« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
Mexico, the civil war actually rag. one of the assemblies, since their reing there at the time; and of which ceipt of Lord Bathurst's dispatches, he admits, in other parts of the Re which comprehends-not to say the view, the destructive effects. whole any one of his Lordship's
But, to come to the more recent suggested improvements? If the article on this subject. The Re- Reviewer cannot answer this quesviewer professes there to give a true tion in the affirmative, then, is not account of the reception which the the language he employs calculated, recommendations of Earl Bathurst, however unintentionally, to mislead on the subject of improving the the reader, and to produce the false condition of the slaves, met with in impression that some of Lord Bathe West Indies. Jamaica and Bar- thurst's recommendations have been badoes, he admits, took the lead in adopted by some of the assemblies ? protesting against them, and much The legislature of Antigua cannot irritation and violence prevailed, deserve much credit for having reespecially in the former of those jected a bill for ameliorating the islands. He might have said, in condition of the slaves, which is both : witness the destruction, in all they seem to have done ; and open day, at Barbadoes, of the whatever zeal the Court of Policy Methodist chapel, and the violent of Demerara may have shewn in expulsion, at the hazard of their inditing resolutions for the abolition lives, of the missionary and his of the driving-whip and of the flog. wife. “ The impression," he goes ging of females, we have not heard on to say, '“ produced in other co- that it has extended beyond the lonies was various. In some, the council table,
aperuit discontinuance of the stimulus of There is, however, the island of the whip in the field, and of the St. Vincent, which the Reviewer punishment of female slaves under tells us had discontinued the praon any circumstances by flogging, was tice of flogging women, and of drive protested against, as a measure in ing the slaves in the field by the compatible with a state of slavery stimulus of the whip; and the planta and with the necessary authority of ers of that island, it seems, even the masters over their slaves.” So reproachgovernment with their ignon far well. The Reviewer, however, rance of the fact. The planters proceeds: “ In others, these inno- of St. Vincent's, it is true, do in. vations did not appear to create any sinuate something of this kind; but alarm. In the Address of St. Vin- they fortunately refer, in support of cent, it is observed, that these prac- the insinuation (which, after all, is tices had been virtually disconti. cautiously and ambiguously expressnued ; and the government are re- ed), to the 18th clause of their new proached with their ignorance of the Slave Law, passed in 1820. Now fact.' In Demerara, the Court of this very clause, on being examinPolicy were particularly zealous in ed, stands directly opposed both to assenting to, and expressing their their insinuation and to the Rereadiness to enforce, those two par- viewer's assertion on the subject. ticular regulations. In Antigua, the Indeed, this clause, as well as every draft of a bill was submitted to the other part of the Act, is little more legislature for ameliorating the con- than a copy of the Slave Law pase dition of the slaves ; but it was lost ed in Jamaica in 1816. The St. on the third reading." Again:-“No Vincent's law on the subject is as legislative measure, has hitherto follows:- . passed any assembly, comprehend- . “ That, in order to restrain arbi mg the whole of the improvements trary punishment, no slave, on any suggested," by Lord Bathurst. plantation or estate, shall receive
But, it may here be asked, has more than ten stripes at one time, any legislative measure passed any and for one offences: unless the
