« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
5 which prevailed at various periods surmounted by embattled cornices, and when the style flourished in perfection. terminate in plain spires, in a style The judicious and discerning Anti- much too early to agree with the rest quary, Dr. Milner, has remarked, * of the building Cupolas, as at King's « that there are three orders of the College, and Henry the Seventh's Pointed style, as distinct from each Chapel, would have been the correct other as are the orders of Grecian finish, and would have possessed this Architecture, having their respective advantage, that one might have anmembers, ornaments, and proportions," swered the purpose of a bell turret, it must follow then, that if an Archi- which the Chapel at present wants. tect who builds in this style, confounds The arch of the entrance is enriched together two or all of these orders, his with mouldings, and surmounted by a production would be as ridiculously in- square-headed architrave, resting upon correct, as if he had mounted a Doric two neat columns with octangular entablature upon Composite columns, bases and capitals; in the spandrils are in an edifice professedly Grecian. shields in quatrefoils; the whole is Such a blunder would draw upon him surrounded by, enriched pannelling, the ridicule of the whole profession, and enclosed within another architrave and yet, in the generality of modern of a square forın, resting upon two Gothic” buildings of the Wyatt school, similar pillars, and bounded by a which are praised, and that highly, sweeping cornice. The window above we see associations not less absurd or has six mullions, divided by a transom incorrect, set up as rivals of our ancient enriched with a string of embattled national architecture. Another blun- moulding, as in the windows of Henry der, and a favourite one of modern the Seventh's Chapel, The arch is architects is, their attempting to give occupied by tracery, consisting of two to a building for parochial purposes, sub-arches and upright trefoil-headed the air of a Cathedral or Monastic divisions, and the whole is bounded by Church. However they may embel- a sweeping cornice. Above this winlish their work, without the accompa- dow, the Architect has introduced the niment of nave, transepts, and minor cross as a loophole, instead of elevating chapels, it will rather resemble the this sacred emblem on the apex of the ruin of the edifice they aim at repre- pediment; a fault common with mosenting, than the edifice itself. · In the dern architects, who imagine it is probuilding I have named, these faults bably less offensive to weak understandare, in a great measure, avoided. The ings in this new situation, than it third order (according to Dr. Milner's would be in the proper and most conarrangement), which fourished in the spicuous place. The angles of the 16th century, has been adopted by the lateral divisions are flanked with open Architect, who has borne in mind with buttresses ending in crocketted pinnagreat attention, its characteristic fea- cles. In each division are entrances ture, the obtusely pointed arch; and in smaller than the centre, and not sa the simplicity of his building, has highly enriched; their arches are enshewn that he never forgot he was closed in highly enriched architraves erecting a Parochial Chapel.
resting upon a pillar on each side, and The plan is a nave, with side aisles bounded with pointed sweeping and a small chancel, without tower or nices. Above them are large hexagosteeple. The West elevation is made nal niches, the pedestals are orgamented by octangular buttresses into three with upright compartments, and rest principal divisions. The central con- upon corbels. The canopies are made iains the principal entrance and the by three cinquefoil arches with crock. great west window, and is terminated etted pediments, and finials, and two with a. plain pedimental coping. The pinnacles. At the back of the niches, buttresses have loopholes at intervals, upright torus's in the angles support and rise above the church; the upper the interior ground-work of the canodivisions are ornamented on each face pies. The parapets are pierced with with a quatrefoil pannel enclosing a open quatrefoils, copied from the inoshield, and an upright compartment dern fantastic finish to the clerestory of with arched head above it; they are Henry the Seventh's Chapel. With
the exception of this senseless intro* Preface to his Treatise on English Ar- duction, and the spires, there is much chitecture, page vii.
to admire in the West front. The
Account of the New Chapel at Stepney. central entrance, an elegant and cor- ornamented with two series of upright rect design, and the neat door cases to compartments with cinquefoil heads, the side ones in due subordination to above which is a frieze charged with the principal, the tracery of the win- Aowers and foliage, and the whole is dow and the niches, have been evi- finished with an embattled cornice. dently formed upon the most rigid ex- The nave and aisles are separated by amination of original authorities. five arches, more acutely pointed than
The South and North fronts are made those of the windows and doorways, into six uniform divisions by well pro- and belong to a style three centuries portioned buttresses, from the upper earlier than the remainder of the buildstories of which are angular shafts ter- ing; the architraves are enriched with minated by crocketed pinnacles. The mouldings, and bounded by sweeping windows have two mullions divided cornices, festing upon corbels repreby a transom, ornamented by a similar senting bustos. The pillars are commoulding to the Western window, posed of a cluster of four small ones, and the tracery is uniform with that; with octangular capitals and bases ; the heads of the arches are enriched two of these pillars support the mould with mouldings, and enclosed within ings of the arch, and the remainder the sweeping cornices. The parapets are beams of the roof. The slender profinished without battlements. There portions of these columns and arches are no clerestorial windows, but the shew the Architect's genius was crampwalls of the nave, which rise a trifling ed by his limited finances. The roof degree above the aisles, are ornamented is of timber, supported by arched by arched tracery work, rather too fan- beams in the style of the open
worked tastic, and two pinnacles above the roofs, so much admired in buildings of first and last divisions of the aisles, antiquity. Those belonging to the which standing alone, only break the aisles rest upon stone corbels affixed to unity of the design.
