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What is Light? - Light is of three distinct colours-red, conveying heat; yellow, conveying light; and blue, conveying chemical action. The three combined form a colourless mixture. Light travels about 192,000 miles a second. Light could pass round the earth in the 18th part of a second. The late Sir William Herschel stated, in writing upon the power of telescopes to penetrate into space, that the light from the brilliant nebula seen by him at that time by means of his powerful telescope, cannot have been less than 1,900,000 years in its progress. S. W. BUTTON.

What is the best book on Natural History?— "Cassell's Popular Natural History," profusely illustrated with splendid engravings. Bound in cloth, in four volumes, complete, 348. Ditto, in two volumes, 308. Ditto, half-calf, gilt back, 428. Ditto, half morocco, full gilt back and edges, 458. All the above, excepting the first, are in two volumes. Published by Cassell, Petter, and Galpin, La Belle Sauvage Works, London.

A. L. W.

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When were the terms Whig and Tory introduced? -In the reign of Charles II., 1678. The appellation "Tory," was applied to the friends of the Court, and was originally brought from Ireland, where the word Toree (give me), used by a cavalier banditti, had gradually been extended to the whole of the cavalier or royalist party. The term "Whig," which fell to the lot of the opposition, is said to have been originated in Scotland.

In what year was Lord William Russell executed? with some particulars of his execution.-On the was 26th June, 1683, Lord William Russell arrested for complicity in the celebrated Rye House Plot, and cast into the Tower, where he remained until the 13th of the following month, when he was placed at the bar of the Old Bailey, and charged with conspiring against the life of the king, and to levy war against his government. The first part of the charge was undoubted The trial was false as the latter part was true. hurried on with the most unseemly haste, and on Lord Russell requesting a delay of a few hours that he might be able to produce important witnesses, Sir Robert Sawyer, the attorneygeneral, replied, "You would not have given the king an hour's notice for saving his lifethe trial must proceed." He, however, was allowed the use of pen, ink, and paper, and some one to assist him by taking notes. Lady Russell, at his request, took her place by his side, to assist him in the defence of his honour and life. The witnesses were utterly unworthy of belief, being themselves perjured renegades. The unfortunate nobleman was, however, found guilty, and sentence of death was passed upon him by Treby, recorder of London. Applications were made to the king for his pardon, but they were unsuccessful. On the 21st of the same month Lord Russell was led to the scaffold, which was erected in Lincoln's Inn Fields. He was attended by Burnet and Tillotson, and despatched by the executioner, his head being stricken off at the second blow of the axe. ED. L.

Who was John Pym?-John Pym was descendant from a good family in Somersetshire, where he was born in the year 1584. It appears from the abstract of title to certain estates, that John Pym was the lord of the manors of Woolavington, Pym, and Woolavington Throckmorton, near Bridgewater, in the county of Somerset. His son, Sir Charles Pym, Bart., afterwards possessed these manors, which at his death descended on coheiresses, and ultimately by marriage passed into the family of Hales (of Kent), who became the representatives of the Pyms. In the year 1599, John Pym was gentleman commoner of Broadgate Hall, now Pembroke College, Oxford. He was early distinguished for his eloquence and knowledge in the common law; he served in several parliaments towards the end of the reign of James I., and in all those held in the reign of Charles I., as member for Tavistock, in Devonshire. He soon distinguished himself in the House for his abilities and zeal in opposing the measures of the Court. In 1626 he was one of the managers of the articles of impeachment against the Duke of Buckingham, and in the Short Parliament, which met on the 13th April, 1640, he was one of the most active members. When the Long Parliament met on the 3rd November, 1640, the value of Pym's knowledge and experience in the usages of the House, as well as of his talents as a speaker, was strongly felt. In November, 1643, Pym was appointed Lieutenant of Ordnance. He died at Derby House, on the 8th December of the same year, and on the 13th of the same month he was buried in Westminster Abbey, his body being carried to the grave by six members of the House of Commons. His last words were,

that "it was to him a most indifferent thing to live or die. If he lived, he would do what service he could; if he died, he should go to that God whom he had loved and served, and who would carry out his work by some others." Having recovered from a swoon, he cheerfully told his friends, "that he had looked death in the face, and knew, and therefore feared not, the worst it could do, assuring them his heart was filled with more comfort and joy, which he found and felt from God, than his tongue was able to utter." S. G. WILLS.

