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AMERICAN EDITION

OF THE

BRITISH ENCYCLOPEDIA,

OR

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS AND SCIENCES.

COMPRISING

AN ACCURATE AND POPULAR VIEW

OF THE PRESENT

IMPROVED STATE OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE.

BY WILLIAM NICHOLSON,
Author and Proprietor of the Philosophical Journal, and various other Chemical, Philosophical, and

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Mathematical Works.

ILLUSTRATED WITH

UPWARDS OF 180 ELEGANT ENGRAVINGS.

VOL. II.

PHILADELPHIA :

PUBLISHED BY MITCHELL, AMES, AND WHITE.

ALSO,
BY INGRAM AND LLOYD, NASHVILLE.
W. Brown, Printer, Prune Street.

1819.

C Afana S. Rofice

Cambridge

THE

BRITISH ENCYCLOPEDIA.

AREOPAGUS.

A

ور

REOPAGUS, in antiquity, a sovereign by the court to which they belonged; tice and impartiality of its decrees; to escape censure. A senator, it is said, was which the gods themselves are said to punished for having stifled a little bird, have submitted their quarrels. This tri- which from fear had taken refuge in bis bunal was in great reputation among the bosom ; he was thus taught, that he, who Greeks, so that it was denominated “the has a heart shut against pity, should not most sacred and venerable tribunal,” and be allowed to have the lives of the citi. Socactes says that it was deemed so sa- zens at his mercy. The members of this cred, that if those who had been vicious august assembly were not allowed to were elected into it, they immediately wear crowns, or to obtain any marks of gave up their former practices, and con- honour conferred by the people, as a reformed to the rules of the senate, because compence for their services; nor were they could not resist the authority of ex. they allowed to solicit any; but they were ample, but were constrained to appear rewarded by a bounty from the public, virtuous. The Romans themselves bad and they had also three oboli for every so high an opinion of it, that they trusted cause in which judgment was given. many of their difficult causes to its de. The areopagites were judges for life. cision. Demosthenes says, that in his They never sat in judgment but in the time neither plaintiff nor defendant had open air, and that in the night time; to any just reason to be dissatisfied with the intent that their minds might be more their proceedings. Innocence, summon- present and attentive ; and that nu object, ed to appear before it, approached with either of pity or aversion, might make out apprehension; and the guilty, con- any impression upon them. However, victed and condemned, retired without some maintain, that the building in which daring to murmur. Authors are not the areopagites assembled was not wholly agreed about the number of the judges uncovered; and they observe that, among who composed this august court. Some the ruins large stones have been found, reckon thirty-one, others fifty.one, and whose joints are in the same angle with others five hundred : in reality, their num- the pediment that must have been used ber seems not to have been fixed, but to for a covering: Mr. Spon, who examin: have been more or less in different years, ed the antiquities of that illustrious city, By an inscription quoted by Volaterranus, found some remains of the areopagus still it appears they were then three hun. existing in the middle of the temple of dred. At first this tribunal only consist- Theseus, which was heretofore in the ed of nine persons, who had all discharg- middle of the city, but is now without ed the office of archons, had acquitted the walls. The foundation of the areothemselves with honour in that trust, and pagus is a semicircle, with an esplanade had likewise given an account of their of 140 paces round it, which properly administration before the logistæ, and un- made the hall of the areopagus. There dergone a very rigorous examination. is a tribunal cut in the middle of a rock, Those who were admitted members of with seats on each side of it, where the this assembly were strictly watched, and areopagites sat, exposed to the open air. their conduct was scrutinized and judged At first they only took cognizance of criVOL. II.

