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XIV. CENSUS OF CHARLESTON, S. C., IN 1848. This census was taken under the authority of the City Council, by J. L. Dawson, M. D., and H. W. Desaussure, M. D., who have published the results in an octavo volume of 262 pages, containing “ an accumulation of facts which, if properly studied, will enable one to form an opinion of the future prospects of the city.” We should judge that the labor had been faithfully and intelligently performed, and the result is creditable alike to the liberality and forethought of the city, and to the ability and industry of those who collected and digested the material of which the work is made up. The enumeration of the inhabitants was made in the month of November, when the city is generally fullest. We give below those statistics of the city for which we can find room.

Population of the City at Different Enumerations.
Number of Persons.

To each 100 Persons, there were
Years.
Totals.

Slaves. Free Col'd. Whites. Slaves. Free Col'd. 1790 16,359 8,089 7,684 586 49.45 46.97 3.58 1800 20,473 9,630 9,819 1,024 47.04 47.93 5.00 1810 24,711 11,568 | 11,671 1,472 46.80 47.25 5.95 1820 24,780 10,653 12,652 1,475

42.99 51.06

5.95 1824 27,822 | 12,357 13,852 1,613 44.42 49.79 5.79 1830 30,289 12,828 | 15,354 2,107 42.36 50.69 6.95 1840

29,261 13,030 | 14,673 1,558 44.53 50.14 5.33 1848 26,451 14,187 10,772 1,492 53.64 40.72 5.64

The decrease in the population since 1840 is among the slaves and free colored, and is accounted for in this way ; that the slaves and free colored have removed to the Neck, a suburb beyond the corporate limits of the city, where, there being no restrictions upon the material or style of building, houses suited to their condition are numerous, and of moderate rents. Since the census of 1848 was taken, the Neck, by act of the Legislature, has been added to the city, with its population, exceeding, as is supposed, 16,000 persons. The Total and Annual Increase, and Per cent. of Increase of Population,

since 1790. Whites.

Slaves and Free Colored. Years. Increase. Increase per cent.

Increase.

Increase per cent. Total. Annual Total. Annual. Total. Annual. Total. Annual. 1790 1800 1,541 154.1 19.17 1.91 2,573 257.3 31.11 3.11 1810 | 1,938 193.8 20.12 2.01 2,300 230.0 21.11

2.11 1820-505 450.5 -4.36 4.43 984 98.4 7.48 .74 1830 | 2,175 217.5 20.41 2.04 3,334 333.4 23.60 2.36. 1840 202 20.2 1.57 .15 -1,230 -123.0 -7.04

-.70 1848 | 1,157 | 115.7 8.87 .88 -3,967 -396.7 -24.44 -2.44

of the white population there were born in Charleston 8,229, or 58 per cent.; in the United States, but not in Charleston, 2,939, or 20.72 per cent.; not born in the United States, 3,019, or 21.28 per cent.

Proportion of the Sexes. Number of Persons. To each 100 persous, there were To each 100 Males, Years.

the Females were Whites. Colored.

Whites. Colored. Males. Fem's Males. Fem's. Males. Fem's. Males. Fem's. Whiles. Colored. 1790 4,371 3,718

55.04 45.961

85.06 1800 5,031 4,599

52.24 47.76

90,57 1810 5,863 5,705

50.68 49.32

97.31 1820 5,323 5,330 6,318 7,809 49.97 50.03 44.72 55.28 100.12 | 123.57 1830 6,326 6,502 7,591 9,870 49.32 50.68 43.47 56.53 102.75 130.04 1840 6,827 6,203 6,917 9,314 52.39 47.61 42.61 57.39 90.87 134.68 1848 17,140/7,047 5,519 6,727 50.32 49.68 45 07 54.93 | 98.72 | 121.87

Years.

1800 1810 1820

Ages of the White Population.
Number of Persons.

In each 100 Persons, there were All Ages. | Under 16. | 16 to 45 Over 45. Under 16. 16 to 45. Over 45. 9,630 3,991 4,733 906 41.44 49.15 9.41 11,568 4,760 5,234 1,574 41.15 45.24 13 61 10,653 4,241 4,757 1,655 39.81 44.65 15 54

Under 15. 15 to 60 Over 60. Under 15. 15 to 60. Over 60, 12,828 4,636 7,696 496 36.14 59.99 3.87 13,030 4,304 8,304 422 33.04 63 74 3.22 14,187 4,628 8,882 677 32.62 62.60 4.78

1830 1840 1848

Proportion of Population surviving specified Ages, in Charleston, Boston,

London, and Liverpool.

CHARLESTON. Age surviv.

Boston. London. Liverpool. Whites.

Slaves. Free Col'd. ing.

