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394 Reginald de Breos, Lord of Brecon.-Bp. Meurick. [May, and as it may be interesting to some of nock, and Dugdale says one of his your readers, I send it to you, accom- charters to the monks belonging to it, panied with some remarks.

was granted after his return from the Rue Ste. Croix de la Bretonniere.

Holy Land. What was his motive for “Sous la regne de St. Louis il n'y avoit going there, whether the false piety of encore dans ce quartier que quelques mai- the age, or to deceive the English Gosuns eparsées et eloignées les unes des autres. vernment, while his real object was Renaud de Brechan, Vicomte de Padouse to engage the French King in his beet de L'isle, occupoit l'une de ces maisons. half, there are now no means of asIl avoit epousé en 1285 la fille de Leolyn certaining; but we arrive at the cuprince de Galles, et étoit venu à Paris pour rious fact, that the alliance of Owain quelque negociation contre l'Angleterre. Glyndyvr with France was not the La nuit du vendredi au samedi saint 1288, first instance in which the assistance cinq Anglois frères entrèrent dans son ver

of that country was solicited by a ger, le defièrent et l'insultèrent; il se de

Prince of Wales. fendit avec courage, trois des Anglois fu

In order to render St. Foix's inforrent tués; les deux autres se sauverent. Son

mation of value, the dates inust evichaplain et son domestique le secondèrent beaucoup ; le chaplain mourut le lendemain dently be altered. The first of them de ses blessures. Brechan avant de partir should in all probability be 1215, inde Paris acheta cette maison et le verger, stead of 1285, as Gwladys was the et les donna à son domestique appellé Ga- second wife of Reginald, and after his leran. Le nom de champs aux Bretons,' death married Ralph Mortimer, Lord qu'on donna au verger ou jardin à l'occasion of Maelienydd in Radnorshire, sur-' de ce combat devint le nom de toute la rue. viving her first husband many years, On l'appelloit encore à la fin du treizième and at that date he was deprived of siecle : la rue des champs aux Bretons'."

his possessions in England for espousSt. Foix Essait sur Paris, L. 127.

ing the cause of Llewelyn ap JorRenaud de Brechan was Reginald werth. The second, as before observde Breos, Lord of Brecknock or Bre- ed, could not be later than 1228. Who con, and he married Gwladys, daugh- Waleran was, I am unable to say, ter of Llewelyn ap Jorwerth Prince of though his name indicates him of Wales, but at least seventy years ante- Norman parentage; nor who were the rior to the above-mentioned date. Not- English by whom Reginald was so withstanding this alliance, he was se- basely attacked; but their conduct pourduced by the offer made him from the trays in a lively manner the feelings English Government, which in the of the time.

S. R. M. year 1215_had deprived him of his P.S. Since my last letter, p. 113, I estates in England, to restore them on have ascertained that the Oxford Althe condition of his relinquishing the manack for 1749 contains a wholeinterests of his father-in-law. King length portrait of Dr. Rowland MeuJohn had been succeeded on the rick, Bishop of Bangor in the reign of throne by Henry III.; and in 1217 Elizabeth, but I have not yet discoverReginald on these terms was received ed on what authority. into favour. Llewelyn could not but regard such conduct as treachery on

DerivATION OF MALE CHRISTIAN the part of his son-in-law, and, deter

Names. mining to punish it with the utmost promptitude, at once laid siege to the

(Concluded from p. 200.) conduct, and urged by his friends

to ais JOHN, signifying in Hebrew the

grace or mercy of God, is appatempt a reconciliation, Reginald tender- rently froin the same root as Anne, and ed his submission to the Prince of Wales, is used to express joy and rejoicing: we and was generously forgiven. The re- have a manifest reference to the pe sentment of the Court of London was culiar import of this name in Luke i. immediately erineed in the confisca. 14, in regard to John the Baptist, tion of all his estates within its power; “ And thou shalt have joy and gladand hence it was that he went to Paris ness, and many shall rejoice at his and set on foot “quelque negociation birth.” Camden says, “ John was. contre l'Angleterre." He quitted France thought so unfortunate in Kings, for according to the extract above given in that John King of England well neere 1288, but it was most probably 1228, lost his kingdome, and John King of the year in which he died. He was France was long captive in England, buried in the Priory Church of Breck- and John Balioli was lifted out of his

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mon name.