owner, attorney, guardian, admini-vernment are reproached for not strator, or manager of such estate having recognised!!!'s 15 amght yo or plantation, having such slave - Bat, says the - Reviewer, these under his care, shall be present, practices, according to the St. Vin: and no such owner, attorney, guar- cent's Address; have been virtudian, administrator, for manager, ally discontinued.". But what is the shall, on any account, punish a proof of this the assertion, at slave with more than thirty-nine most of the planters of St. Vinstripes at one time, and for one cents and not even their assertion offence, nor inflict, nor suffer to be their vinsinuation merely; and inflicted, such last mentioned pu- this in the very teeth of their law. nishment, nor any other number of But in what one of the colonies bas stripes, in the same week +, nor un- it not been asserted, over and dyer til the delinquent has recovered from again, in resolutions and addresses, the effects of any former punish- that they slaves are better off than ment; under a penalty of not less the peasantry of Great Britain ? than 151. (11.10s. sterling), or more Has the St. Vincent's Address gone than 301. (157. sterling) for every beyond this ? And yet the Res offence." To en 1938 1919 viewer has (carelessly, we believe) LLIC certainly would not be very given the sanction of his authority easy to fshew how it is that this to the delusive statement, that the clause (which is at this moment the island of St. Vincent had disconti, law of St. Vincent) operates to pro- nued the practice of flogging w04 hibit 'the flogging of wonien, or the men and driving the Negroes in the driving the slaves in the field by the field, and that in direct contradict stimulus of the whip. On the con- tion to its own recent law.!! ! trary, it comprehends all slaves, The Reviewer is right in regarda male and female, and that under ing the Order in Council for the the pretext of restraining arbitrary regulation of slavery in Trinidad as punishment, in the terrible power a very important and beneficial meawhich it gives to every owner, at sure. He does not, however, seem torney, guardian, administrator, and to be aware, that in some particur manager, to inflict upon them, at lars it deteriorates the state of the their discretion, and without the slaves in Trinidad, instead of impossibility of any legal remedy, proving it. To prove this, it will thirty-nine lashes of the cart whip; be sufficient to contrast some of and it leaves inferior agents the no the provisions of the Spanish Slave less terrible power (considering who Code, which is the law of Trinidad, they are) of punishment, to the ex- with the corresponding provisions of tent of ten stripes, without any li- the Order in Council. mitation whatever as to the fre- lst. By the Spanish law, the quency of their infliction. Nor does slaves, besides Sunday, are entitled this law impose any restraint on the to a day in each week, and to thirty power of whipping slaves not be holidays in the year, to be employlonging to plantations. And this ed for their own benefit.-By the is the boasted law of St. Vincent, Order in Council, no time, excluof which so much has been said, sive of Sunday, is allotted to the and the humanity of which the Go- slaves. This is so glaring a defect,
that it must have been a mere overThe “Manager" of the St. Vincent's sight in the framers of the Order, Act is called “ Overseer" in the Jamaica and they will doubtless be desirous + The Jamaica law says, “in the same
ne of immediately remedying it. .. day." The St. Vincent's transcript there. Here, however, it will be proper fore is, in that respect, an improved ver- to advert for one moment to a mision.
nute of the Council of Trinidad CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 273. - 4 B in...
'on this subject, dated the 9th July time to the slave for his provision 1823. One of the propositions dis- grounds. cussed by the Council is this 2. By the Spanish law, husband “ That the Sunday should be de- and wife cannot be separated by voted, by the slave, to repose and sale or transfer.—By the Order in religious instruction ; and that other Council the prohibition to separate time should be allotted for the cul- them is restricted to judicial sales. tivation of the provision ground." A proprietor, therefore, may now On this proposition the Council re- sell them separately at his discremarks—No objection to this, un- tion, which by the Spanish law he der the guarantee, already pledged could not have done. This defect by his Majesty's Government, of in the Order is the more remarkable, allowing full compensation to the as Mr. Canning in his speech states proprietor for the loss of the addi- that “ in all future sales, families tional day."
