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Concluding observations

ST. MATTHEW.

on the Gospel of Matthew.

world :-to prove that God's great design is to make his crea- which I had long devoutly wished, but which I had scarcely tures HAPPY; and that such a salvation as it becomes God to hoped ever to see realized. give, and such as man needs to receive is within the grasp of May the divine Author of this sacred book, give the Reader every human soul.General Preface, before Genesis, p. xix. a heart-felt experience of all the truths it contains, make and And having thus far done what I could, in reference to these keep him wise unto salvation, build him up in this most holy great and important purposes, here I register my thanks to faith, and give him an inheritance among the blessed, through the ever-blessed God, Father, Word, and Holy Spirit, that he Christ Jesus, the Friend of mankind, and the Saviour of sinhas permitted me to cast my mite into this sacred treasury, ners; who is the Object and End of this glorious system of to add my feeble testimony to His Eternal Truth; and has truth. And to Him, with the Father and Eternal Spirit

, be spared me, in the midst of many infirmities and oppressive glory and dominion, thanksgiving, and obedience for ever and labours, to see the conclusion of this gospel, a consummation Il ever. Amen and amen!

For an account of the Versions mentioned in the preceding Notes, for the present, the Reader is entreated to refer to the General Preface before the book of Genesis, p. xxx. But a more particular account of these, as well as of the different MSS. noted by the letters A. B. C. D. &c. will be given in a General Preface to the four Gospels, which it is hoped will be ready, hy the time the four gospels shall have passed through the press. Till then, the Writer begs the Reader's indulgence.

For an explanation of the Chronological Notes, the Reader is referred to the Advertisement at the end of the Preface. This will explain the reason, why the crucifixion of our Lord appears, by the side-notes at the head of the page, to have taken place in the twenty-ninth year of his age; because the vulgar or common reckoning is four years short : these four years being added, will bring our Lord's death to the true time, viz. thirty-three years from his birth. This note the Reader will have the goodness to 'bear in mind.

As a few other Eras are introduced at the head of the commentary on Mark, it may be necessary to mention them here. 1. The Cæsarean Era of Antioch: was a monument which the city of Antioch erected to the honour of Julius Cæsar, in commemoration of his victory at Pharsalia. This was obtained forty-eight years before the commencement of the Christian Era. 2. The SPANISH Era. This was kept in commemoration of the entire subduction of Spain by Augustus Cæsar, which took place in the year of Rome 715: or thirty-nine years before the vulgar Era of Christ.-3. The Julian Era, or as it is sometimes called the Era of Julius CÆSAR; this had for its foundation the reformation of the Roman calendar by Julius Cæsar; and the change was made forty-five years before the birth of Christ.

Several sheets of this work being printed off while business called the Author out of the kingdom, some errors have passed uncorrected: these shall be examined and noted; in the mean time the Reader is requested to correct the following:

Advertisement, at p. vi. of the Preface, I. 13, for shewed read shews. In the note on Matt. vi. ver. 7. col. 2. I. 6, for Tippo read Tipoo, and dele, taken out of his pocket when found among the slain at the storming of Seringapatam. All, that on re-eramination, I find certain in this relation is, that Tipoo Sultan was slain at the storming of Seringapatam; and that the book of Devotion in question, was once his property, and contains in several places, his own hand-writing.

Chap. xii. note, ver. 1. in the Saxon, for fos read for, for æcras read æceras, and for sodlice read soðlice.

It is intended to print the four gospels, and Acts of the Apostles, before any more of the Old Testament is put to press, for the reasons assigned in the Preface to the book of Joshua, p. iii. and iv., which the Reader is requested to consult.

LONDON, Oct. 22, 1812.

PREFACE TO THE

THE GOSPEL

ACCORDING TO

St. M M AR K.

WITH A SHORT ACCOUNT OF HIS LITE.

FOR an explication of the word Gospel, and the title Saint, see the Preface to Matt. p. ii—v.