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1823.)
Derivation of Male Christian Names.

395 kingdome of Scotland, that John Stew- Philip, Greek, a lover of horses, is ard, when the kingdom of Scotland a good name for a jockey; but when came unto him, renouncing that name, first used by the ancient Greeks was would be proclaimed King Robert." undoubtedly intended, as perhaps the

Jonathan, Hebrew, the gift of the greater part of the names of that heLord.

roic age, to convey the idea of the Joseph, Hebrew, addition, see its owner being a valiant warrior. origin, Gen. xxx. 24.

Ralph, from the Saxon Radulpe, helpJoshua, Hebrew, the same as Jesus, counsel. a saviour.

Richard, Saxon, rich heart. Isuac, Hebrew, laughing. The name Robert, Saxon, bright counsel. originated with the son of Abraham, Roger, German, guardian of rest. so called from the joy of his parents at Samuel, Hebrew, hearing, or heard his birth. Gelasius was a Greek name by God. of the same meaning.

Simon, Hebrew, listening, obedient. Lancelot, Spanish, a little lance; it Stephen, Greek, crowned. is supposed to have been invented for Theodore, Greek, the gift of God. the famous hero of romance, Lancelot Theophilus, Greek, a lover of God, of the Lake, whence it became a com- or beloved by him. Amadeus, and

Amadis, Latin, have the same meanLaurence, Latin, flourishing like the ing: bay, the Daphnis of the Greeks; or Thomas, Hebrew, a twin, or doucrowned with laurel.

ble, as the Apostle's Greek name, DiLuke, if Hebrew, lifting up; if La-, dymus, who might be so called also tin, splendid, or, in that case, why from his doubting our Lord's resurshould it not share the glory of lucus rection. in being a non lucendo, and tell us the Timothy, Greek, one that honours child was found in a wood !

God. Mark, if Hebrew, high. Marcus Walter, Saxon, a master of the was a Roman name, of which Dr. woods, a forester, nearly answering to Littleton gives many derivations, the the Latin Silvanus. From the same most probable are ;-either from being source come the Weald of Kent, and born in March, or from an old word Waltham in Essex (the town by the meaning male.

wood). Walter may also signify, howMarmaduke, Saxon, more mighty. ever, the ruler of an army. Matthew, Hebrew, a gift or reward. Willium, German, the defender of Michael, Hebrew, who is like God?

Verstigan in his “Decayed Bp. Horsley considers it evident from Intelligence,” 1673 (of which work the description of the archangel Mi- see a particular analysis, vol. Lxxxi. ii. chael in the tenth chapter of Daniel, pp. 18—21.) tells a long story concernthat it is a name for our Lord himself. ing this name, saying, that it was not

Nathaniel, Hebrew, the gift of God. anciently given to children, but to

Nicolas, Greek, the_conqueror of men for their merit; for, during the the people. Nicodemus, Demonicus, and wars between the ancient Germans Laodamas, were all Greek names of with the Romans, the latter wearing the same meaning.

gilt, the former unornamented helOliver, Latin, from the olive-tree, mets, when a valiant German slew an emblem of peace.

one of their invaders, assuming his Patrick, Latin, patrician, noble. guild helm, he was afterwards named

Paul, Greek, or Latin, small. The froin it; the French made it GuilApostle was of low stature, but the si- laume, we William. milarity of sound between this and his Those I have now endeavoured to Hebrew name Saul, might also con- explain are names really of frequent, tribute to his being so called, (as Silas occurrence, and my lists might have was changed to Silvanus, both having been greatly enlarged by inserting those become Roman citizens) ; Paul being less commonly used, the signification a common Roman name.

of which are equally interesting. I Peter, Greek, a stone, or rock. The have naturally noticed those most faname originated with our Saviour, when miliar to my own ear, but, at the He said to his Apostle Simon; "Thou same time, it is to be observed, that art Peter, and upon this rock will I many Christian, as well as Surnames, build my church,” Matt. xv. 18. are, it may almost be said, peculiar to

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many.