1830. 1840. 1848. 1848. 1848. 1845. 1841. 1811. At Birth. 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 5 years. 86.48 86.05 87.56 87.28

85.39 87.37 86.49 84.97 10

74.77 | 76.32 76.75 77.31 72.86 77.44 75.96 70.83 15

63.85 66.97 67.38 66.50 63.65 69.01 67.05 59.77 20 52.40 55.56 58 05 55.68 54.43 59.43 57.92 40.34 30

32.36 32.06 36.75 36.39 36.60 33.55 38.96 35.23 40

16.92 16.33! 20.17 21.78 24.33 16.08 23.70 21.32 50 8.76 7.83 10.48 | 11.25

14.95

7.31 12.60 10.73 60 386 3.23 4.78 4.81 7.71

3.15
5.62

4.83 70

1.53 1.26 1.66 1.67 3.53 .99 1.85 1.64 80

.41 .27 .36 .61 1.75 .21 .35 .35 90

.07 .07 .04 .23 .28 .02 .03 .03

There were in 1848, 3,147 houses, of which number 2,789 were used wholly or partially as dwellings, and 358 as stores, &c. The whole number of inhabited houses was 2,666; the whole number of families 3,320. There were 1.20 families to each house, and 4.40 persons to each family. In 1820, the number of dwelling-houses was 2,336; in 1830, 2,481 ; and in 1840, 2,804. In 1848, 1,463 houses had a well, 257 a cistern, 691 both cistern and well, and 354 neither cistern nor well.

Occupations of the Population in 1848.

There were contributing to

Males,

ted to

759

Whites.

Males, 224 49 529 138 138 52 278 122 95 20 278334 97 15593923 Females, 54 91 1 6

230 134 516 Slares. Males, 213 75 12 1

8 87 101 46 147 2806 3406 Females,

30
2

57 3770 3859 Free Colored 47 36

4

20 5 1 82 9 58 263

1 Females, 28 10

247 37 322 Pauperism. — There are two classes of persons receiving public charity. 1. Paupers, - those admitted to the poor-house and supported there. 2. Out-door pensioners, – those living at their own homes, and receiving daily stipulated quantities of food from the house. The following tables show the number of paupers and pensioners, and the cost of pauperism for a series of years.

Paupers.
Out-door Pensioners.

Total Pau
Born in Born oui Total admit. Born in Born out
Years.

Total re.
United of U.

United of U.

pers and

lieved.* Pensioners. States. States. Poor House. * States. States. 1830 to 1833

750
735 1485

021 199 1020 2505 1834 • 1838 884 897

1782 723 124 847 2629 1839 6 1843

886
1309 2195 578 181

2954 1844 “ 1848 748 1106 1858

202 706 2584
Cost of Pauperism.
Cost.

Income from
Years.

Net Expense tu
Labor.
Paid by State.

City. 1819 to 1823 100,707.34

59,000 41,707.34 1824 6 1828 72,279.67

48,000 24,279.67 1829 6 1833 46,417.50

22,500 23,917.50 1834 • 1838 50,948.95

22,500 28,448.95 1839 1843 50,489.17

22,500 27,989.17 1844 • 1848 38,789 37 4,890.03 22,500 11,399.34

Education. — There are four free schools in the city, and one on the Neck, which are conducted by five teachers; three male teachers at a salary of $ 1,200 per annum each, and two female, at $ 750 each. From this salary the teachers are obliged to furnish a school-room, and often books. In 1848, the whole number of scholars in these schools was 394, and the money expended on the schools $ 3,900. There is, besides, a High School, averaging from 130 to 150 pupils; in which the tuition is $ 10 per quarter. Charleston College is also under the direction of the City Council.

* The difference, if any, between this column and the sum of the other two columns, shows the number of those the place of whose birth was unknown.

522

Births, Marriages, and Deaths. No record has been kept by the city or State of the births and marriages. By inquiries, it was found that in 1848 there were among the whites 465 births, - males 229, females 236; among the slaves, 484, – males 258, females 226; among the free colored, 56, - males 31, females 25. The deaths during the same year were, of whites, 303 ; of colored persons, 311. 142 marriages were ascertained to have taken place during the year. Fuller records are kept of the deaths, as shown in the following table. Whites.

Blacks.
Years. Number of Average Per Cent. Number of Average Per Cent.

Deaths.

per annum. of Popul’n. Deaths. per annum. lof Popula'n. 1822 to 1830 3,447 383 3.7 4,076 453 2.9 1831 · 1840 3,366 336 2.6 4,297 429 2.4 1844 " 1848 1,866 235

1.8 2,847 356 2.1 Extended tables are given, showing the ages at death, the mortality in the different months of the year, for whites and blacks, and full abstracts of the causes of death, and accounts of the prevalence of epidemics and contagious diseases, for which we have not space. The climate is variable, there having been a variation of 83° between the heat and cold of different days of the same year, and of 46° in the different hours of the same day.

Provident Institution for Savings, incorporated December, 1843.
Acc'ts Amounts

Average Am'ls paid depositors. Amounts remain-
Years.

to each
opn’d. Deposited. depositor. Capital. *

Dividends ing on deposit in Annual Ex-
per ct. Jan. of each

year. 1844 429 $ 33,064 $ 76 34 $4,075 $ 364 $ 28,989 $237.17 1845 339 58,943 117.28 10,757 1,807 48,185 333.46 1846' 321

61,289 119.08 39,031 3,723 22,257 547.42 1847 360

76,487 130.46 40,238 4,973 36,248 571.76 1848 326 81,833 135.26 57,370 6,320 24,463 756.65 Total, 1,775 311,616 (151,471 | 17,187 160,142 2,446.46

There is no valuation of the personal or real estate in the city. The debt of the city is stated at $ 935,671.47. The assets of the sinking fund are $ 547,438.93, which gives $ 388,232.54 as the real indebtedness of the city.