Mark. This person, the second in the commonly received order of the four Evangelists, was named John Mark, and was the son of a pious woman called Mary, who dwelt at Jerusalem : she was an early believer, and the disciples used to meet at her house. Peter, having been delivered out of prison by an angel, came to the house of Mary, mother of John whose surname was Mark, where many were gathered together praying, Acts xii. 12. This very first mention of John Mark, assures us of Peter's intimacy in that family: it is almost universally allowed, that Mark, mentioned by Peter, 1 Epist. chap. v. 13. is this Evangelist, and that he is the same with him who is called sister's son to Barnabas, Col. iv. 10. and is supposed to have been converted by Peter to the Christian faith. He travelled from Jerusalem to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas, Acts xii. 25. and some short time after, he accompanied them to other countries as their minister, Acts xiii. 5. When they returned to the Continent, and came on shore at Perga in Pamphylia, he departed from them and returned to Jerusalem, ver. 13. Afterwards he would have gone with Paul and Barnabas, but the former refused to take him, because of his having left tl:em at Pamphylia; Paul and Barnabas then separated, and Mark accompanied his uncle Barnabas to Cyprus, Acts xv. 36.

Afterwards Paul and he were fully reconciled, as evidently appears from 2 Tim. iv. 11. Take Mark and bring him with thee ; for he is profitable to me for the ministry. This appears also from Philemon, ver. 24. where Mark is stiled Paul's fellow-labourer; and from Col. iv. 10. where we find the Apostle recommending him in a particular manner to the church of God at that place. He is generally supposed to have been particularly intimate with St. Peter, to have written his Gospel at Rome, A. D. 64. and to have died at Alexandria in Egypt, in the eighth year of the reign of Nero. Dr. Landner has fully proved that Mark the Evangelist, and John Mark nephew to Barnabas, were one and the same person. See his Works, vol. vi. p. 77, &c.

How Mark composed his Gospel, is a question not yet decided among learned mei. Many of . the primitive fathers, such as Papias, Clemens Alexandrinus, Irenæus, Tertullim, Origen, Eusebius, &c. believed that he was only the amanuensis of St. Peter ; that this Apostle, through mo.

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PREFACE TO ST. MARK.

desty, would not put his name to the work, but dictated the whole account, and Mark wrote it down from luis mouth. St. Augustinc appears to have been the first who maintained that Mark abridged St. Matthew's Gospel; and that it is not to be considered as an original work on this opinion, several reinarks will be made in the course of these notes. Others suppose that Mark compiled it, partly out of Matthew's Gospel, and partly out of the Gospel of Luke. But most of these are conjectures which appear to have very little foundation. Critics are also divided, concerning the language in which it was written, and the people to whom it was sent. Some have contended for a Latin original, because of several Latin words found in it, such as oneyul.atwe, chap. vi. 27. 2.VTugay, xv. 39, 44, 45. ouronov, xiv. 44. But such words are better accounted for, by supposing that his Gospel was written for the use of the Roman people: and that it is on this account, that he wholly passes by the genealogy of our Lord, as being a point of no consequence to Gentile converts, though very necessary for the Jews, and especially the Jews of Palestine. That it was originally written in Greek, is a point now acknowledged by almost all learned

men.

It may

be necessary to state the things omilted by Mark in the beginning of his Gospel, which are mentioned by Matthew and Luke.

1. The Preface, found in Luke and John, chap. i.
2. The CONCEPTION of Elizabeth, Luke i. 5—25.
3. The SALUTATION of Mary, Luke i. 26–38.
4. Mary's Visit to Elizabeth, Luke i. 39-56.
5. John Baptist's Birti, Luke i. 57–79.
6. The Angels APPEARANCE to Joseph, Matt. i. 18.–25.
7. The Birth of Christ, Matt. i. 25. Luke ii. 147.
8. The GENEALOGY of Christ, Matt. i. 1-17. Luke iii, 1–76.
9. The appearance of the Angel to the SHEPHERDS, Luke ii. 8—20.
10. The CIRCUMCISION of Christ, Matt. i. 25. Luke ii. 21.
11. The PresENTATION of Christ in the temple, Luke ii. 22-38.
12. The coming of the Magi, Matt. ii. 1-12.
13. The Flight into Egypt, Matt. ïi. 13–15.
14. Herods MURDER of the INNOCENTS, Matt. ii. 16–18.
15. The RETURN of the holy family from Egypt, Matt. ii. 19—23. Luke ii. 39.
16. Christ's JOURNEY to Jerusalem when twelve years of age, Luke ii. 40–48.