the walls, and are ornamented at the The East front, with the exception knees with octangular pedestals, and
, of the entrance, is a counterpart of the open upright divisions with trefoil central division of the Western. The heads. The ribs of the nave are arched; ailes have no eastern windows. Two the spandrils are filled with divisions small projections for vestries with loop- of the same description. hole lights, having entrances, with The pulpit exhibits a truly antique square-headed architraves, and sweep- design; it is hexagonal, and rests upon ing cornices, occupy the angles be- a single pillar, surrounded by a cluster tween the nave and chancel.
of toruses ; each face of the hexagon is The Chapel is built entirely of brick enriched with compartments and an covered with composition, which adds so embattled cornice, uniform with the greatly to the appearance of the houses screens of the doorways; it is placed in Regent-street, and the ornaments close to one side of the nave; opposite are cast in the same material.
to it, is the Reading and Clerk's desks, The interior is greatly crowded by the which are not smaller pulpits, as is necessary accommodations for the con- usual in modern churches, but desks gregation; a gallery extends along the of a very simple design ; the ends have West end, and others occupy the aisles. arched heads terminated with a small The first divisions of the
aisles from pedestal, and the ends of the pews the West are petitioned off, and con- similarly ornamented. The free-seats tain flights of stairs to the galleries. have sweeping elbows enriched with Beneath the Western gallery is a nar- toruses; the design is common to our row passage, the whole breadth of the ancient churches, though very unusual body of the church, in which are other in modern ones. The fronts of the entrances: Upon the ground work galleries are adorned with cinquefoil and vaulting of this passage, I cannot compartments, in an inferior style to bestow unqualified approbation. the rest of the ornaments, but the ap
The ribs and bosses, and the attached propriate embattled cornice is contipillars which support them, are not in- nued along the whole front. The elegant in themselves, but they are in organ-case is very handsomely carved ; a style too early to correspond with the the centre is occupied by a rich hexsurrounding architecture. The screens agonal niche and canopy. The pews before the entrances are the first ob- being very low, and the pulpit' and jects worthy of admiration within the reading desk arranged so happily, that body of the church; they are richly the view of the altar is not broken, as
1823.] Stepney Chapel.-North-west Expedition. it usually is by the sectarian mode of help lamenting that any paltry consifitting up churches in the present day, derations of individual interest, should by placing a large pulpit and ponder- be allowed to retard the pious endeaous sounding board exactly before it. vours of such who wish to add to her The altar-screen, however, is so very strength. What, Mr. Urban, would inferior, that I cannot believe it was have been your feelings, and those of designed by the Architect of the church, your readers, if the writer of this article and in the present case, the uninter- had been compelled to record, that this rupted view of it only serves to expose interesting edifice, in opposition to the the poverty and meanness of its appear- intentions of its founders, had been
The whole of the lass described turned into a Dissenting Conventicle. particulars are executed in carved oak, Yours, &c.
E. I. C. with the exception of some of the smaller ornaments, which appear to be
Jan. 20. cast in composition.
THE effects of the weather calling The small entrances to the vestries forth the feelings of our common and galleries evince the great atten- nature, our ideas convey lis to those tion which has been paid
to the fear inhospitable regions where frost and tures of the style in the most minute
snow are continual ; and as islanders parts: Each doorway , has a square
and lovers of scientific knowledge, we headed architrave and sweeping cor- trace on the map those northern renice. The spandrils contain trefoil gions where our brave countrymen are pannels.
exploring a passage into the Atlantic. Upon the whole, this building, Perhaps M.Kenzie's Map is tlie best though not faultless, does great credit extant, that has become general to the to the genius of its Architect, whose public. lamented death has deprived the pro- Sufferings more than even the perfession of one who would have been sererance of our nautical countrymen an honour to it.
