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The Bourchier Chair.- British Hirundines. neither agree with the chair nor with I denied the limitation only, and deWright's engraving.

pictured what I found on the plate. Mr. Ment in your Magazine of

Heraldic lines were invented in 1639 September last, passing the fess Argent, (exactly 130 years), not centuries after as uncontradicted, says (to my surprise) the death of Henry, the Seventh, in that if the colours are distinguished whose reign the chair was carved. on the chair by specific lines, it must Yours, &c. INVESTIGATOR. be extremely singular and interesting, that the number of projections intro

Mr. URBAN, Hartwell, May 1. duced on the chair does not prove


NOW fulfil my promise of sending them to be cheques, and that he does

you representations of the two other not clearly see how Wright's History species of British Hirundines. (See gives evidence on the subject of it. Pl. II.)

Now, Mr. Urban, granting that it The Swift, hirundo apus, is the may not be very interesting to the pub- largest of the genus, being seven inches lic (no more than to myself) what the in length, and nearly eighteen in Louvain arms should be, yet in sup- breadth when its wings are extended. port of what I originally advanced,'I Ruy says of this bird: Ob alarum lonbeg to observe, as my last words on gitudinem et brevitatem pedum humo this occasion, that finding the 4thægrè se tollere potest.--Raii Synop. p. quarter of the arms carved on the 72. It is of a sooty black colour, with Bourchier chair to correspond in form a whitish spot on its breast. It arwith the plate of the stained glass win- rives in this country towards the middle dow iri Oakham Church, I from that of May, and departs about the middle engraving drew my representation and of August *. It builds in holes of description, and did not substitute one, rocks, in ruined towers, and under the either out of my own ignorance or tiling of houses. It has only one from my own invention. That I never

brood in the year. said that the pannel did shew heraldic The Swiftcomes at first in greater numcolours, but that the lines were added bers at once, and they all depart more by myself (from Wright's engraving) suddenly than any of the other species. to distinguish them for greater accu- This species is also known by the racy. That the fess was Argent (as name of the Black Martin, Black allowed by Mr. Ment), and that with Swallow, Squeaker, Screamer, Develregard to the billets, the express num- ing, or Shriek Owl. ber of ten, did not agree, either with The Sand Martin, Hirundo Rithe chair, or the Oakham window. puria, is the smallest of the genus, Certainly, Wright's “ History of being about four inches and three

, Rutland is not legal evidence, nor quarters in length, and is of a dusky would it be admitted as such in a court brown colour above, and whitish béof justice; but when I find a carving neath. It builds its nest in holes, 300 years old, agreeing exactly in form which it bores in banks of sand, and is with an antient painting on glass, it said to have only one brood in the year. raises strong presumptive testimony, in The steep banks of some rivers my mind at least, that the Louvain abound with the nests of this bird. arms were intended in both cases. I They are numerous about Boxhill, accordingly described the charges as Guildford, and other sandy, parts of cheques, from the engraving, because Surrey and of Kent, where I have exasuch I found them. Mr. Ment con- mined their nests in autumn, by digcedes that it was customary to add to ging into their holes. the number of charges ad libitum ; but This species is also known by the as to myself, not caring whether they names of Sand Swallow, Bank Martin, ought to have been billets or cheques, or Shore Bird.



* It is remarkable, that must countries have a similar proverb relating to the SwalJow's accidental appearance before its usual time. The Greeks have Mic xeridar las é toth; the Latins, Una hirundo non facit ver; the French, Une hirondelle ne fait pas les printems; the Germans, Eine schwalbe macht keinen früling; the Dutch, Een swaluw maakt geen zomer; the Swedes, En svala gör ingen sommar ; the Spanish, Una golondrina no hace verano; the Italians, Una rondine non fa primavera; and the English, one swallow doth not make a summer. Gent. Mag. May, 1823.


402 On the Management of Charitable Institutions. [May, Mr. URBAN,

March 10. portion as to restrain the admission of N the following endeavour to review patients, except in very few instances public charity with which our Metro- pathising Christian feels that he is polis and our United Kingdom abound, bound not to take the whole of his

am but too sensible of the difficulties loaf to himself, but rather that which I shall have to encounter, in “ What his charity impairs, pointing at the truth of facts without He saves by prudence in affairs." offence. Yet I am so much impressed But there is an enlarged beneficence with the liberality of mind as well as of equal importance with bounty, by purse which happily actuates the pre- the exercise of which these ornaments sent æra, that as " we all mean the to human nature can be supported—I same thing," namely, to promote the mean personal attendance and investiinstitutions which we patronise, and gation-it is but a small part of the to render them more effectual for their duty of charity to give, that only rerespective objects, than for any sinister lieves us from importunity; but where fame to their patrons, or favour to their an establishment is raised, every benedependent officers, I shall venture to factor towards it should reflect that to pass on to the labour with the alacrity embrace its benevolent design, a houseof one who earnestly desires to unite hold must be retained, and important and advance the cause of all.