From the particulars enumerated here, it appears, that the things omitted by Mark, are also omitted by John, except the Preface; and that St. Luke is the most circumstantial.

For other particulars relative to this Gospel, sce at the end of the last chapter.

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Ussherian year of the World, 4030.--Alexandrian year of the World, 5528.--Antiochian year of the World, 5518.--Con

stantinopolitan Æra of the World, 5534.--Rabbinical year of the World, 3786.— Year of the Julian Period, 4740.--Æra of the Seleucidæ, 338.— Year of the Christian Æra, 26.-Year of the CCI. Olympiad, 2.--Year of the building of Rome, 769.-Year of the Julian Æra, 71.-Year of the Cæsarean Æra of Antioch, 74.-Year of the Spanish Ara, 64.Year of the Paschal Cycle or Dionysian Period, 27.-Year of the Christian Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number, 8.--Year of the Rabbinical Lunar Cycle, 5.—Year of the Solar Cycle, 7.-Dominical Letter, F.—Epact, 17.—Year of the Emperor Tiberius, 14.-Consuls, C. Calvisius Sabinus, and Cn. Corn. Lentulus Getulicus, from January 1 to July 1; and Q Marcius Barca and T. Rustius Nurmus Gallus, for the remainder of the year. The reason why two sets of Consuls appear in this Chronology is this: the Consuls were changed every year in July, therefore taking in the whole year, four Consuls necessarily appear: two for the first six months, and two for the latter half of the year.

CHAPTER I.

The mission, preaching, and success of John Baptist, 1--5. Ilis manner of life, 6. Proclaims Christ, and bap

tizes him in Jordan, 7-11. The temptation of Christ, 12, 13. John being put in prison, Christ begins to preach, 14, 15. He calls Andrew and Simon, 16–18. James and John, 19, 20. Teaches in Capernaum, 91, 29. Casts out a damon, 23–28. Goes into the house of Simon, and heals his mother-in-lare, 99-3). Heals many diseased persons, 32—34. Goes to the desurt, and is followed by his disciples, 35–37. Preache« in different towns and synagogues of Galilee, and casts out devils, 38, 39. Cleanses a leper, who publishes abroad his miraculous cure, 40–45.

THE beginning of the gospel of "Behold, I send my messenger before 4.1,4980. An. Olymp.

Jesus Christ, a the Son of God; thy face, which shall prepare thy way An. Olymp. 2 As it is written in the prophets, before thee.

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* Matt. 14. 33. Luke 1. 55. John 1. 34.

• Mal. 3. 1. Matt. 11. 10. Luke 7. 27.

NOTES ON CHAP. I.

character of the Messiah. See Matt. xvi. 16. xxvi. 63. Luke Verse 1. The beginning of the gospel] It is with the utmost xxii. 67, &c. propriety, that Mark begins the gospel dispensation by the Verse 2. As it is written in the prophets] Rather, As it is preaching of John the Baptist, he being the forerunner of written by Isaiah the prophet. I think this reading should be Jesus Christ, and the first proclaimer of the incarnated Mes- adopted, instead of that in the common text. It is the readsiah. Gospel--for the meaning of the word, see the preface ing of the Coder Bezæ, Vatican, and several other MSS, of to Matthew.

great repute. It is found also in the Syriac, Persic, Coptic, Son of God) To point out his divine origin; and thus Armenian, Gothic, Vulgate, and Itala versions, and in several glancing at his miraculous conception. This was an essential ll of the Fathers. As this prophecy is found both in Isaiah and

Jolin the Baptist's preaching.

Sr. MARK.

The temptation of Christ.

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3 . The voice of one crying in the 8 " I indeed have baptized you with A.M.0080

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Lord, make his paths straight. the Holy Ghost. 4 • John did baptize in the wilderness, and 9 f * And it came to pass in those days, that preach the baptism of repentance for the re-Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was mission of sins.

baptized of John in Jordan. 5 . And there went out unto him all the land 10 ' And straightway coming up out of the of Judea, and they of Jerusalem, and were all water, he saw the heavens opened, and the baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confess- Spirit like a dove descending upon him : ing their sins.

