condition of the Indians as
“ It is to be hoped that intentions so influenced by the conduct of the traders
dear to every humane and pious mind, will, towards them, refer entirely to the state
through the blessing of God, meet with in which it existed during our progress
the utmost success.” Vol. I. pp. xvi-xix. through the country; but lest I should The account of the religious opihave been mistaken respecting the views nions of the Crees is important only of the Hudson's Bay Company on these as it may add one more instance points, I gladly embrace the opportunity of the prevalence of tradition conwhich a second edition affords me of stat- cerning the universal deluge. ing, that the junction of the two companies bas enabled the Directors to put in prac
“Of the religious opinions of the Crees, tice the improvements which I have rea
it is difficult to give a correct account, not son to believe they have long contemplat
only because they shew a disinclination to ed. They have provided for religious enter upon the subject, but because their instruction by the appointment of two
ancient traditions are mingled with the clergymen of the Established Church, un. information they have more recently der whose direction school-masters and obtained, by their intercourse with Eumistresses are to be placed at such stations ropeans. as afford the means of support for the
e. «None of them ventured to describe establishment of schools. The offspring
the original formation of the world; but of the voyagers and labourers are to be they all spoke of an universal deluge, educated chiefly at the expense of the caused by an attempt of the fish to drown Company: and such of the Indian chile Wæsack-ootchacht, a kind of demi-god dren as their parents may wish to send to
with whom they had quarrelled. Having these schools, are to be instructed, clothed,
constructed a raft, he embarked with his and maintained at the expense of the
family and all kinds of birds and beasts. Church Missionary Society, which has
After the flood had continued for some already allotted a considerable sum for time, he ordered several water-fowl to these purposes, and it has also sent out dive to the bottom; they were all drownteachers who are to act under the super
ed: but a musk-rat having been disintendence of the Rev. Mr. West, the patched on the same errand, was more principal chaplain of the Company.
successful, and returned with a mouthful “ We had the pleasure of meeting this of
is of mud, out of which Wæsack-ootchacht, gentleman at York Factory, and witnessed
ed imitating the 'mode in which the rats
imita with peculiar delight the great benefit construct their houses, formed a new which had already marked his zealous and earth. First, a small conical hill of mud judicious conduct. Many of the traders, appeared above the water ; by-and-by, its and of the servants of the Company, have base gradually spreading out, it became an been induced to marry the women with extensive bank, which the rays of the sun whom they had cohabited : a material at length hardened into firm land. Notstep towards the improvement of the fe- withstanding the power that Wasackmales in that country.
i ootchacht here displayed, his person is held , “Mr. West, under the sanction of the
in very little reverence ' by the Indians ; Directors, has also promoted a subscrip: and, in return, he seizes every opportunity tion for the distribution of the Bible in of tormenting them. His conduet is far
from being moral." Vol. I. pp. 113, 114. pany's fur trade has extended, and which : At page 115, is a 'curious acs