In addition to what we have given above, the volume contains full statistics of the production and prices of the staples, cotton and rice; of trade and commerce ; of prices and rates of exchange; of banks; of the slave-trade ; of the South Carolina Railroad ; and of the several manufacturing establishments in the city.

at 5

penses.

XV. A STATISTICAL VIEW OF THE PRINCIPAL PUBLIC

LIBRARIES IN EUROPE AND AMERICA, IN 1848. FROM"A Statistical View of the Principal Public Libraries of Europe and

* Paid out, when accounts are closed, and deposits are withdrawn.

For first half-year after the Institution was in operation. : A Statistical View of the Principal Public Libraries of Europe and America. By Ed

America,” published in London in 1849, by Edward Edwards, Esq., of the British Museum, we gather the following information and statistical tables. Approximate Tabular Viero of the Libraries containing 10,000 Volumes or

upwards, accessible to the Public, in the several States of Europe ; also, the whole Number of Libraries in said States, and the Number of Volumes and of Manuscripts contained therein in 1848.

[graphic]

Anhalt,

1 11,479 20,000

170 2 25,700 Austrian States,

49 1,443,187 2,408,000 167 49 2,408,000 41,103 Baden,

5 72,960 404,300 540 5 404,300 3,170 Bavaria,

18. 373,337 1,268,500 339 18 1,268,500 30,156 Belgium,

14
538,564 509,100 95 14

509,100 20,728 Bremen,

2 42,000

36,000 86 2 36,000 Brunswick,

8,500 200,0002,353 6 223,000 4,580 Cracow, 2 37,000 52,000 141

2 52,000 2,210 Denmark,

5 156,692 647,000 412 5 647,000 3,200 France, 109 3,183,120 4,092,695 129 186

4,510,295 119,119 Frankfort-on-the-Maine,

1 66,244 62,000 94 1 62,000 550 Great Britain and Ireland,* 34 3,344,916 1,771,493 53 34 1,771,493 62,149 Hamburg, *

6 128,000 200,367 148 6 200,367 5,000 Hanover,

5 61,700 492,000

813 5 492,000 5,743 Hesse,

4 88,700 265,000 299 5 273,200 400 Hesse-Darmstadt,

2 30,300 280,000 924 3 282,600 5,268 Hildburghausen,

1 10,200 12,000 118 1 12,000 Holland,

5 349,010

219,000 63 7 228,310 12,000 Lippe-Detmold,

1 • 2,500 21,500

860 1

21,500 100 Lubec, 2 26,000 52,000

2

52,000 400 Lucca,

1 24,092 25,000 104 1 25,000 Luxemburg,

1 12,000 19,600 163 1 19,600 162 Mecklenburg,

2 26,634 84,000 315 3 85,400 Mecklenburg-Strelitz,

4,500

50,000 1,111 1 50,000 Modena,

1

27,000 90,000 333 1 90,000 3,000 Naples and Sicily,

8 550,453 413,000 66 8 413,000 3,000 Nassau, budu

1 15,000 50,000 333 1 50,000 Oldenburg,

1
5,564

60,000 1,078 1 60,000 Papal States,

15 358,600 953,000 266 16 957,000 33,495 Parma, 3 71,500 146,000 204 3

146,000 Portugal,

7 363,000 276,000 76 7 276,000 7,587 Prussian States,

44 989,613 2,008,350 200 53 2,040,450 15,417 Reuss,

1 5,000 Rudolstadt,

1 4,000 46,000 1,150 1 46,000 Russian Empire, 12 1,063,823 852,090 80 12

852,090 21,604 Sardinia and Piedmont, 9 302,497 286,000 94 11

297,000 4,500 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 3 35,579 247,000 618 5

247,000 5,000 Saxe-Meiningen,

1 6,000 32,000 533 1 32,000 Saxe-Weimar,

2 17,029 180,000 1,057 2 180,000 2,000 Saxony,*

9 132,927 570,500 417 9 570,500 7,950 Spain,

650,359 687,550 106 27 711,050 8,262 Sweden and Norway,

8 120,528 353,000 309 8 353,000 9,300 Switzerland,

13
137,083

480,300 350 13 480,300 12,734 Tuscany,

10 153,466 401,000 261 10 401,000 30,000 Waldeck Pyrmont,

1
1,500 30,000 2,000

30,000 Wurtemberg,

67,999 427,000 628 6

433,000 5,200 ward Edwards, Esq., of the British Museum. Third Edition, corrected, with Additional Tables, and Illustrated Plans. London. 1849. Folio, pp. 70. * In these states the enumeration embraces libraries of less extent than 10,000 volumes. For the total population of the several states, see“ European States," near end of volume.

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