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Massillon's Thoughts on Moral and Reli- der was the pollen of some alpine plant; gious Subjects, translated from the French; but it is a subject still involved in obscuby R. Morris, English Minister at Calais. rity, as there is no plant known in Swit

zerland which yields such a powder.” The extensive collection of the standard. A very interesting communication was weights of foreign countries, which were lately read before the Royal Society of some time since transmitted to the Bri- Literature ; namely, Observations on the tish Government and compared with Eng- River Eupbrates, by Sir William Ouseley. lish standards, has been lately deposited at In journeying from Persia to Constanthe London Mint, for permanent reference. tinople, through Armenia, Sir William They form a most important national trea- stopped on the Euphrates at Satan's Valsure. The experiments were made by Robert ley (so called from abounding in scorpions Bingley, Esq. the king's assay-master of the end noxious creatures), a spot of verdure mint; and the calculations by Dr. Kelly., and beauty. Here he swam across the

Sir Humphrey Davy, in a paper on the river, and found it to be from three to six cause of the corrosion of copper used for feet in depth, broad, winding, and rapid, covering the bottoms of ships, has pointed over a stony and rugged bed. During his out a method of remedying this evil. The travels along its channel, especially during cause, he ascertained, was a weak chemical the last twenty, or seventy miles, he reaction, which is constantly exerted be- marked that it flowed between steep rocky tween the saline contents of sea-water banks, finely clothed with wood, and disand the copper. He finds that a very playing such willow trees as are mentioned small surface of tin, or other oxidable me- in that melancholy strain of the Hebrew tal, any where in contact with a large sur- captives, in which they describe their face of copper, renders it so negatively griefs, suspending their harps, and weeping electrical, that sea-water has no action while they thought on Jerusalem. In its upon it; and a little mass of tin brought course, the river utters a loud and hollow even in communication by a wire with a noise ;, the effect of which is increased by · large plate of copper, entirely preserves it. the silence prevailing around. The EuBy the desire of the Lords of the Admi- phrates was styled “Great” by ancient ralty, he is now bringing this discovery to authors, and also emphatically “ The Ripractice on ships of war.

ver,” (Hebrew Book of Joshua, Greek At a late meeting of the Bristol Phi- Apocalypse of St. John, Lucan, &c.); and - losophical and Literary Society, the Rev. several of its appellations serve to mark

W. D. Conybeare communicated informa- it as consisting of several streams, and tion he had received from Professor Buck- having been cut into artificial canals. The land, of the recent discovery of the fossil etymology of the word Euphrates is unskeleton of a most remarkable animal, known. Sir W. Ouseley directed his insomewhat resembling the Ichthyosaurus, quiry towards the source of the river in but distinguished by the extreme length Armenia, and endeavoured to ascertain of its neck, which consists of about forty what name it had borne and continued to vertebræ, and which would enable the bear in that region. The highest period 'living animal to extend its head to its tail. at which he could arrive was the fifth cenThe length of the whole is about five feet. tury, when Moses of Chorene, in his His

It will be recollected that, on the return tory of Armenia, calls it Ephrat, or Efrat; of Captain Ross from Baffin's Bay, much very slightly differing from the Greek. surprise was excited by the account of the At the present day, many Armenians and red snow (as it was called) which covers Turks upon its banks, pronounce it' as some of the snow mountains near the written in Arabic, Frát, or Forát, somecoast in those high latitudes. “ It is a times softened into Forád, and sometimes little remarkable,” says a recent traveller with the first letter changed into a mingled in Switzerland, "that it should have es- sound of M and V. The concluding porcaped public attention at the time, that tion of the essay related to the site of the the same phenomenon occurs every year terrestrial paradise, of which the four rivers in the Alps, though at a season when it is were, the Pison, Gihon, Hiddekel, and not often exposed to the view of travellers. Phrath, of Moses. There are a multitude Several persons informed me that they of hypotheses on this point, of which we had seen this red snow, and, on referring instance a few: 1st, The Garden of Eden to Saussure, I find he has given a very full existed between that place where the Euaccount of it, as occurring in Mont Breven, phrates and Tigris unite their streams, and on the great St. Bernard. Saussure and the spot where now stands the city of was inclined to believe that the red pow- Basrah. Huet, Bishop of Avranches ;

