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1998] On different Currents in the Air and in the Ocean. 399 influenced by the circumstance of its We have, however, too many proofs being contagious or the contrary; no of the occasional existence of varied mischief therefore can arise from be- currents of air at different altitudes, to lieving a disease to be contagious which need support from the analogous mois really not so; but an error on the tion of the waters : the irregular opposite side may be productive of courses which balloons frequently purserious consequences. For, lulled into sue on their ascent, shew them to be a sense of security by the conviction of passing through different currents of its not being infectious, we are in- air; and the light elevated clouds duced to omit those precautionary mea- which may sometimes be seen to pass sures which are usually adopted to the moon's face, in direct opposition prevent disorders from spreading, and to the wind, indicated by the weatherfall perhaps victims to a disease which cock, is another proof that the whole but for this circumstance might have height of the atmosphere is not always been averted. Whether the disease in influenced by the wind prevailing near question were contagious, or the effect the surface of the earth. Now as we of some general exciting cause, arising find that whether the tide be ebbing, from certain peculiarities of the at- or flowing, minor contrary tides are mosphere to which all were exposed, I invariably produced; and that where shall not presume to determine; the the winds are variable the higher strata arguments which I have to advance of the atmosphere are sometimes movbeing equally applicable to both cases. ing in a direction opposite to that of My object however, in addressing these the wind near the surface of the earth, lines to you, is to endeavour to shew I think it by no means improbable, the possibility of contagion spreading that in the district of the Monsoons, in opposition to the wind, and conse where the wind blows from the same quently the impropriety of hastily ad- point for six months together, the equimitting this circumstance alone as an librium of the atmosphere is preserved infallible proof of a disease not being by a constant upper current of air contagious. Where there is action moving towards that point of the comthere must be re-action; thus the con- pass from which the prevailing Montiguous particles of a fluid, though all soon blows. The occasional existence impelled by the same force, may be of upper contrary currents of air, is moving in opposite directions, as is however quite sufficient to shew the daily exemplified: for with whatever possibility of contagion spreading in rapidity the tide ebbs or flows in a opposition to the wind : for the lower harbour or river, we invariably find particles of air impregnated with the collateral eddies; and though subter- contagious miasmata, or general excitfluent ones cannot be so easily detect- ing cause of the disease, becoming ed, there can be little doubt of their rarefied by their proximity to the earth's occasionally existing, and indeed per- heated surface, yield to the pressure of haps constantly, where the superficial the more dense air, which descends to current is always running in one direc- restore the equilibrium, while the fortion without any visible cause ; as mer continue rising (gradually parting through the straits of Gibraltar into with their caloric, and becoming conthe Mediterranean. For notwithstand- densed in their ascent) till they meet ing the elaborate calculations which and combine with air of their own have been made to shew the immense specificgravity; which, moving perhaps quantity of water which may evaporate in a contrary direction, hurries them from the surface of that sea, it cannot, along in opposition to the wind below. I think, be merely to supply the defi- In process of time these particles will ciency caused by the excess of evapora- in their turn descend again to restore tion, that the Atlantic is constantly the equilibrium, which is constantly pouring its waters into the Mediterra- disturbed by the rarefaction near the nean. The level is no doubt preserved earth's surface, and being inhaled by by a proportionate discharge excited the human species, propagate the disby the re-action from the surrounding ease of which they contain the excitshores, which must necessarily become ing cause or infectious miasmata. Thus a subterfluent current, because the it is by no means impossible that the water of the Mediterranean being more Black vomit should have spread from strongly impregnated with saline, par- India to the Isle of France; and conticles, are of a greater specific gravity sequently its appearance there, ought. than those of the Atlantic.

not for a moment to have been ad


Mischiefs of Fairs.-Arms on Bouchier Chair. (May, mitted as evidence against those facts, future repose, is possibly a hopeless which prior to the knowledge of this task; but to participate in the supposed circumstance had induced the Sur- pleasure ourselves, however innocently, geons to pronounce it contagious. and then to forbid them an approach C. Morton, Lieut. R.N. to it, must appear strangely incon

sistent, and an arbitrary stretch of auMr. URBAN, Kensington, May?. thority, to which few will submit. CHE present season calls attention Ladies' fairs for benevolent purposes

are also ill judged, as instances are not unfrequently, noticed in your pages; wanting in which they have grown to I allude to the Annual Fairs. All who intolerable nuisances; and it is much look beyond mere present amusement, to be wished that the consecrated fruits to probable consequences, must rejoice of elegant industry. were always disto observe that the matter is not wholly posed of with as little publicity as is neglected by those who are most compatible with their object--as in capable of effecting their suppression, the admirably conducted Bedford Free that in several instances active measures School. are taking for that purpose—and that It were most desirable that the attensome have been actually prohibited tion of the Legislature might be drawn through the concurrent efforts of the to the suppression of these annual nuisurrounding inhabitants. To enlarge sances; but should you deem these upon the evils that result from these hints calculated, in any degree, to mitimultiplied saturnalia, would be to re- gate an evil, which, possibly, may not peat what has been said a thousand admit of complete eradication, the times; and which are as generally al- early insertion of them will much lowed as deprecated--particularly by oblige