Who was Arnold Winkelried?-In 1385 the confederate cantons of Switzerland, then consisting of Schwyz, Uri, Unterwalden, Luzern, Zug, Glarus, Zurich, and Berne, were involved in a desperate war with Duke Leopold II. of Austria, brought about by the insolent exactions of that imperious noble. It was in the first great battle of this war that Arnold von Winkelried distinguished himself by that one great deed of patriotism which won him a name, than which there glows no prouder on the annals of fame. On July 9th, 1386, 1,300 Swiss engaged 4,000 Austrians by the borders of Lake Sempach. The Austrians fought on foot, formed in one great phalanx, their long spears projecting in front, and their stout harness protecting them from the desperate courage of the Swiss, who rushed upon their ranks with useless valour. The weapons of the Swiss were huge twohanded swords, halberds, and scythes; they were destitute of defensive armour; and in place of bucklers, had bound pieces of flat board to their left arms, to dash away the first blows of their enemies. They advanced to the attack in a triangular column. In the midst of this hopeless struggle, a knight of Unterwalden, named Arnold von Winkelried, shouting aloud, "I'll open a way for you, confederates," precipitated himself upon the Austrian phalanx, and grasping as many spears as his extended arms could clasp, drew them upon his breast with desperate courage and strength, and bowed over their gory and lacerating points, and died. But not in vain. The Swiss rushed into the opening, and threw the phalanx into confusion. The Austrians, fainting under their heavy armour, unable to use their long lances at close quarters, were slain on all sides by their herculean foes. Their attendants, in whose charge they had left their horses, fled at the first approach of danger. Duke Leopold was slain, and with him 2,000 men, of whom 676 were nobles, 350 wore coronetted helms. But for the generosity of the Swiss they had perished to a man. The loss of the confederates was only 200 men. ED. L.

How to teach a parrot to talk.-The best way is to keep him in a room where he won't hear many noises, and to repeat the same word or words very often, especially in the night, when just going to sleep. In about two or three months (if the parrot is young), it will make some attempt at repeating the words. After this, he will learn other words much quicker. H. W. HART.

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The Rise of the Mormons. - Joe Smith, the founder of the Mormonites, or Latter Day Saints (who bore but an indifferent character), pretended to have certain revelations from heaven, by which he was informed that the whole world was wrong upon religious matters, but that the truth would be made known to him in due time: he was also told that his sins were forgiven him, and that he was chosen to be a prophet of the most high God. In subsequent revelations he was informed that the American Indians were a remnant of the children of Israel, and that prophets had existed among them from time to time, who had written certain records on golden plates, and hid them

in a secure place to prevent their destruction by the wicked (this was in 1823). In 1827 the plates were (he tells us) delivered into his hands, and with them an instrument which he used as a pair of spectacles, and by their assistance he was enabled to translate the characters contained on the records (called "Reformed Egyptian,") into English, which forms the so-called "Book of Mormon." He was assassinated in Carthage Gaol on the 27th June, 1844. Polygamy was not known in the days of Joe Smith, but was introduced by the present prophet, Brigham Young. A. O. SHEARD.

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Where can I get a good book on metallography?

How to strengthen the memory?
How to make Indian ink?
How to make a lime light?

Can any of my London friends inform me where I can purchase very cheap goldfinches? SAML. WARD.

Where to obtain silkworms' eggs?

How to get to be a midshipman on board a merchant ship without buying a commission? State the different degrees, from the cabin-boy to the captain.

Whether the brilliant fire-composition can be kept any length of time after being mixed, without being spoiled? The composition to which I refer contains only mealed powder and steel filings. H. A.

How to make a small and inexpensive incubator, for hatching about a dozen eggs, with information as to how to proceed, degree of heat required, &c. ?

How to clean delicate white coral which has become soiled from exposure to dust?

E. A. O. R. In which of Cooper's works is there an account of a celebrated horse-stealer among the Indians? A SUBSCRIBER. Where to obtain a spade guinea? Origin of a baker's dozen?

On what terms an emigrant can obtain a passage? Can a boy of sixteen do so, being a railway clerk? What would be the best thing he could do for a livelihood?

What is the best cure for corns ?
What is the best cure for chilblains?

How can the yellowness be taken off the teeth ? SUFFERER. Why is the paper called foolscap so called, and what is the origin of it?

At what date was Lord Byron born, how old was he when he died, and when did he die? WILLIAM LEEK. The best way of painting magic lantern slides ?

What causes snow? What causes rain? What causes hail?

Name the aids for a boy (without money) to rise step by step till he gets into an University? Explain the English Constitution, and how it differs from that of France ?

How does a Bill pass in Parliament, and become law; and is it necessary for the Queen to give her assent to the Bill to become law, or can it become law by only passing the two Houses?

The history of the present Government, their chief acts, and their chief ministers?

A short history of the county, language, and people of Cornwall.

Who were the Ancient Britons? Name the stock they came from, the places they came from, their different tribes, with their positions, &c.

What is the price (both new and second-hand) of a light wherry to carry three persons, and where is the best place to purchase one?