A

minal causes; but in course of time their tremendous ceremonies. The two par. jurisdiction became of greater extent. ties, placed amidst the bleeding members This court is recorded as the first that of the victims, took an oath, which they sat upon life and death ; and the trial of confirmed by dreadful imprecations a. wilful murder seems to have been the gainst themselves and families. They original design of its institution. In later called to witness the Eumenides, who, ages, all incendiaries, assassins, conspira. from a neighbouring temple, dedicated to tors, deserters of their country, treasons, their worship, seemed to listen to the inand most capital causes in general, fell rocation, and prepared to punish the perunder its cognizance. The opinion which jured. They then proceeded to the trial, the state entertained of the wisdom, gra. requiring all pleadings to be conducted vity, and sanctity of its members, gained in the simplest terms, without exordium, for them an unlimitted power; insomuch epilogue, or appeal to the passions. Afthat, according to Solon's regulation of ter the question had been sufficiently disthis assembly, the inspection and custody cussed, the judges silently deposited their of the laws, the management of the pub- suffrages in two urns, one of brass, called lic funds, the guardianship of young men, the urn of death; and the other of wood, and the education of youth, according to called the urn of mercy. This mode of their rank, were committed to them. giving votes was afterwards abandoned, Their power extended to persons of all and they were delivered in public, by ages and sexes, to punish the idle and casting their calculi or Aints upon two profligate, and to reward the sober and tables, one for those that were acquitted, virtuous, according to their own pleasure. and the other for those condemned : For this purpose, they were empowered, when the numbers were equal, an inferior by entering and examining private houses, officer added, in favour of the accused, to condemn every useless person as dan- the suffrage of Minerva, so called, begerous; and every expense not propor- cause, according to an ancient tradition, tioned to the means of the citizen as cri. this goddess, being present in the court minal. Besides, they took cognizance of of areopagus at the trial of Orestes, gave religious matters, blasphemy, contempt her casting vote to turn the scale of jusof holy mysteries, the erection and con- tice. In some causes the sentence of this secration of temples and altars, and the court was not final; but an appeal might introduction of new ceremonies: never- be made to the courts to which they restheless, they interfered in public affairs pectively belonged. only in cases of emergency or danger. ARETHUSA, in botany, a genus of the As this assembly exhibited the greatest Gynandria Decandria class of plants, hav. firmness in punishing crimes, and the ing no other calyx than a foliacious spanicest circumspection in reforming man. tha; the corolla is ringent, and consists ners; as it never employed chastisement of five oblong sub.equal petals; the nectill advice and menaces were slighted; it tarium consists of a single leaf, divided acquired the esteem and confidence of into two segments ; the fruit is an oblong the people, even whilst it exercised the oval capsule, consisting of three valves, most absolute power. Its meetings were and containing one cell, in which are seheld three times in every month, viz. on veral seeds. There are seven species. the 27th, 28th, and 29th days, but on any ARETIA, in botany, a genus of the urgent business, tbe senators assembled Pentandria Monogynia class of plants, the in the royal portico. The court was di- calyx of which is a perianthium, consistvided into several committees, each of ing of a single campanulated, semiquin. which took cognizance of separate causes, quefid, and permanent leaf, without any if the multiplicity of business would not involucrum; the corolla consists of a sin. allow time for them to be brought before gle petal ; the tube is oval, and of the the whole senate : and this was done by length of the cup; the limb is divided inlots, that the causes might not be pre- to four segments; and the fruit is a capjudged. In crimes that concerned reli- sule, in which are contained many seeds. gion or the state, the power of this court There are four species. was limited to preparing the matter for a ARGEMONE, in botany, a genus of trial; and it then made its report to the the Polyandria Monogynia class of plants, people, without coming to any conclusion. the calyx of which is a roundish spatha, The accused then had it in his power to composed of three hollow, pointed, deci. offer new pleas in his defence; and the duous leaves; the corolla consists of three people named orators, to conduct the pro- roundish, erecto-patent petals, largerthan secution before one of the superior courts. the cup; the fruit is an oval pentangular Trials in the areopaguo were preceded by capsule, containing one cell, and seemning as if formed of five valves; the seeds are three.celled, many seeded : found in New numerous and very small; the recepta- Caledonia. cles are linear, and grow to the angles of ARGUMENT, in rhetoric and logic, an the pericarpium : they do not burst. There inference drawn from premises, the truth are three species.