11 And there came a voice from heaven, say6 And John was 'clothed with camel's hair, ing, “Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am and with a girdle of a skin about his loins ; and well pleased. he did eat 'locusts and wild honey ;

12 [°And immediately the Spirit driveth him 7 And preached, saying, " There cometh one into the wilderness. mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose 13 And he was there in the wilderness forty shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and un- days, tempted of Satan ; and was with the wild loose.

beasts ; Pand the angels ministered unto him.

& Isæi, 40. %. Mait. 3. 3. Lule 3. 4. Jolin 1. 15, 23.- • Matt. 3. 1. Liike S. 3. John 3. 23. - Or, unto. Matl. S. 5.- - Matt. 3. 4.* Lev. 11, 22.-Mait. S. 11. John 1. 27. Acts 13. 25.

h Acts 1.5. & 11. 16. & 19.4.- Isai. 44, S. Joel 9. 8. Acts 9. 4. & 10. 45. & 11. 1), 16. 1 Cor. 12. 13:k Matt. 3. 13. Luhe 3. 94.-I Matt. 3. 16. John 1. 32.- Or, clouen, or, rent.---- Ps. 2.7. Matt. 3. 17. ch. 9. 7.-__ Matt. 4. 1. Luhe 4.1.-P Matt. 4. 11.

Malachi, probably the reading was changed to tous contais, ses. This was necessary for a proselyte adulta child dedithe prophets, that it might comprehend both. In one of As- | cated to God by baptism, must be brought up in this faith. SEMAN'S Syriac copies, both Isaiah and Malachi are men- Verse 6. John was clothed, &c.] See the note on Matt. tioned. See all the authorities in Griesbach, 2d edit. and see ii. 4. the parallel place in Matthew, chap. iii. 3. where the prophet Verse 7. The latchet of whose shoes] 'The shoe of the anIsaiah is mentioned, which seems fully to establish the autho- cients, was properly only a sole tied round the foot and ancle rity of this reading.

with strings or thongs. See on Matt. i. 11. Verse 3. The voice of one crying] See on Matt. ij. 1—3.. Verse 8. I indeed have baptized you with water] As if he

Verse 4. John] The original name is nearly lost in the had said : This baptism is not to be rested in; it is only an Greek Iwzwins, and in the Latin Johannes, and almost totally emblem of that which you must receive from him who is so in the English John. The original name is 3301.7. Yehocha- | mightier than I. It is he only who can communicate the nan, compounded. Of jan in Yehovah chanun, the grace or Holy Spirit; and water baptism is nothing, but as it points mercy of Jehovah : a most proper and significant name for the out, and leads to, the baptism of the Holy Ghost. The subforerunner of the God of ALL GRACE. It was John's business | ject of these two verses, is not found in Matthew nor John ; to proclaim the gospel of the grace of God, and to point out but is mentioned with some varying circumstances by Luke, that Lamb or sacrifice of God, which takes away the sin of the || chap. iii. 16. world.

Verses 9–11. See the subject of these verses, which conFor the remission of sins.] Or, toward the remission-stain the account of our Lord's baptism, explained Matt. iii. a001. They were to repent, and be baptized in reference to 13–17. the remission of sins. REPENTANCE prepared the soul for it, Verse 12. The Spirit driveth him] Ex Barde, putteth him and BAPTISM was the type or pledge of it. See on Matt. iii. 2. | forth. St. Matthew says, chap. iv. 1. amxIn, was brought up. Verse 5. All the land] See on Matt. iii. 4–6.

See this important subject of our Lord's temptation, explained Confessing their sins.] It was an invariable custom among at large, Matt. iv. 1-11. the Jews, to admit no proselyte to baptism, till he had, in the Verse 13. With the wild beasts] This is a curious circummost solemn manner, declared that he for ever had renounced stance, which is mentioned by none of the other Evangelists ; all idolatrous worship, all heathenish superstitions; and pro- and seems to intimate, that he was in the most remote, unmised an entire and unreserved submission to the law of Mo-frequented, and savage part of the desart; which, together

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