What is the origin of the term Fenian ? Who and in what country were skates invented, and where do we first read of them ? NATURE.


G. FRISBY.-The numbers of the Boy's Monthly Magazine are in print: if you say what numbers you want, and send at the rate of 2d. per number (adding, say, 6d. for the postage), they shall be forwarded to you. Apply to Mr. Pitman, Paternoster-row-he will probably inform you as to a shorthand teacher.

P. M'SWEENEY.-Your article will shortly appear.

THOMAS YOUNG.-The merits of essays sent in for competition are not judged by the handwriting, but a good handwriting is always desirable. The quantity of manuscript required should be sufficient to make about 500 lines of the Boy's Monthly Magazine.

FREDERICK MARTIN.-Communications for the Editor of the Boy's Monthly Magazine should be addressed "Editor of Boy's Monthly Magazine, Care of Messrs. Ward, Lock, and Tyler, Warwick House, Paternoster-row, London, E.C.

R. S. P. (Preston).-Many thanks: shall be glad to hear from you often.

DAISY.-Sorry we cannot insert your puzzle; it is not quite up to our mark; try again.

A LITTLE BOY.-" Frank's Defeat" shall have insertion if we can give space for it, but we cannot promise.

W. D. STEELE.-We cannot insert your Cryptograph.

JAMES W. HUNT.-We cannot guarantee that all the statements made by our advertisers are to be relied upon. Supposing we were aware of any wilful misrepresentation we should exclude the advertiser.

TOM C.-Your suggestion shall have our best attention.

A FIVE YEARS' SUBSCRIBER.-The plan will be adopted next year. Your Crypto

CONSTANT READER.-Thanks. graph is accepted.

J. S. R.-There is no better French and English-English-French-Dictionary to be had by self-instructing students than that which is issued by Messrs. Cassell, Petter, and Galpin. It sells, neatly bound, for 9s. 6d.

Communications have been received fromO. J. B.; H. R. W.; C. Hoe; J. Alexander; Frederick R.; Hawker Mason; A Regular Subscriber; S. B.; An Admirer of the B. M. M.; F. Ryland; E. C. Wainwright; R. S. Pringle; Daisy; An Old Maid; J. M. D.; C. R. F.; H. Wyatt; E. Houghton; M. Bateman; P. Houghton; Fredk. Monk; Thomas Young; E. Lamplough; A. D. H.; Durrant; A. L. W.; Edward Harvey; John Cassells; W. H. Hart; J. B. Bailey; F. P. R.; Arthur W. P.; Charles H. Wells; James Waters; Thomas Dobson; F. W. C.; A New Subscriber; and several others.


The Map of Europe, at the beginning of the present year, has been cleverly drawn by several competitors. Most of them are accurate, all the recent and somewhat puzzling changes in political geography being distinctly given. The prize is accordingly awarded, not because the prize winner is more accurate than some other competitors, but on account of more careful drawing, colouring, and finish.

H. DANCER sends a large and handsome map, drawn on stout cardboard in a highly creditable style. He deserves great praise, and fairly wins the prize.

DANIEL S. MELVILLE makes an excellent second. His colouring is good, but there is not the same careful finish which marks the work of Dancer.

EDWARD FOREMAN merits a good share of praise for the map he sends. He has evidently taken pains to be accurate.

GEORGE LEA draws with all the precision and delicacy of copper-plate. His coast lines are beautifully drawn.

J. P. HOUGHTON contents himself with a clear, bold outline, very well done.

J. J. ROBINSON is a little obscure, and it is difficult in some places to trace his divisions, but the map is very accurate.

W. E. BRISTOw.-A good, plain map.

W. BISHOP.-Well drawn, and very highly coloured.

JOHN MOORE.-The outlines are not so definite as they should be; there is a want of cleanness about the work, but no complaint can be made of its accuracy.

PHILLIP SMITH sends a word map-a literary sketch of the political division of Europe. He is entitled to praise for his able little paper.

One small map-the work, we suppose, of a very juvenile hand-reaches us without name or address.

Our adjudication stands thus:

1. H. Dancer, [Prizeman], aged 15 years and 9 months, 7, Albert-place, Victoria-road, Kensington.

2. Daniel S. Melville, aged 17, Haddingtonplace, Edinburgh.

3. Edward Foreman, aged 13, Halesworth, Suffolk.

4. George Lea, aged 14, Maidstone, Kent. 5. J. P. Houghton, aged 14, Richmond.

6. J. J. Robinson, aged 14 years and 9 months, Brompton.

7. W. E. Bristow, aged 16, St. John's Collegiate School, Richmond.

8. W. Bishop, Edinburgh.

9. John Moore, aged 14, Binfield, Berks. And-Word Map

10. Phillip Smith, Magnetic Telegraph, Swan


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