Dr. Wells; &c. &c.] 2. In Armenia, resource being observed to remain gene" among the fountains of the four rivers, rally unhurt in the midst of danger; and Phasis, Araxis, Tigris, and Euphrates.- if there were any whom the contagion was [Reland's Dissert. de Parad. Terrest. &c.] able to infect, these were remarked, almost 3. Near a town called Edneissar (in lat. universally, to have the disease in that 41, and between 72 and 73 long.), at the mitigated form which is not attended with foot of the mountain on which has been danger.” The total number vaccinated erected the city of Mardin.-(Father An- from 1818 to 1822 in the United Kingdom gelo, who travelled in Asia between the excepting the capital) is 327,521 ; and the years 1661 and 1678, and describes this total by the stationary vaccinators for the situation, as being called in Turkish “the same time, 34,275. In 1821 there were thousand fountains ;” whence, says he, 90,000 persons vaccinated in Ceylon; issue the four rivers, Tigris, Euphrates, 20,149 in the presidency of Fort William, Kouksou, or Bluewater, and Nahar-gilics, and 22,478 in that of Bombay. or Sword-river; which two latter, equiva. The Common Council of London have lent to the Gihon and Pison, fall respec- resolved to place in their court a marble tively into the two former.] 4. In the bust of that eminent patriot, philanthropist, territory of Canaan, Palestine, or the Holy scholar, and Christian, Granville Sharp. Land. 5. Near Damascus in Syria. 6.

GERMANY. On the tract now covered by the Caspian The number of students at the univerSea. 7. In Egypt. 8. In the Island of sity of Tubingen amounts to 789, distriCeylon, or Serandib.

buted into different departments of inBesides these various conjectures, each struction, as follows:--Protestant theoof which has had its advocates, it has logy, 189; Catholic theology, 66; jurisbeen maintained by others, that the ter- prudence, 154; medicine and chirurgery, restrial paradise was on the banks of the 110; philosophy, 196 ; principles of legisGanges, under the equator in Africa, in lation and government, 74. The King, Europe, and even in America. And even who had already founded certain prizes to beyond this, Huet tells us, “ There have stimulate the students, remarking the been some who would place paradise in neglect of pulpit eloquence, has recently the third or fourth heaven; in the heaven' created two new prizes for its encourageof the moon; in the moon itself; in a ment; one in Protestant, and the other mountain adjoining the lunar heaven; in in Catholic, theology. the middle region of the air,” &c. The

SWITZERLAND. Mohammedans confound it with their TheGovernment presiding in the canton bowers of bliss; and the Jewish Rabbis of the Valais are prosecuting with dilihave held that it reached to the seventh gence the repairs of the grand route of Le heaven, where the four rivers were of milk, Simplon, throughout the parts where it wine, balsam, and honey. Sir W. Ouse- crosses their territory. Its extremities, ley, with all his learning and intelligence, on the side of Piedmont call loudly for does not presume to determine which is reparations and finishing works. right.

Since last winter, the condition of the It appears from the Reports of the Na- Monks of St. Bernard has been greatly tional Vaccine Board, that the applications ameliorated. These men, so useful to the for lymph have been more than usually traveller in the bleak and dangerous numerous. Since the last Report, lymph regions, were accustomed to pass the had been dispatched to the East and West winter in cells, in which the thermometer Indies, to Ceylon, to the Cape of Good of Reaumur was sometimes as low as filHope, the island of Mauritius, the coast teen degrees below zero. We are happy, of Africa, New South Wales, and to however, to learn that the subscription France and Italy, &c. The Report states, set on foot for their relief has provided that it has been distributed in this king the means of warming their inclement redom with great success, “ for the smalj. treat with stoves and pipes; so that their pox has prevailed as an epidemic with more winter residence will in future be very than ordinary malignity in various parts of tolerable. this island lately, and has committed great

