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CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1-01 Authority
At Eastport, Maine, the large tidal range has long intrigued observers as a watural resource that could be used for the development of electric power. There are two large natural tidal bays that are connected by water passages between a string of islands which stand between the bays and the open ocean. l'assamaquoddy Bay, the larger of the two, is mainly located across the international boundary in Canada while Cobscook Bay lies entirely in the United States. By connecting the islands with a series of dams in designed pattern eqarate tidal pools can be formed and water elevations regulated to maintain the pools at different levels. If a powerhouse is placed between the two pools ain water permitted to pass from the higher to the lower the induced head differential will produce power.
The development of tidal power at Passamaquoddy has been studied periodically since 1919 by both private and public engineers. The most comprehensive requirt undertaken was that of the International Joint Commission completed in April 1:461 after 3 years of study and a cost of $3 million. The project was developed as a two-pool scheme interconnected with a powerplant that would qurate continuously but with varying output. The powerhouse was a 30mit plant with vertical-a xis turbine and generator units with a capacity of 10.000 kilowatts each. The Commission found the project not economically feasible under the then existing conditions.
In early July 1963, as a result of an earlier request to review the International Joint Commission (IJC) report to ascertain whether developments in engineering techniques and/or economic conditions would make the project feasible, the Secretary of the Interior presented to President John F. Kennedy a report on "The International Passamaquoddy Tidal Power Project and Upper St. John River Hydroelectric Power Development.” This report proposes to use the pows er output to meet the demand for peak power in the New England area, and then coupled with the advancement in engineering techniques and integrated with a hydroelectric plant on the upper St. John River would make the project Hronomically feasible. The same structures were used for the tidal project, except for the powerhouse where an inclined-axis turbine was substituted for the more conventional vertical-axis turbine. From the studies made of powr. Per potential. it was proposed
at an ultimate installation of 100 to 10,000 kiloKatt units could be installed at Passa maquoddy. Integration with another kuince of power is necessary since tidal output varies with the tide range, a minimum occurring about every 2 weeks at periods of neap tides when the available head is lowest. In order to supplement and maintain power output at these periods an auxiliary hydroelectric plant with an ultimate capacity of 140680 kilowatts would be established on the St. John River at Dickey. The Dicker Dam site was selected by the Department of the Interior in lieu of the Rankin Rapids project considered by the IJC in order to preserve the recreatìonal values of the Allagash River. Integrated operation of the two plants proud assure dependable peaking capacity of the planned magnitude of i million kilowatts and 230,000 kilowatts capacity at 60 percent load factor for energy ontput.
on July 16, 1963, the President directed the Departments of the Interior and Army to proceed immediately with such additional studies and plans as are necessary and that the studies be coordinated in all respects by the Secretary of the Interior. Pursuant to this general understanding, Lt. Gen. W. K. Wilson, fr. the Chief of Engineers, by letter of July 29, 1963, proposed an eight-member ris-Interior Advisory Board on Passamaquoddy and upper St. John River, with four representatives from each agency. The purpose of the Board is to advise and zuide both field agencies in their preparation of additional studies, plans, and reports to supplement the July 1963 report to the President by the Secretary of the Interior on the international Passamaquoddy tidal power project and upper St. John River hydroelectric power development. By letter of July 30, 1963, Mr. Kenneth Holur, Assistant Secretary, Department of the Interior, agreed
to this procedure. The Board was later increased to 14 members by adding representatives from the Federal Power Commission, Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Budget, Office of Science and Technology, Council of Economic Advisers, and the Atomic Energy Commission. Membership of the Board is given in appendix I. 1-02 Scope of engineering studies
The division of work between the Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior, as indicated by the initial agreement between the agencies and confirmed by the Advisory Board, was to the effect that power studies, power transmission, marketing, benefits, and other economic aspects of the project would be the responsibility of the Department of the Interior and that the development of the physical components, other than transmission lines, would be the responsibility of the corps. The detailed engineering studies and requisite field work were to be performed by the division engineer, New England Division, Waltham, Mass.
The studies undertaken for this report to attest to the engineering feasibility and soundness of the engineering structures of this project were as follows:
(a) Geologic investigations and field explorations at the sites of all structural components.
(0) Field surveys.
(d) Layout and design of facilities for powerplants at Passamaquoddy; power dam and closure dikes at Dickey: and reregulating and power dam at Lincoln School.
(e) Studies of use of inclined-axis turbines at Passamaquoddy in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation.
(1) Planning appraisal of all lands and damages for the entire project.
(9) Cost estimates of facilities, except transmission facilities. The layouts of the construction proposed and the cost estimates for the entire project are presented in the following chapters.
CHAPTER II. SITE INVESTIGATIONS AND FOUNDATION CONDITIONS, PASSAMAQUODDY 2-01 General geology
Bedrock of the project area includes sedimentary and igneous rocks of upper Silurian age known as the Eastport formation. The sedimentaries are shales and conglomerates and the igneous rocks are represented by rhyoltic and diabasic varieties and associated volcanic tuffs. These rocks have been much folded to present a complex distribution of alternating beds of igneous and sedimentary rocks.
Prior to glaciation, the bedrock topography was subjected to a long period of erosion featured by development of deep-stream valleys. The land was greatly depressed by the advance of thick glacial ice in Pleistocene time, and with retreat of the ice came invasion by the sea. Since glaciation full emergence has not been attained and the preglacial stream valleys are partly drowned to form the deep marine channels, while the numerous islands are high areas of the old erosional surface.