The subscribers, can bear, may have been the effect of who, sensible of the great want of the last expedition in which Captain church-room in this neighbourhood, Parry and his brave associates are atvoluntarily stepped forward and erected tempting a North-west Passage. Sevethe present edifice, without the leastral ideas have been presented, to forassistance from the parliamentary fund, ward relief and assistance to them, have raised a monument, I trust, to through the settlements belonging to future ages of their piety and benevo- the North-west Company, Hudson's lence, and have set an example to the Bay, &c.; and some kind of invesrich and wealthy in all populous parts tigation might be made by our Daof the kingdom, which I hope will vis's Straits ships, if they go earlier be readily followed.
than usual, to seek for information The first stone was laid on the 17th within the limits of their fishing of June 1818, * by his Royal Highness grounds. Another plan, of some the Duke of York, and in the course importance, I beg to suggest, trusting of the year 1820, the building, with a it will meet the eye of those who a few exceptions, was completed, and can promote it.
It is, to dispatch in Oct. 1821, the architect, Mr. Wal- several vessels round Cape Horn, to ters, died. + For a period of two years proceed to Behring's Straits, and as far and upwards it has remained unconse- North-east as possible. Too much cancrated. Sabbaths passed over, and no not be done to relieve the efforts of congregation assembled to join in the those who at the best must undergo public worship of the National Church; privations and suffer hardships which its windows were broken by idle boys, the ingenuity of man can neither preand its walls made the repository of vent or relieve. The vessels I propose inflammatory inscriptions, evidently in the present instance to send out levelled by some ignorant Fanatic at with this object primarily in view, the style of which it forms so beautiful may have another, namely, a specimen. Of the occasion of this down” the coast of America, and look long delay in the dedication I am igno- into the different ports from Panama rant but in common with every well- to Valparaiso. Perhaps the events now wisher of our establishment, I cannot so interesting in those countries may
afford the British cruizers the happiSee our vol. LXXXVIII, pt. ii. p. 79. ness of relieving some of our country+ See our vol. xci, pt. ii. p. 374. men who require protection, and we
" to range
[Jan. may do it, so as to preserve our neutra- plore the coast before they come to tne lity. May the British Merchant and fishing-ground. These or any other British Seaman be ever protected by expedients should be adopted, rather the British flag!
than a single chance he lost of saving Yours, &c. T. WALTERS. these brave men.
One probability of their success in At the monthly meeting of the Lite- obtaining a passage through some inlet rary and Philosophical Society of New- on the North-west of Hudson's Bay, castle, on the 7th of January, an inte- towards the Polar sea, is from their resting paper was read, on the prob- not having been heard of by any of the able situation, condition, and prospects traders from that part of the world. of Captain Parry and his fellow-adven- Another probability is, if the Architurers. It showed the probability of pelago of 'Islands continues from Meltheir having succeeded in getting a ville Island towards Behring's Straits, passage through some inlet in the
so as to have kept back the pressure of North-west of Hudson's Bay, since, if the Polar ice towards the South upon this had not been the case, they would the Northern parts of America, it may have returned, or at least been heard have afforded a sailing passage. As all of. If they should have got beyond canoe traffic is narrowly circumscribed, the Copper Mine River the first sum- and if islands, shoals, or circumstances mer, it is a subject of hope rather than kept them more off land, there was expectation, that they may have pass- but little chance of Captain Franklin ed Mackenzie's, and pushed through hearing of them; yel, at all the points Behring's Straits, in which case we he had visited, or from whatever he may expect intelligence very soon. could learn, there was at the time he But in this case probably Franklin was on the coast a clear open sea. would have heard of them. Or they Again, if they cannot succeed the first may have been taken short by the year in finding a passage to the Pacific, climate before reaching the Pacific, they naturally would (rather than be and are now passing a second winter discouraged by any apparently tempoon this side of Behring's Straits : still rary impediment) pass another frozen a fair hope may be entertained of their winter where they were thus stopped. ultimate safety; but it may be the end Their vessels are constructed upon the of this year, or the spring of the next, strongest principles, having been exbefore we hear of them. Or, thirdly, pressly built for, and having carried they may not have been able to find a each an 18 inch mortar at the battle of passage to the Pacific; and then the Algiers ; they are, in addition, strengthquestion is, can they get back to the ened by having above six feet of solid Atlantic before the open weather closes ! timber strongly bolted in their bows, or have they the means of passing a which are well defended with the best third Polar winter? Various pre- wrought iron, and an outward defence sumptions are in favour of this. But all round their sides, above and below on a fourth, not improbable, supposi- their water-mark, of a line of strong tion of damage to the ships, or defi- planks a foot thick, to resist the conciency of, or injury to, their resources, cussion and pressure of the ice. Beor sickness, disabling from exertion, sides their original complement of their situation must indeed be wretch- every possible necessary, the Nautilus ed; and what ought the country, in transport, which accompanied them as contemplation even of its possibility, to far as the ice at the entrance of Huddo? First, to despatch directions to son's Straits, there delivered to them the Governors of Canada, Hudson's above 20 additional chaldrons of coals, Bay, and the North West Company, with numerous bullocks, sheep, and directing them to equip different parties hogs. At the frozen season, the deer of natives, with proper supplies, to go and other animals come in great quanin search, by the Copper Mine and tities towards the sea; and when the Mackenzie's Rivers, and other routes, water is open, there are the finest fish with a security of being rewarded at all along the coasts; these opportuany rate, and munificently in case of nities of gaining fresh supplies must be success. Secondly, that two or three of the greatest advantage to their health. small vessels be sent in different direc- We make these statements to allay tions. Thirdly, that the Davis's Straits those apprehensions which the want of ships be encouraged to sail a fortnight intelligence from the expedition must or more before the usual time, and ex- naturally create.