trusts must be confided to others, who This country had long before the will require not only to be maintained present century been distinguished for at their post, but also to be frequently its humane regard to the poor and secn and reviewed, that they do not afflicted ; schools for the children, relax in the duty to which they have hospitals for the afficted, alms-houses been called. for the aged who had seen better times, The erection of a new charity is too and places of refuge and comfort for commonly preceded by plans and estithose who had served their country mates for new buildings, and thos, by sea and land, everywhere dignified before the poor objects who are stated the character of national commis- by their zealous patrons to be waiting seration and individual bounty; when impatiently, at the very door, for relief, the present period opened upon us, can for a long time be admitted to it was to afford to our astonished share in the proposed benevolence, a sight new stars and more beautiful building-fund must be raised, an eligible constellations in this hemisphere of piece of ground be sought for, concharity than had been hitherto dis- iracts made, and legal titles be invescovered. Between twenty and thirty tigated, drawings prepared, revised, of these new institutions were founded and altered, and, finally, Surveyors and in the first ten years of this century, Architects satisfied and paid, before and in the last twelve years the in- the design of the first charitable set of crease has amounted to sixty-two in resolutions can be carried into visible and near the Metropolis alone! The effect-in the mean time the trembling devastations of a protracted war did paupers may, it is hoped, have been not check their progress, although in taken into some other institution, many other respects it abbreviated the which affords to many a decided eviresources of individual prosperity; and dence that the new one is not so nethe subsequent seven years of peace, cessary, or perhaps they have breathed which has called for the most rigid their last without pity! In this way economy in all public and private ex- much of the subscription which was penditure, have still brought forth irre- intended for them, is spent for a difsistible claims for more institutions, ferent purpose. To these patrons the and for the annual support of the old alternative is obvious—a small house ones !

for their first experiment would have Very few have experienced much probably enabled them by encouragedefault on these accounts; the same ment to begin and carry on without buildings, the same provisions, and an impaired fund, the principal object; the same open hospitality to the poor for that of making a shew hy a handand distressed, are maintained ; neither some building, must be allowed to be do we find that their settled funds are but a secondary object; this will always diminished, or their usual sources of follow in its due time, if the institution eontribution withdrawn in such a pro- be found worthy of support,



1823.] On the Management of Charitable Institutions. 403

Officers. It is an essential in the greater parts of it their transactions foundation of such establishments, that are subjected to the revision and conmen of fame and public knowledge firmation of a general meeting, to which should be its patrons; but the mere they are expected either to submit the patronage of contribution is not suffi- whole of their minutes, or to present cient, as credit is placed in their hands a report of their principal acts; they for legislative functions, so here the take the entire superintendance and names of the great and of those who direction as they would of their own fill high and responsible stations are household, and are frequently called requisite to shew to the community upon to observe the most sound disthat their judgment and sanction are cretion in many difficult occurrences, staked upon the undertaking-but all which they have to consider are to when these have been given, some- be done by their order, and to be made thing more is requisite their presence public, and thereby to effect the favour at general meetings, and their taking or the ruin of the establishment. This part in what their names have recom- shews how very necessary it is that mended, are of the highest importance each member should feel himself bound in the promotiou of the cause, for the to occupy his place at the times of people will never place their confidence meeting, should suffer no resolution where it

appears that their chiefs with- to pass without a clear explanation of draw; in vain might these institutions, its utility and necessity, and should be which are connected with any corpo- excited to a sense of duty so far as to ration, look for support from others, yield to none of his fellows in vigiif those who fill its most elevated posts lance and punctuality; many young do not preside over them-happily we institutions have been actually raised have in London very little ground for to respect and opulence by the assicomplaint against presidents for this duity of their Committee, and by sepadefect, but amongst the long lists of rating their duties into Sub-comvice-presidents, this personal influence mittees; for all are made active by the is not so generally afforded as the example of their leaders, and when nature of their office imports-it is they relax all vigour fails! In order not so much their money as their per- to ohviate the danger of wanting a sonal sanction which is sought for: quorum of the members chosen, it is sermons and festivals, general courts frequently made a standing rule of and elections, all very essential means these societies that every Committee of annual support, are considerably should be open to all its members ; a more productive when thus attended, rule which is pleasing for its liberality, and they constitute the chief or only and for the disarming any, the least duty which such persons undertake to charge of partiality or jealousy amongst perform.