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398

The Revival of Chanting recommended. (May, Gloria Patri of its choral tones, with- Those Worthies of Walton's_page, out which they have not the character George Herbert and Nicholas Farrer, of Anthems, nor is the suitableness of so delighted in this nearest approach their insertion perceived. Cranmer to the holy and happy employment of did not consider the Psalter so conta- angels, that the one, as often as he minated by its long and ancient con- could, resorted to the Cathedral sernection with the Romish Missal, as to vice, and the other, in his private recbe unfit for future use; for he made tory, daily celebrated the same. the translation in our Prayer-book, and An objection has been urged against accommodated it to the ecclesiastical chanting, that it is a hurried and dischant. .

orderly chattering of some words, but Metrical Hymns, with other inno- this is not the fault of the chant itself, vations, were introduced from Geneva. but of the manner in which it is someHuman composition then first took times practised. Nothing is easier of place of divine, and the language of attainment, and nothing more intelliinspiration ceased to be the vehicle of gible when deliberately performed. It praise.

simply consists in holding on certain With reference to these paraphras- notes to accommodate the music to tic versions, as a late Divine of our verses of unequal length. The length Church observes, “ Men's poetry is of the service, if that were an objecpreferred to the good Word of God, tion, would not be increased by its reand Hymn-makers not only take pre- sumption, especially if other singing cedence of the Holy Ghost, but thrust were omitted. Nor is it necessary to him out of the Church."

form a scientific choir ; the children of Though banished from the Church, the charity schools might be the best chanting has found an asylum in the choristers, and under the instruction Cathedral, where its early music, re- of an organist soon acquire the few flected in lengthened echoes from an chants necessary to vary the service, high arched roof, well assorts with the and familiarize the ear of the congreantiquity of the pile, and where its gation to accompany some one division enchanting effect is best perceived. of them, and some the other. Even Milton forgets his puritanism, This is so feasible, that in the neighand wars with Rubric and Ceremonial, bourhood of the metropolis the prac, to acknowledge in his Il Penseroso the tice of chanting the hymns between transcendant beauty, and devotional the lessons (children leading the influence of Cathedral service,

voices) obtains, with the most pleas“ But let my due feet never fail

ing effect, and if these, the psalms, To walk the studious cloysters pale,

and responses of the decalogue, were And love the high embowed roof

universally sung, the tædium arising With antique pillars massy proof,

from a long service would be agreeably And storied windows richly dight,

relieved, and the service of God renCasting a dim religious light.

dered more animated and edifying. There let the pealing organ blow

Yours, &c.

MODULATOR. To the full voiced quire below, In service high and anthems clear,

Mr. URBAN, Horbury, March 16. As may with sweetness thro' mine ear Dissolve me into ecstacies,

N accidentally perusing a descripIN

tion given in one of last year's And bring all Heaven before mine eyes."