shall not be separated ;” and yet, if " The fair'inference from this reply the 23d clause of the Order be exis, that hitherto the slaves in Tri- amined, it will be found that the nidad have had no time but Sunday prohibition applies to judicial sales for cultivating their grounds, and exclusively. providing for their subsistence and 3d. By the Spanish law (see the that of their families. But, if so, minute of the Council of Trinidad of how come the authorities of the the 9th July 1823), the testimony island not to enforce the provisions of slaves is received in all cases of the Spanish law? Instead of quantum valeat. - By the Order indemnity to the planters, for ap- in Council, this general admission propriating a day in lieu of Sunday of slave evidence is laid under seto the slaves, they ought to be pu- veral new and important restricnished for violating the law, by tions. It cannot now be received withholding it from them. Or do unless the slave is certified by some they pretend to have a right, by clergyman or religious teacher to any law, Divine or human, to the understand the nature of an oath. labour of their slaves on the Sun- Neither can it be received in civil day? for that labour is in fact given suits against the master, nor in any to the master if it be appropriated trial affecting the life of a WHITE to feeding the slave. Alas! we man. This last exception, wholly know not as yet, in this country, unknown to the Spanish law, is in half the abominations of the slave itself perfectly monstrous. It makes system. Who would have believed it a most unjustifiable distinction bepossible, prior to this minute of the 'tween the White and all other classes, Council of Trinidad, that if any day although half of the slaves and other besides Sunday should be allotted to property in the island belongs to the slave for raising food, to enable free Persons of Colour. But, indehim to work for his master, the pendently of this circumstance, it master would claim to be indemni. is impossible to use terms too strong fied for so doing by the parent state? in describing its cruelty and injusNo doubt these gentlemen will find tice. A White man, against whom, themselves mistaken in supposing till now, slave evidence might have that the Government has guaranteed been legally adduced, may now to them any such indemnity. Never- murder a slave ; and though a thoutheless, we must lament that the sand slaves may have witnessed the Order in Council should have wholly fact, not one of them can be heard overlooked this important part of in evidence. And this is an enactthe case; and while it prohibits the "ment of our Government in annul. Sunday to be employed in labour- ment of the humane provisions of ing for the master, it gives no other the Spanish law !!! It moreover
1824.] On training Young Children to keep the Sabbath. 547 holds out an actual premium to assertion; and we do not believe murder. If a White man should that by any one of them has such be twice convicted of cruelly treat. a regulation been adopted. If there ing a slave, he forfeits, according has, let it be produced. Indeed, to the Order in Council, all the with respect to St. Vincent's the slaves he possesses. All therefore very contrary is the fact. The imthat is now necessary for him to do, proved slave code of that island, in order to protect himself from this passed in 1820, which it has been calamitous result, is to kill the slave vaunted had anticipated all Lord outright. No slave evidence can Bathurst's suggested improvements, then be received against him. - The contains a clause (the 61st) which following extract of a letter from expressly enacts, “ That the eviTrinidad, dated the 17th of June dence of any slave or slaves, on 1824, will be found to confirm this oath, shall be taken for or against view of the clause in question. It slaves, but in no other case whatis from a proprietor of Colour:- ever be admissible.” Mr. Canning . “ The draft of the Order in Coun- may see, in this single fact, and so cil of the 15th March has quite dis- may the Reviewer, how little, on heartened us, and has completely this question, West-Indian informaremoved every doubt concerning the tion is to be relied upon system which his Majesty's Mini- The slave law of Dominica alone sters propose following with respect admits, in certain cases, the evito us. I confine myself to the 36th dence of slaves, but this admission clause, by which, in capital cases, is restricted and guarded with such the evidence of a slave is rejected excessive jealousy as to render it against a White man, and received really of little or no use. against a Coloured individual, and yet the Order is said to be for the melioration of slavery! It is quite Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. the contrary. Under the Spanish." law the evidence of a slave was ad- In your number for September mitted against a White man; so 1823, you inserted a communicathat, instead of bettering his condi- tion from a correspondent signing tion, it has deteriorated it. At this himself R. H., entitled, “ Query time, murder may be perpetrated on training young Children to keep by the privileged class with impu. the Sabbath.” The question does nity, unless a free person be pre- not seem to have given rise to the sent.”