SWEDEN. ravages in those districts where it found in the Royal Library at Stockholm is a victime unprotected against it by a pre- remarkable manuscript, entitled the Codex yious process. The advantages of vacci- Giganteus, or the Giant. It was brought riation in places subject to these severe away from a Benedictine monastery at visitations have been confessedly decisive Prague, in the thirty years' war. In and remarkable ; those who had used this height it rises to about two Swedish


ells, with a proportionable breadth. Be town; and, instead of cofilahs of slaves, sides the Latin Vulgate, it contains a caravans of gold merchants now visit that collection of Jewish antiquities, by Jo- place. One of the richest ever known in sephus, Isidorus, and others; as also the the colony lately arrived from Melicouri, Comes Prayensis, and Chronicon Bohemia; and the trade with the interior increases together with a Treatise on Magic, accom- daily. The number of stone houses in panied with a coloured figure of the devil. Freetown is 107, and twelve more are in RUSSIA.

progress. The university of Moscow has pro

INDIA. posed the following subject for a prize A Missionary in India gives the followcompetition : - The Florentine copy of ing illustration of the debased and superJustinian's Pandects is considered as the stitious character of the native mind, even most correct and ancient of all, at present among the more intelligent classes :known in Europe; the others being for “ The son of the expounder of Hindoo the most part transcripts of it. It is pro- law in Burdwan came to me, accompanied posed, therefore, to trace the means and by another Brahmin who highly extolled course of its arrival at Florence, which has his learning. In the course of the conbeen a litigated point among the learned. versation I told him, that I could not posThe prize is 250 roubles. The essay is sibly conceive how men of learning could to be in Russian, Latin, French, or Ger- degrade themselves so much as to prostrate man, and is to be sent in by April 1825. themselves before cows; and, lying upon GREECE.

their faces, pay divine worship to these In the island of Scio, the remains of beasts. He replied, that cows were. the population, not discouraged by their worthy of such honour because they were afflicting circumstances, are zealously pro- sprung from a deity. I said, ! But you moting the publication of the ancient see that man's excellency consists chiefly Greek classics, under the direction of M. in his reasonable soul, but a cow is enCoray, who is considered as the patriarch of tirely devoid of reason : what difference ancient and modern Greek literature. In is there then between cows and other the Anthology of Florence, appears a letter beasts?' Hereupon he exclaimed, “No! from a Greek correspondent, detailing the highly venerable, highly venerable are the prosperous state of the island previous to cows ! their want of reason excepted, they its vicissitudes :-a population of 100,000 are, in every other respect, the representasouls ; a public library, enriched with tives of God:' and then he proceeded, 12,000 volumes ; schools of literature, with the most fervent zeal, to ascribe to philosophy, and the sciences ; a printing. cows a far greater value than he could put office; and various other establishments upon himself. One of our school-boys, of a benevolent and enlightened descrip- who had been present at this conversation. It was likely to become a sort of tion, said, after they were gone. It is capital of Greek learning. The popula- really the case, that the people esteem the tion is now reduced to 8000; their suffer- cows so highly; for if a man of a moral ings arising from no other cause than en- character dies, they are used to say, 'Oh ! deavouring to put themselves on a level . what a good man he was ! He was as virwith civilized nations, in the cultivation tuous as a cow.'of useful and tranquil studies.

The Diana steam-boat, built at KidderSYRIA.

pore, near Calcutta, was launched on the A stratum of coal, of considerable thick- 12th of July last ; and on the same day ness, it is said, has been discovered in made, on the Ganges, between Calcutta Syria, a few miles inland from the coast; and Chinsurah, the first trip ever perand a pit opened, from which the formed in India by the aid of steam. As Pacha of Egypt is preparing to draw the vessel passed up, the banks of the supplies for the steam-boats which he is river were crowded with natives, gazing intending to employ on the Nile and its with wonder on this novel scene. A vesbranches.

sel stemming a furious tide, without the SIERRA LEONE

aid of oar or sail, and sending forth from An Agricultural Society has been esta- a black column, standing in the usual blished at Sierra Leone; and an extensive place of a mast, a volume of smoke, was tract of land, in the province of Hastings, a sight on which they could not gaze withis devoted to experiments, with cotton, out silent amazement, or loud expressions ginger, pepper, and indigo, which grow of astonishment, utterly unable as they wild. The roads opened into the interior were to divine the power by which the have conducted native trader to Free- vessel was impelled with such velocity.