Medical Journals, of the symptoms Various passages in Bishop Horne’s and mode of treating the Black vomit, "Commentary on the Psalms” witness a disease which appears to have raged the propriety and beauty 'of Choral lately with the most destructive maService. He observes in his preface, lignancy among our arınies in India, Delight thus prepares the way for my attention was arrested by observing instruction, and pleasure becomes the that the writer, notwithstanding the handmaid of wisdom, while every tur- proofs which till then appeared to him bulent passion is calmed by sacred me- conclusive, had relinquished his idea lody, and the evil spirit is still dispos- of its being contagious, in consequence sessed by the harp of the son of Jes- of its having spread to the Isle of se.” It is more than probable that his France,“ a distance of more than a enjoyment of this music, when Presi- thousand miles, in direct opposition to dent of Magdalen College, led to the the prevailing Monsoon.". Now the production of his unrivalled work.-- treatment of a disease is of course un

influenced

<

1828.] On different Currents in the Air and in the Océan. 399 influenced by the circumstance of its

We have, however, too many proofs being contagious or the contrary; no of the occasional existence of varied mischief therefore can arise from be- currents of air at different altitudes, to lieving a disease to be contagious which need support from the analogous mois really not so; but an error on the tion of the waters : the irregular opposite side may be productive of courses which balloons frequently purserious consequences. For, lulled into sue on their ascent, shew them to be a sense of security by the conviction of passing through different currents of its not being infectious, we are in- air ; and the light elevated clouds duced to omit those precautionary mea- which may sometimes be seen to pass sures which are usually adopted to the moon's face, in direct opposition prevent disorders from spreading, and to the wind, indicated by the weatherfall perhaps victims to a disease which cock, is another proof that the whole but for this circumstance might have height of the atmosphere is not always been averted. Whether the disease in influenced by the wind prevailing near question were contagious, or the effect the surface of the earth. Now as we of some general exciting cause, arising find that whether the tide be ebbing, from certain peculiarities of the at- or flowing, minor contrary tides are mosphere to which all were exposed, I invariably produced ; and that where shall not presume to determine; the the winds are variable the higher strata arguments which I have to advance of the atmosphere are sometimes movbeing equally applicable to both cases. ing in a direction opposite to that of My object however, in addressing these the wind near the surface of the earth, lines to you, is to endeavour to shew I think it by no means improbable, the possibility of contagion spreading that in the district of the Monsoons, in opposition to the wind, and conse- where the wind blows from the same quently the impropriety of hastily ad- point for six months together, the equimitting this circumstance alone as an librium of the atmosphere is preserved infallible proof of a disease not being by a constant upper current of air contagious. Where there is action moving towards that point of the comthere must be re-action; thus the con- pass from which the prevailing Montiguous particles of a fluid, though all soon blows. The occasional existence impelled by the same force, may be of upper contrary currents of air, is moving in opposite directions, as is however quite sufficient to shew the daily exemplified: for with whatever possibility of contagion spreading in rapidity the tide ebbs or flows in a opposition to the wind : for the lower harbour or river, we invariably find particles of air impregnated with the collateral eddies; and though subter- contagious miasmata, or general excitfluent ones cannot be so easily detect- ing cause of the disease, becoming ed, there can be little doubt of their rarefied by their proximity to the earth's occasionally existing, and indeed per- heated surface, yield to the pressure of haps constantly, where the superficial the more dense air, which descends to current is always running in one direc- restore the equilibrium, while the fortion without any visible cause ;. mer continue rising (gradually

, parting through the straits of Gibraltar into with their caloric, and becoming conthe Mediterranean. For notwithstand- densed in their ascent) till they meet ing the elaborate calculations which and combine with air of their own have been made to shew the immense specific gravity; which, moving perhaps quantity of water which may evaporate in a contrary direction, hurries them from the surface of that sca, it cannot, along in opposition to the wind below. I think, be merely to supply the defi- In process of time these particles will ciency caused by the excess of evapora- in their turn descend again to restore tion, that the Atlantic is constantly the equilibrium, which is constantly pouring its waters into the Mediterra- disturbed by the rarefaction near the nean. The level is no doubt preserved earth's surface, and being inhaled by by a proportionate discharge excited the human species, propagate the disby the re-action from the surrounding ease of which they contain the excitshores, which must necessarily become ing cause or infectious miasmata. Thus a subterfluent current, because the it is by no means impossible that the water of the Mediterranean being more Black vomit should have spread from strongly inipregnated with saline, par- India to the Isle of France; and conticles, are of a greater specific gravity sequently its appearance there, ought than those of the Atlantic.

not for a moment to have been ad.