full discussion which its importance There is one passage in Mr. Can- deserves; and I trust your readers ning's speech, quoted by the Re- and correspondents will allow me viewer, to which we must briefly to recal their attention to it. advert, because it shews the impo- Many difficulties, it must be adsitions which are practised on this mitted, present themselves in proquestion, even on a mind so acute secuting the inquiry, but upon the and penetrating as Mr. Canning's. principle on which it rests I apMr. Canning observes, that “ it is prehend that no doubt can be enbut just to state, that, under certain tertained. The experience of perqualifications, the evidence of slaves sons of mature years, even of those is already admitted in the courts of who aim, with the purest religious justice of Dominica, Grenada, St. motives as their guide, at the best Vincent's, and I believe St. Chris- improvement of the Sabbath, cantopher's and Tobago.” Now, cer- not fail to have convinced them that tainly, in no law which has appear. the mind is unequal to unintermited from Grenada, St. Vincent's, St. ted devotional exertions throughout Christopher's, and Tobago, can we . the day, and betakes itself to such discover the slightest ground for this relaxations as suitable conversation and other resources "may offer, in by a peculiar character. This should order to refresh without unseason. be taught, (long before any reason ably distracting the thoughts. It can be given for it), by a refusal on is clear, therefore, that some ap. the part of the parent to allow the propriate relaxation must be sought, use of the customary toys, books of which young children may be al- of pictures, &c.' Not that toys lowed to avail themselves on the and books of pictures should be Sunday, after due attention has been denied, but those allowed upon the paid to their instruction in the Scrip- Sunday should be appropriate to tures, the ChurchCatechism, Hymns, the day, and different from those in &c. in which R. H. properly con- use during the week. As the infant cludes that a due portion of the day mind expands, the explanations will be employed. His inquiry is, and instructions of the parent will whether the remainder of the day gradually develop the appropriate should be decidedly marked off from and peculiar character of the amuseall the rest of the week, by a prohi- ments by which the day is marked, bition of all the usual plays and and the child will lay up, by a mere amusements of young children. act of memory,a store of information, Surely nothing can be of greater which will afterwards be brought to importance. The impressions receiv. bear upon more serious and import. ed in early youth rapidly strengthen ant topics. When the infant mind with increasing years; and the child has been thus trained, and the child who, from six to twelve or fourteen has attained the age to which the years of age, has been allowed to remarks of R. H. refer, there will indulge, during any portion of the no longer be any lack of amuseSunday, in those plays and amuse- ment, and that of a character comiments which occupy his hours of bining the highest advantages for entertainment during the remainder present improvement and the forof the week, will in after-life re- mation of the future religious chagard the newspaper, and the dinner racter. party, or even
S. G. E.
i in families where such amusements are sanctioned) the novel and the card-table, as in- Tothe EditoroftheChristian Observer. nocent relaxations 'after a formal attendance upon the stated services To find fault, ought ever to be a of the church.
painful duty to a feeling mind; and How then, as R. H. inquires, becomes especially so, when the may this prohibition be best en- admonition falls upon things, not forced; or, in other words, how may merely excellent in part in themit be enforced without rendering the selves, but which are surrounded, Sunday irksome to a child, and its as it were, by a magic glow of coduties a heavy task, instead of, what louring, the tendency of which is to they should be at all seasons of heighten their excellence and conlife, a pleasure both in anticipation ceal their defects. Wherever zeal and in enjoyment ?
and imagination are peculiarly callI reply, that, in order to secure ed into action, there is always a this point, it is necessary that great corresponding danger of the diffu. attention should be paid to the Sun- sion of this deceptive light, which, day habits of a child, before the like a mist in nature interposing period at which its age will admit between the object and the sober of instruction being given in the faculty of judgment, prevents its Church Catechism, and the truths correct appreciation, till the prejuand duties of our Christian faith in dicial effects of the error divest it at general. The infant mind should length of its delusive appearance." be thoroughly imbued with the idea As a sober, retired, and aged oba that one day in the week is marked server of the passing scenes in the