9 Mr. URBAN,
exceedingly vain of their degrees. HE accompanying Engraving (see There is nothing in the tapestry, of the Frontispiece) is a copy of an
which coincident patterns may not be antient painting, finely executed, which found in the 13th, 14th, and 15th centhere is good reason to believe was an turies. Altar-piece belonging to the Abbey of Over the altar is a painting repreSt. Mary de Pratis at Leicester. It senting the Castle of Emmaus, with came out of the old Castle at Leicester Mary meeting Christ in a traveller's into the possession of the late Rev. dress. As the Abbey de Pratis was Rogers Ruding, and is now the pro- moved from the Castle of Leicester, perty of Mr. Nichols.
this picture may allude to the removal, The design is evidently an Oratory and the Castle be that of Leicester. of the Virgin Mary, under which re- But the most curious circumstance presentation some living lady, as was in the whole painting is the represenusual *, was pourtrayed.
tation it affords of the old monastic It is well known that foreign artists Clock, with the bell and weights; used to visit this country in search of thus proving, notwithstanding Professor employment. The Monk is probably Beckman*, that clocks with weights the portrait of some Abbot of Leices- are more antient than he allows. ter, painted by one of them. The Ab- On referring to Nichols's “ Leicesbey of Leicester, seen in the distance tershire,” I perceive that the Abbey of through the door of the Oratory, con- St. Mary de Pratis was founded by Rofirms this supposition. As to the bert Bossu, Earl of Leicester (so named forin of the arch, and other denota- from his crooked make), into which tions, founded upon the architecture, house he became a canon regular proMr. Haggiť proves t, that in paint- fessed by the space of 15 years, that he ings the artists used the most unlimit- might expiate his former treasons. ed licence. The painting was pro- Now, I think I can perceive that the bably the benefaction of the lady who. infant Jesus (un-nimbused) is in the is represented, and who by her sitting painting very deformed about the legs. under an estate, was a person of very A query therefore arises, — was this elevated rank. , In Strutt's Dresses want of skill in the Painter, or did he (Pl. LXIV.) is a very fine representa intend by this deformity to personify tion of the Virgin Mother, caressing the Founder of the Abbey, sitting in the infant Jesus, with a nimbus round the lap of his mother, who prompted her head, which, from the present lady perhaps and urged him
to the foundabeing without doubt a living mortal, tion. The rest of the Painting, in rewas properly omitted. The only par- gard to the other figures, drapery, perticularly observable coincidence is the spective, &c. is very fair as to drawing, long flowing hair in both the figures. especially for the age; and therefore The costume of the lady is more like there is justifiable room to infer that that of the 12th or 13th centuries (the the infant Christ was so depicted; in period at which the Abbey of Leices- order to personify the Founder. It is ier was founded) than any other; yet certain, that at this period women had the painting may not be of so early a portraits of their lovers, under the redate. The lady is in deep mourning; presentation of Christ, or some Saintt. and could we peruse any antient Lives
S. Y. E. of the Abbots, very probably we should obtain an elucidation of the transaction, and full particulars. The costume of
Jan. 2. the Abbot does not appear to have been so much suited to his monastie A SPIRIT of inquiry, when pro
perly directed, and confined to profession, as to that of graduation ; for legitimate objects, is, without doubt, his sleeves seem very much like those very conducive to the increase of huof the full dress of a Doctor ; and the man learning; but such a spirit, when Monks of all ranks were, we know, allowed to revel unconfined, rather
tends to shake the foundations of Petrarch's Laura was painted at Sienna as a Modonna (Memoir, i. 402); and lovers * Inventions, I. 444. had their mistresses frequently so drawn. + See Fosbroke's British Monachism, of Letters on Gothic Architecture. new edit. 4to, p. 482. Gent. Mag. January, 1823.