а

as

398

The Revival of Chanting recommended. (May, Gloria Patri of its choral tones, with. Those Worthies of Walton's page, out which they have not the character George Herbert and Nicholas Farrer, of Anthems, nor is the suitableness of so delighted in this nearest approach their insertion perceived. Cranmer to the holy and happy employinent of did not consider the Psalter so conta- angels, that the one, as often as he minated by its long and ancient con- could, resorted to the Cathedral sernection with the Romish Missal, as to rice, and the other, in his private recbe unfit for future use; for he made tory, daily celebrated the same. the translation in our Prayer-book, and An objection has been urged against accommodated it to the ecclesiastical chanting, that it is a hurried and dischant.

orderly chattering of some words, but Metrical Hymns, with other inno- this is not the fault of the chant itself, vations, were introduced from Geneva. but of the manner in which it is some Human composition then first took times practised. Nothing is easier of place of divine, and the language of attainment, and nothing more intelliinspiration ceased to be the vehicle of gible when deliberately performed. It praise.

simply consists in holding on certain With reference to these paraphras- notes to accommodate the music to tic versions, as a late Divine of our verses of unequal length. The length Church observes, “Men's poetry is of the service, if that were an objecpreferred to the good Word of God, tion, would not be increased by its reand Hymn-makers not only take pre- sumption, especially if other singing cedence of the Holy Ghost, but thrust were omitted. Nor is it necessary to him out of the Church.”

form a scientific choir ; the children of Though banished from the Church, the charity schools might be the best chanting has found an asylum in the choristers, and under the instruction Cathedral, where its early music, re of an organist soon acquire the few Aected in lengthened echoes from an chants necessary to vary the service, high arched roof, well assorts with the and familiarize the ear of the congreantiquity of the pile, and where its gation to accompany some one division enchanting effect is best perceived. of them, and some the other. Even Milton forgets his puritanism,

This is so feasible, that in the neighand wars with Rubric and Ceremonial, bourhood of the metropolis the practo acknowledge in his Il Penseroso the tice of chanting the hymns between transcendant beauty, and devotional the lessons (children leading the influence of Cathedral service,

voices) obtains, with the most pleas“ But let my due feet never fail

ing effect, and if these, the psalms, To walk the studious cloysters pale,

and responses of the decalogue, were And love the high embowed roof

universally sung, the tædium arising With antique pillars massy proof,

from a long service would be agreeably And storied windows richly dight,

relieved, and the service of God renCasting a dim religious light.

dered more animated and edifying. There let the pealing organ blow

Yours, &c.

MODULATOR. To the full voiced quire below, In service high and anthems clear,

Mr. URBAN, Horbury, March 16. As may with sweetness thro' mine ear Dissolve me into ecstacies,

N accidentally perusing a descripIN

tion given in one of last year's And bring all Heaven before mine eyes."

Medical Journals, of the symptoms Various passages in Bishop Horne's and mode of treating the Black vomit, "Commentary on the Psalms” witness a disease which appears to have raged the propriety and beauty, 'of Choral lately with the most destructive maService. He observes in his preface, lignancy among our arinies in India,

Delight thus prepares the way for my attention was arrested by observing instruction, and pleasure becomes the that the writer, notwithstanding the handmaid of wisdom, while every tur- proofs which till then appeared to him bulent passion is calmed by sacred me- conclusive, had relinquished his idea lody, and the evil spirit is still dispos- of its being contagious, in consequence sessed by the harp of the son of Jes- of its having spread to the Isle of se." It is more than probable that his France, “a distance of more than a enjoyment of this music, when Presi- thousand miles, in direct opposition to dent of Magdalen College, led to the the prevailing Monsoon.". Now the production of his unrivalled work.- treatment of a disease is of course un.

influenced

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