M.S. those most aware and most interested in their consequences--the masters and mistresses of families. And yet, not


May 8. unfrequently, these persons, unthink. THE argument between your Cor

, bring very evils of which they are the first to of W. Ment) and myself respecting complain. It is no less their duty, than the arms of Louvain on the Bourchier their interest, to guard, as far as their chair, seems to stand thus : influence extends, the morals of the In my original communication (XCII. individuals forming their domestic i. p. 64.) I stated the arms on the chair establishment - which they would to be " Checky, Argent and Azure, a probably exert in forbidding any even- fess Argent for Louvain ;” and that I ing resort to neighbouring fairs ;—but found such arms (quartered with Bourhow inconsistent is this prohibition chier) in an engraving in Wright's with the attendance of Mamma and all “ Rutland," and one existing in a her little ones in the morning? In window of Oakham Church. most of the fairs within a short distance Mr. Ment replied in the same voof the metropolis, the morning crowd lume (p. 516), that the quarterings will be found to be greatly augmented were correctly enumerated, but that by the surrounding gentry and their for the proper coat of Louvaine (which young progeny. These return home was Gules, a fess inter ten billets Or), to display their gay fairings, and to I had substituted one, which with the dilate upon the astonishing things they colours assigned to it, was nerer approhave seen, and to regret the many they priate to any family; and added, that have not seen. What wonder is it, the mode of distinguishing colours by that, thus excited, servants, who are engraven marks, was not invented till generally but children in judgment, CENTURIES after the date of the chair. disregarding prohibition, should steal Not assuming to myself any heraldic an opportunity, and, enticed by the skill, I answered (vol' . p. 607) by scene and by jeering companions, merely saying, that my description of should protract their return? Surely the arms in question was taken from then, such an ill-judged and unneces- the Oakham window (as represented sary indulgence to the children, might in Wright's book), and after correctbe forborne for the sake of the servants.- ing an error that I had committed reTo convince that class, that present gra- specting the colours of the cheques, ! tification may be incompatible with said that a fess between ten billets did


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402 On the Management of Charitable Institutions, [May, Mr. URBAN,

March 10.

portion as to restrain the admission of some parts the work of undeniable that synı. public charity with which our Metro- pathising Christian feels that he is polis and our United Kingdom abound, bound not to take the whole of his which I shall have to encounter, in “ What his charity impairs, pointing at the truth of façls without He saves by prudence in affairs.” offence. Yet I am so much impressed But there is an enlarged beneficence with the liberality of mind as well as of equal importance with bounty, by purse which happily actuates the pre- the exercise of which these ornaments sent æra, that as we all mean the to human nature can be supported—I same thing," namely, to promote the mean personal attendance and investiinstitutions which we patronise, and gation-it is but a small part of the to render them more effectual for their duty of charity to give, that only rerespective objects, than for any sinister lieves us from importunity; but where fame to their patrons, or favour to their an establishment is raised, every benedependent officers, I shall venture to factor towards it should reflect that to pass on to the labour with the alacrity embrace its benevolent design, a houseof one who earnestly desires to unite hold must be retained, and important and advance the cause of all.

trusts must be confided to others, who This country had long before the will require not only to be maintained present century been distinguished for at their post, but also to be frequently its humane regard to the poor and seen and reviewed, that they do not afflicted ; schools for the children, relax in the duty to which they have hospitals for the afflicted, alms-houses been called. for the aged who had seen better times, The erection of a new charity is too and places of refuge and comfort for commonly preceded by plans and estithose who had served their country mates for new buildings; and thus, by sea and land, everywhere dignified before the poor objects who are stated the character of national commis- by their zealous patrons to be waiting seration and individual bounty; when impatiently, at the very door, for relief, the present period opened upon us, can for a long time be admitted to it was to afford to our astonished share in the proposed benevolence, a sight new stars and more beautiful building-fund must be raised, an eligible constellations in this hemisphere of piece of ground be sought for, concharity than had been hitherto dis- tracts made, and legal titles be invescovered. Between twenty and thirty tigated, drawings prepared, revised, of these new institutions were founded and altered, and, finally, Surveyors and in the first ten years of this century, Architects satisfied and paid, before and in the last twelve years the in- the design of the first charitable set of crease has amounted to sixty-two in resolutions can be carried into visible and near the Metropolis alone! The effect—in the mean time the trembling devastations of a protracted war did paupers may, it is hoped, have been not check their progress, although in taken into some other institution, many other respects it abbreviated the which affords to many a decided eviresources of individual prosperity; and dence that the new one is not so nethe subsequent seven years of peace, cessary, or perhaps they have breathed which has called for the most rigid their last without pity! In this way economy in all public and private ex- much of the subscription which was penditure, have still brought forth irre- intended for them, is spent for a difsistible claims for more institutions, ferent purpose. To these patrons the and for the annual support of the old alternative is obvious—a siall house ones!