themselves; as also that it often secures Treasurers and Secretaries follow in a competent board for the business of their train, whose official obligations the day, which must otherwise be deare more defined, and where they are ferred, or which may lead to worse entrusted with the receipt of money, effects, namely, that the officers, if security is most prudently required, as members of the society, have a right well as from Collectors. Treasurers to constitute themselves into a board ; are of a higher class of both; fortune and it should never be forgotten, that and station probably render them su- a board, once formed, has the entire perior to the temptations of others; dominion over the institution; it is but over all these offices an active obvious that the acting Committee Committee, orwell-instructed Auditors, should never suffer themselves to be so are and ought to be vested with unre- overruled in their absence. laxing control, and if this is not freely The inspection of the interior of exerted, they are not the true friends these establishments, their necessary of either the charity or the officers supplies, their repairs, improvements, whose accounts they are directed to nurses, and servants, in addition to the inspect.

care of the patients are all most imCOMMITTEES, &c. Every institu- portant concerns, which devolve upon tion vests in a certain number of its the Committee and the visitors, and members, full authority in a standing require continual attention so long as or revolving Committee to superintend the poor objects are made the principal the whole concern-in some of the end, as they were the cause of the foun404 On the Management of Charitable Institutions. (May, dation. The Medical Officers, nota she is fit to be a nurse at an hospital; withstanding their professional eni- but the very reverse ought to be the nence, are here the servants of the practice; for if any one could doubt of Committee, and are bound 10 report to ihis, he will be soon convinced, by them the results of their professional seeing the labour which is incumbent practice, and their conformity to the upon the nurses of any wards in our regulations of the institution. The hospitals; the agonies which call for manner of the recommendation and help in one bed, are seconded by the reception of patients, the abolition of cries of despair in another, the parchall fees, the attention and due compe- ing thirst of unabating fever, and the tence of the nurses, and the obedience cold dew drops that hang upon the deof pupils, servants, and assistants in all parting spirit, all at the same moment their denominations, are matters of the cry out for soothing comfort, for unutmost consequence, into which a wearied strength, for continual applivigilant Committee must be ready at cations, and for an intimate and all times to inspect and to see their awakened knowledge of the method of duties performed with tenderness, and, administering prescriptions in writing, as far as concerns the patients them- and observing verbal directions, proselves, gratuitously.


bably too numerous and delicate to be In all the great hospitals a diet table written : hence also the fatigue as well is affixed in the wards, to which a as the skill requires due notice and strict attention is to be paid in order 10 relief; their hours of assiduous attenprevent the least partiality to any pa- tion should never be prolonged, this is tient; but in some of the lesser insti- an unwise economy; probably one adtutions, this is sometimes a little re- ditional nurse would afford ample time laxed, in cases which require, espe- for the due refreshment of others, and cially in the last moments, rather thus would, in prolonging their lives, more indulgence: and I have never also be the means perhaps of saving heard that such instances excited any the lives of patients committed to their murmur or dissatisfaction.

alternate care. Convalescent patients previous to I have on another occasion taken their leaving these abodes, may with the liberty to recommend an inspecgreat propriety be set to help those tion and examination of all nurses who are yet suffering; it is a fit lesson once every quarter of a year, and am of humanity and gratitude for their well satisfied that if this plan were own protection and recovery, and it generally adopted by all House Comaffords the properest season also for the mittees, there would not recur such Chaplain or Matron to draw their as have been deplored from minds to praise and thanksgiving for the mistakes by debilitated and wornthe mercies with which they have been

A. H. blessed. It is a melancholy fact, that

(To be continued.) an untutored mind does not seem to feel a duteous sense of gratitude for

Mr. Urban, Rose Cottage, King's

URBAN such blessings--but is too apt to forget

Road, April 1. the Divine hand that has raised it from its affliction, as soon as it finds AS Chronology has been taken up

to oppose as well as defend our its former strength return. Season- Holy Religion, allow a scrap or two in able devotions in the wards, and ap- addition to what appears, p. 9. It propriate exhortations to this subject, seems Mr. Bellamy, by applying the should not be spared while the pa. 62 weeks in Daniel, to Christ, and tients have the evidences around then, reckoning from 3570, the 32d of Artaxand before they are sent again to inter- erxes Longimanus, he makes them mingle with their former associations. reach the birth of the Redeemer ; and

The Committee and Medical Officers, then applying the seven weeks (that in duly considering the competence of precede the 62 in Daniel) to the period their nurses, have a very responsible he began his ministry, supposes his obligation to perform ; for the lives of crucifixion in his 53d year. their afflicted patients are committed Now, Sir, that Nehemiah had leave to their charge; it is for them an un- of Artaxerxes king of Babylon, to go fortunate principle in very general prac- up to Jerusalem in the 32d year, is tice, that when a woman is too low in plain from chap. xiii. v. 8; but it is eircumstance, age, or physical power, also as plain, that this leave was granted


out nurses.


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