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CEYLONESE SUPERSTITIONS. tian world, that the devil is regularly A MISSIONARY, lately returned from Cey. systematically, and ceremoniously worlon, has drawn up the following account shipped by a large majority of the native of the superstitious worship which pre- inhabitants of the island of Ceylon! vails in that island. Every such concur- « The established heathenism of this ring testimony to the debased and awful island is Buddhism, which both condemns nature of the faith and ritual of heathen- and prohibits the worship of devils : at ism, adds a new claim upon the sympa. the same time, the essential principles of thies and zealous assistance of Christians Buddhism are such as open the way for to diffuse around the world the knowledge the introduction and establishment of the of the one true God, and of Jesus Christ degrading notions which have established whom he hath sent.'

this species of satanic adoration in this “ In Ceylon, there exist at least five country. Buddhu was an atheist, in the systems of heathen idolatry-Brahmin- most absolute sense of the word: his ism, Buddhism, Capoism, Baliism, and writings, or, more properly, the writings Yakadurism. A minute description of of his learned followers, which are very these different forms of idolatry, the na- voluininous, exhibit a most complete and ture and tendency of the ceremonies con- sophistical systein of atheism. In these nected with them, and the demoralizing writings, the eternity of matter is asserted effects which they severally have upon the the existence of a Creator is unequivonative inhabitants, would excite the deep- cally denied every idea of the existence est sympathies in behalf of these benight- of one Eternal Almighty God, the maker ed heathens.

and upholder of all things, is banished " The literal meaning of " Yakadu- from the minds of the reflecting Budd. rism' is, the expulsion of devils;' but hists: they are truly left in the state dewhen the whole round of its ceremonies scribed by the Apostle-without God in is considered, it properly means the the world. They have no • Universal worship of devils.'

Father' - no Divine Superintending « Whether such a form of idolatry does Power : the world has no moral and really exist in any part of the heathen righteous Governor; and, consequently, world, has, I am aware, been called in no final Judge! It is an awful fact, that, question. That people, at a distance in every part of the world where Buddfrom the spot where such scenes are prac- hism has established its atheistical influtised, should entertain doubts, is not to ence, the inhabitants are left to the unconbe wondered at; for, on the first annun. trolled dominion of the devil! And in ciation of so deplorable a fact as that of such regions, presenting so few obstacles the devil being worshipped, the thing ap- to the usurpations of the grand adversary pears altogether so shocking, that very of mankind, Satan has established his strong testimonies are required to make throne-usurped universal empire-legissuch a relation of human woe at all cre lated for his own dominions-dictated the dible. But this paper will be filled up form of his own government and prewith a statement of a few facts, collected scribed the religious ceremonies (if such by one who has been many years resident words can be used) that are most congein the country, and has availed himself of nial to his own mind! every means of information on the sub- “ It is an humiliating fact, that, while ject; and, for the purpose of satisfying Buddhism has made so many successful his own mind, has often done violence to efforts to erase from the minds of men all his feelings, by being present on occasions ideas of the existence of a God, their when these horrid ceremonies have been writings every where abound with accounts performed: and it is hoped that a testi- of the devil : for during the three hundred mony of this kind will give additional and fifty transmigrations of Buddhu in the weight to similar statements, which have different bodies which he assumed, the been often made in missionary and other existence of the devil is acknowledged, communications from that part of the and Buddhu meets him at every turn as world.

his grand and chief adversary; and a na. -- « Therefore I now state, and I wish it tive painting, made in the Burman emto be heard in every corner of the Chris- pire, is now by me, representing Buddhu's

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