for their first experiment would have Very few have experienced much probably enabled them by encouragedefault on these accounts; the same ment to begin and carry on without buildings, the same provisions, and an impaired fund, the principal object; the same open hospitality to the poor for that of making a shew hy a handand distressed, are maintained ; neither some building, must be allowed to be do we find that their settled funds are but a secondary object; this will always diminished, or their usual sources of follow in its due time, if the institution contribution withdrawn in such a pro- be found worthy of support,


1823.] On the Management of Charitable Institutions. 403

OFFICERS. It is an essential in the greater parts of it their transactions foundation of such establishments, that are subjected to the revision and conmen of fame and public knowledge firmation of a general meeting, to which should be its patrons; but the mere they are expected either to submit the patronage of contribution is not suffi- whole of their minutes, or to present cient, as credit is placed in their hands a report of their principal acts; they for legislative functions, so here the take the entire superintendance and names of the great and of those who direction as they would of their own fill high and responsible stations are household, and are frequently called requisite to shew to the community upon to observe the most sound disthat their judgment and sanction are cretion in many difficult occurrences, staked

upon the undertaking-but all which they have to consider are to when these have been given, some- be done by their order, and to be made thing more is requisite their presence public, and thereby to effect the favour at general meetings, and their taking or the ruin of the establishment. This part in what their names have recom- shews how very necessary it is that mended, are of the highest importance each member should feel himself bound in the promotiou of the cause, for the to occupy his place at the times of people will never place their confidence meeting, should suffer no resolution where it


that their chiefs with- to pass without a clear explanation of draw; in vain might these institutions, its utility and necessity, and should be which are connected with any corpo- excited to a sense of duty so far as to ration, look for support from others, yield to none of his fellows in vigiif those who fill its most elevated posts lance and punctuality; many young do not preside over them-happily we institutions have been actually raised have in London very little ground for to respect and opulence by the assicomplaint against presidents for this duity of their Committee, and by sepadefect, but amongst the long lists of rating their duties into Sub-comvice-presidents, this personal influence mittees; for all are made active by the is not so generally afforded as the example of their leaders, and when nature of their office imports—it is they relax all vigour fails ! In order not so much their money as their per- to ohviate the danger of wanting a sonal sanction which is sought for: quorum of the members chosen, it is sermons and festivals, general courts frequently made a standing rule of and elections, all very essential means these societies that every Committee of annual support, are considerably should be open to all its members ; a more productive when thus attended, rule which is pleasing for its liberality, and they constitute the chief or only and for the disarming any, the least duty which such persons undertake to charge of partiality or jealousy amongst perform.

themselves; as also that it often secures Treasurers and Secretaries follow in a competent board for the business of their train, whose official obligations the day, which must otherwise be deare more defined, and where they are ferred, or which may lead to worse entrusted with the receipt of money, effects, namely, that the officers, if security is most prudently required, as members of the society, have a right well as from Collectors. Treasurers to constitute themselves into a board; are of a higher class of both; fortune and it should never be forgotten, that and station probably render them su- a board, once formed, has the entire perior to the temptations of others; dominion over the institution; it is but over all these offices an active obvious that the acting Committee Committee, orwell-instructed Auditors, should never suffer themselves to be so are and ought to be vested with unre- overruled in their absence. laxing control, and if this is not freely The inspection of the interior of exerted, they are not the true friends these establishments, their necessary of either the charity or the officers supplies, their repairs, improvements, whose accounts they are directed to nurses, and servants, in addition to the inspect.

care of the patients, are all most imCOMMITTEES, &c. Every institu- portant concerns, which devolve upon tion vests in a certain number of its the Committee and the visitors, and members, full authority in a standing require continual attention so long as or revolving Committee to superintend the poor objects are made the principal the whole concern-in some of the end, as they were the cause of the foun


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