of which is indisputable, or at least highly ARGENT, in heraldry, the white co probable. lour in the coats of gentlemen, knights, The arguments of orators receive par. and baronets: the white in the arms of ticular denominations, according to the sovereign princes is called luna, and that topics from wbence they are derived: in the arms of the nobility pearl; this is thus, we meet with arguments from afexpressed in engraving by the parts being fection, which interest the passions of the left plain without any strokes from the person to whom they are addressed ; also graver.

with the arguments a tuto, ad ignaviam, ARGENTINA, in natural history, a ge. ab invidia, &c. nus of fishes of the order Abdominales ; In reasoning, Mr. Locke observes, that teeth in the jaws and tongue ; gill mem- men ordinarily use four sorts of argubrane with eight rays : vent near the ments. The first is, to allege the opinions tail; ventral fins many rayed. There are of men, whose parts and learning, emifour species. A sphyræna, or European nency, power, or some other cause, has atherine, inhabits the Mediterranean, and gained a name, and settle their reputasometimes wanders to the British coast, tion in the common esteem, with some it is from two to four inches long; body kind of authority; this may be called arguround and tapering; back and sides, as mentum ad verecundiam. Secondly, another far as the lateral line, pale ash mixed way is, to require the adversaries to admit with green, below the line and belly fine what they allege as a proof, or to assign silvery; the air-bladder is conic on both a better; this be calls argumentum ad sides, appearing as if covered with silver ignorantiam. A third way is, to press a leaf, and is used in the manufacture of ar- man with consequences, drawn from his tificial pearls. A. glossodonta, is a very own principles or concessions; this is elegant species, found in the Red Sea : as known by the name of argumentum ad hois also A. machnata ; but the other species, minem. Fourthly, the using proofs drawn A. carolina, which is the size of a small from any of the foundations of knowledge herring, is found in the fresh waters of or probability ; this he calls argumentum Carolina.

ad judicium ; and observes, that it is the ARGENTUM, virum. See MERCURY. only one of all the four that brings true ARGIL. See ALUMINA.

instruction with it, and advances us in our ARGONAUTA, in natural history, a way to knowledge. For, l. It argues not genus of worms, of the order Testacea. another man's opinion to be right, beAnimal a sepia or clio ; shell univalve, cause I, out of respect, or any other conspiral, involute membranaceous, one cell. sideration, but that of conviction, will not ed. There are five species. A. argo has contradict him. 2. It proves not another the keel or ridge of the shell slightly man to be in the right way, nor that I toothed on each side; it inhabits the Me- ought to take the same with him because diterranean and Indian oceans, and is the I know not a better. 3. Nor does it fol. famous nautilus, supposed, in the early low that another man is in the right way, ages of society, to have first taught men because he has shewn me that I am in the use of sails. When it means to sail the wrong; this may dispose me, perit discharges a quantity of water, by which haps, for the reception of truth, but helps it is made lighter than the sea, and rising me not to it; that must come from proofs to the surface, erects its arms, and throws and arguments, and light arising from the out a membrane between them, by which nature of things themselves, not from my means it is driven forwards like a vessel shamefacedness, ignorance, or error. See under sail; two of the arms it hangs over the articles Reason and REASONING. the shell, to serve as oars or a rudder. ARGUMENT, in astronomy, denotes a The shell is white or yellowish, with known arch, by means of which we seek smooth or knotty striæ or ribs, which are another one unknown. sometimes forked; the keel is generally The argument of the moon's latitude is brownish.

hier distance from the node ; and the arARGOPHYLLUM, in botany, a genus gument of inclination is an arch of a plaof the Pentandria Monogynia class and net’s orbit, intercepted between the as. order. Calyx five cleft, superior ; corol. cending node and the place of the planet five-petalled; nectary pyramidal, five- from the sun, numbered according to the angled, as long as the coro); capsule succession of the signs.

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