The preglacial topography was slightly modified by movement of the ice mass in the removal of the weathering mantle and in the plucking and smoothing of the rock surface. More pronounced modification resulted from deposition of rock debris carried in and on the ice. Materials that were deposited directly from the ice generally occur as a veneer over the rock surface in the form of glacial till, a compact mass mixture of all sizes of rock and earth materials. Coarse materials that were outwashed from the ice occur as remnant deposits of sorted sands and gravels. The fine materials that were outwashed to settle in quiet waters of the invading sea occur as thick deposits of marine clay and silt. Since glacial time, the outwash deposits exposed to sea attack have been reworked by waves and transported by currents to form bars and beaches. Minor deposition by streams has occurred and peat has locally accumulated in bogs and marshes. 2-02 Explorations
Investigations previously made over a number of years for powerhouse No. 1 and channels are sufficiently complete as to preclude need for further exploratory work. These investigations, which include concrete aggregate studies applicable to powerhouse No. 2, are detailed in "Report to the International Joint Commis. sion, 1959,” Appendix 2: Geology, Foundations, and Materials.
1990 er de
Previous subsurface explorations pertinent to the areas of powerhouse No. 2 and channels have consisted of the following:
() Eight scattered wash borings indicating elevation of bedrock made for the Cooper study of 1926–28.
(0) Three drive-sample and core borings made by the Corps of Engineers in 1935 on alipements of the Carlow Island and Pleasant Point Dams.
(c) Marine geophysical exploration extending into a portion of the tailrace channel in the vicinity of Spectacle Island, cooperatively made on a trial basis in 1951 by the Corps of Engineers and U.S. Geological Survey.
Current explorations made for the purpose of this report specifically for power-
The locations and records of previous and current explorations and the dis-
Ground elevations will vary from a few feet to nearly 60 feet above mean sea
Excavations for the headrace and tailrace channels will involve over 50 mil-
Overburden of the land and islands and their fringes is glacial till, except for localized marsh areas and clay deposits. The overburden of the water areas is clay overlying the till which veneers the rock surface.
All of the igneous and sedimentary rock types previously discussed will be encountered. From available surficial and subsurface geologic data, it is preliminarily estimated that 50 percent of channel excavations will involve rock.
2-05 Tidal dam
A low tidal dam would connect from the powerhouse westerly across Bar Harbor to the Perry mainland. The elevation of bottom near midchannel is about minus 30 mean sea level making maximum height of embankment about y feet. A single machine-driven probing near this point show's about 4 feet of soft material, followed by increasing resistance to penetration and refusal indicative of bedrock at minus 38.3 mean sea level. Materials required for enlbankment construction amount to approximately 400,000 cubic yards and perhaps except for special gravel requirements can be selectively obtained from required excavations for powerhouse and channels.
2-46 General geology
The wilderness area which comprises much of the upper St. John River basin in the l'nited States, was not mapped topographically until 1953. Geologic mapping has been only of limited reconnaissance scope except for the published detailed investigations in the igneous rock area at Deboullie Mountain. In the Canadian part of the upper basin, detailed geologic mapping of correlative value is arailable for the area bordering the St. Francis River in Quebec.
The upper St. John River basin is a maturely dissected upland region which has been modified by glaciation. The headwaters area is predominantly a region of low relief with wide, flat plains, mostly swamps, and low, broadly domed hills with occasional, widely scattered monadnocks. Downstream from the headraters of the reservoir along the main river and throughout the Allagash and Little Black River drainage areas, the relief is greater and the topography is rougher with steep hills and narrow-crested, broken ridges rising above genfrally narrow, trough-like valleys. Till consisting of variable, grarelly, silty to clases sand with cobbles and boulders, deposited by the last glacier blankets the bedrock throughout most of the region. The till is generally thin on the upper slopes and crests of the hills and in these areas bedrock is occasionally exposed. The valley botton and lower hillsides are generally deeply filled with till and outwash left by the wasting glacier. The outwash deposits composed of variable, roughly stratified, silty sands and gravels occur in thick outwash plains in the Talles bottoms and extensire terraces on the lower valley walls. Becalise the St. John River drains northward, it was dammed at successive locations against the retreating ice front. In the sluggish pools thus formed, thick deposits of laminated tine sand, silt and clay were laid down. As a consequence of the thick filling in the valley bottoms, the rivers now flow high above the deep proglacial rallers in bedrock, and rock is exposed only in mcovered bedrock spurs high on the old valley walls.
Bedrock throughout the basin consists of slaty shale with local thin beds of sandstone and limestone. These Silurian sediments have been folded so that ciently so that the shale in many areas grades to poor slate. The only major hurrence of igneous rocks in the upper basin is the syenite and granodiorite in the vicinity of Deboullie Jountain. No ocenrrences of mineral deposits of economic value have been reported in the upper basin. 2-09 Erplorations
At the initiation of work on the Dicker project, reports of all previous investirations on the upper St. John River were reviewed. The review included study of reports of sites at Lincoln School, Rankin Rapids, Cross Rock Rapids, and Big Rapids. Reports of investigations by Canadian agencies at Glazier Lake on the St Francis River were also reviewed. Field investigations were made initially for a designated dam alinement immediately downstream from the Dickey high. Far bridge. At this location, hereafter discussed as the upper site, explorations consisted of total of 11 borings including 3 borings made for the Dicker hightas bridge hy the Maine State Highway Commission in 19.30. Infavorable foundation conditions developed by these explorations led to investigation of an indicated more favorable site approximately 11 miles downstream and just above the month of the Allagash River. Seven borings were completed at this site for preliminiry exploration of foundation conditions. The locations of Explorations and bedrock outcrops at both sites are shown on plan of erploration. plate No. 11. Foundation conditions at the Fall Brook dike site were explored he three horings, and one boring was completed at the Hafes Brook dike site. Subsurface explorations were not made at the Campbell Brouk dike site or at the rery remote minor dike sites.